Organic Chemistry As a Second Language: Second Semester Topics, 4th Edition
January 2016, ©2016
Readers continue to turn to Klein's Organic Chemistry As a Second Language: Second Semester Topics, 4th Edition because it enables them to better understand fundamental principles, solve problems, and focus on what they need to know to succeed. The fourth edition explores the major principles in the field and explains why they are relevant. It is written in a way that clearly shows the patterns in organic chemistry so that readers can gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the material. Topics are presented clearly in an accessible writing style along with numerous hands-on problem solving exercises.
Chapter 1 Aromaticity
1.1 Introduction to Aromatic Compounds
1.2 Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds
1.3 Criteria for Aromaticity
1.4 Lone Pairs
Chapter 2 IR Spectroscopy
2.1 Vibrational Excitation
2.2 IR Spectra
2.4 Signal Intensity
2.5 Signal Shape
2.6 Analyzing an IR Spectrum
Chapter 3 NMR Spectroscopy
3.1 Chemical Equivalence
3.2 Chemical Shift (Benchmark Values)
3.5 Pattern Recognition
3.6 Complex Splitting
3.7 No Splitting
3.8 Hydrogen Deficiency Index (Degrees of Unsaturation)
3.9 Analyzing a Proton NMR Spectrum
3.10 13C NMR Spectroscopy
Chapter 4 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
4.1 Halogenation and the Role of Lewis Acids
4.3 Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Acylation
4.5 Activation and Deactivation
4.6 Directing Effects
4.7 Identifying Activators and Deactivators
4.8 Predicting and Exploiting Steric Effects
4.9 Synthesis Strategies
Chapter 5 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
5.1 Criteria for Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
5.2 SNAr Mechanism
5.4 Mechanism Strategies
Chapter 6 Ketones and Aldehydes
6.1 Preparation of Ketones and Aldehydes
6.2 Stability and Reactivity of C¨O Bonds
6.8 Some Important Exceptions to the Rule
6.9 How to Approach Synthesis Problems
Chapter 7 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
7.1 Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
7.2 General Rules
7.3 Acid Halides
7.4 Acid Anhydrides
7.6 Amides and Nitriles
7.7 Synthesis Problems
Chapter 8 Enols and Enolates
8.1 Alpha Protons
8.2 Keto-Enol Tautomerism
8.3 Reactions Involving Enols
8.4 Making Enolates
8.5 Haloform Reaction
8.6 Alkylation of Enolates
8.7 Aldol Reactions
8.8 Claisen Condensation
8.10 Michael Reactions
Chapter 9 Amines
9.1 Nucleophilicity and Basicity of Amines
9.2 Preparation of Amines through SN2 Reactions
9.3 Preparation of Amines through Reductive Amination
9.4 Acylation of Amines
9.5 Reactions of Amines with Nitrous Acid
9.6 Aromatic Diazonium Salts
Chapter 10 Diels-Alder Reactions
10.1 Introduction and Mechanism
10.2 The Dienophile
10.3 The Diene
10.4 Other Pericyclic Reactions
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