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Personality: Theory and Research, 13th Edition

November 2015, ©2016
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This text is an unbound, three hole punched version.

The 13th Edition of Cervone's Personality: Theory and Research significantly updates and expands on previous editions of this classic text. New to this edition, Personality and the Brain coverage throughout the text shows readers how cutting-edge advances in neuroscience  inform all aspects of personality theory and research. Cervone and Pervins, 13th edition provides uniquely  up-to-date coverage of contemporary personality science while  continuing to ground the student in the field's classic, and  contemporary, theoretical statements. 

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Table of Contents

Preface, V

Chapter 1 Personality Theory: From Everyday Observations to Systematic Theories, 1

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 3

Five Goals for the Personality Theorist, 4

Why Study Personality? 6

Defining Personality, 7

Questions about Persons: What, How, and Why, 9

Answering Questions about Persons Scientifically: Understanding Structures, Processes, Development, and Therapeutic Change, 9

Structure, 9

Process, 12

Growth and Development, 13

Genetic Determinants , 14

Environmental Determinants , 16

Psychopathology and Behavior Change, 19

Important Issues in Personality Theory, 20

Philosophical View of the Person, 20

Internal and External Determinants of Behavior, 21

Consistency across Situations and Over Time, 21

The Unity of Experience and Action and the Concept of Self, 23

Varying States of Awareness and the Concept of the Unconscious, 24

The Influence of the Past, Present, and Future on Behavior, 24

Can We Have A Science Of Personality? What Kind Of A Science Can It Be? 25

Evaluating Personality Theories, 26

The Personality Theories: An Introduction, 27

The Challenge of Constructing a Personality Theory, 27

The Personality Theories: A Preliminary Sketch, 28

On The Existence of Multiple Theories: Theories As Toolkits, 30

Major Concepts, 31

Review, 32

Chapter 2 The Scientific Study of People, 33

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 34

The Data of Personality Psychology, 35

Lots of Data, 36

How Do Data From Different Sources Relate To One Another? 37

Fixed Versus Flexible Measures, 39

Personality and Brain Data, 40

Personality Theory And Assessment , 41

Goals of Research: Reliability, Validity, Ethical Behavior, 43

Reliability , 43

Validity, 43

The Ethics of Research and Public Policy, 45

Three General Strategies to Research, 46

Case Studies, 46

Case Studies: An Example, 47

Correlational Studies, 49

Correlational Research: An Example, 50

Experiments, 52

Evaluating Alternative Research Approaches, 57

Case Studies and Clinical Research: Strengths and Limitations, 57

Correlational Research and Questionnaires: Strengths and Limitations, 60

Laboratory, Experimental Research: Strengths and Limitations, 61

Summary of Strengths and Limitations, 63

Personality Theory and Personality Research, 64

Personality Assessment and the Case Of Jim, 65

Major Concepts, 66

Review, 67

Chapter 3 A Psychodynamic Theory: Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Of Personality, 69

Questions to Be Addressed In This Chapter, 70

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): A View of The Theorist, 70

Freud’s View of the Person, 72

The Mind as an Energy System, 73

The Individual in Society, 76

Freud’s View of the Science of Personality, 76

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality, 77

Structure, 77

Levels of Consciousness and the Concept of The Unconscious, 78

Id, Ego, And Superego, 87

Process, 90

Life and Death Instincts, 90

The Dynamics of Functioning, 91

Anxiety, Mechanisms of Defense, and Contemporary Research on Defensive Processes, 92

Growth and Development, 99

The Development of the Instincts and Stages of Development, 99

The Development of Thinking Processes, 109

Major Concepts, 111

Review, 112

Chapter 4 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research, 113

Questions to Be Addressed In This Chapter, 114

Psychodynamic Personality Assessment: Projective Tests, 115

The Logic of Projective Tests, 115

The Rorschach Inkblot Test, 116

The Thematic Apperception Test (Tat), 119

Projective Tests: Do They Work? 120

Psychopathology, 122

Personality Types, 122

Conflict and Defense, 124

Psychological Change, 125

Insights into the Unconscious: Free Association and Dream Interpretation, 126

The Therapeutic Process: Transference, 126

A Case Example: Little Hans, 128

The Case of Jim, 132

Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test (Tat) Data, 132

Comments on the Data, 134

Related Theoretical Conceptions and Recent Developments, 135

Two Early Challenges to Freud: Adler and Jung, 135

Alfred Adler (1870–1937), 135

Carl G. Jung (1875–1961), 137

The Cultural and Interpersonal Emphasis: Horney and Sullivan, 141

Reinterpreting Motivational Forces, 141

Object Relations Theory, 144

Self Psychology and Narcissism, 145

Attachment Theory, 147

Critical Evaluation, 155

Scientific Observation: The Database, 156

Theory: Systematic? 156

Theory: Testable? 157

Theory: Comprehensive? 157

Applications, 158

Major Contributions and Summary, 158

Major Concepts, 160

Review, 160

Chapter 5 A Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory Of Personality, 163

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 164

Carl R. Rogers (1902–1987): A View of the Theorist, 165

Rogers’s View of the Person, 168

The Subjectivity of Experience, 168

A Phenomenological Perspective, 170

Rogers’s View of the Science of Personality, 170

The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers, 171

Structure, 171

The Self, 171

Measuring Self-Concept, 173

Process, 176

Self-Actualization, 177

Self-Consistency and Congruence, 178

Growth and Development, 184

Major Concepts, 189

Review, 190

Chapter 6 Rogers’s Phenomenological Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, And Contemporary Research, 191

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 193

Clinical Applications, 193

Psychopathology, 193

Psychological Change, 194

Outcomes of Client-Centered Therapy, 198

Presence, 200

A Case Example: Mrs. Oak, 201

The Case of Jim, 203

Related Theoretical Conceptions, 205

The Human Potential Movement, 205

The Positive Psychology Movement, 207

Classifying Human Strengths, 208

The Virtues of Positive Emotions, 209

Flow, 209

Existentialism, 210

Recent Developments in Theory and Research, 215

Discrepancies among Parts of the Self, 215

Fluctuations in Self-Esteem and Contingencies of Worth, 216

Authenticity and Internally Motivated Goals, 217

Self-Determination Theory

Cross-Cultural Research on the Self, 219

Critical Evaluation, 223

Scientific Observation: The Database, 223

Theory: Systematic? 224

Theory: Testable? 224

Theory: Comprehensive? 225

Applications, 226

Major Contributions and Summary, 226

Major Concepts, 227

Review, 228

Chapter 7 Trait Theories of Personality: Allport, Eysenck, and Cattell, 229

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 230

A View of the Trait Theorists, 231

Trait Theory’s View of the Person, 232

The Trait Concept, 232

Trait Theory’s View of the Science of Personality, 233

Scientific Functions Served By Trait Constructs, 233

Trait Theories of Personality: Basic Perspectives Shared by Trait Theorists, 235

The Trait Theory of Gordon W. Allport (1897–1967), 236

Traits: Personality Structure in Allport’s Theory, 237

Functional Autonomy, 238

Idiographic Research, 239

Comment on Allport, 240

Identifying Primary Trait Dimensions: Factor Analysis, 240

The Factor-Analytic Trait Theory of Raymond B. Cattell (1905–1998), 243

Surface And Source Traits: Personality Structure in Cattell’s Theory, 243

Sources of Evidence: L-Data, Q-Data, and Ot-Data, 244

Stability and Variability in Behavior, 247

Comment on Cattell, 247

The Three-Factor Theory of Hans J. Eysenck (1916–1997), 250

’’Superfactors”: Personality Structure in Eysenck’s Theory, 251

Measuring the Factors, 254

Biological Bases of Personality Traits, 255

Extraversion and Social Behavior, 257

Psychopathology and Behavior Change, 258

Comment on Eysenck, 258

Major Concepts, 259

Review, 260

Chapter 8 Trait Theory: The Five-Factor Model; Applications and Evaluation of Trait Approaches to Personality, 261

Questions to be Addressed in This Chapter, 262

The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Research Evidence, 263

Analysis of Trait Terms in Natural Language and in Questionnaires, 263

The Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis, 267

Cross-Cultural Research: Are The Big Five Dimensions Universal? 268

The Big Five in Personality Questionnaires, 271

The Neo-Pi-R and Its Hierarchical Structure: Facets, 271

Integration of Eysenck’s and Cattell’s Factors within the Big Five, 273

Self-Ratings and Observer Ratings, 274

The Five-Factor Theory,

Growth and Development, 279

Age Differences throughout Adulthood, 279

Stability and Change in Personality, 282

Maybe We Missed One? The Six-Factor Model, 283

Applications of the Big Five Model, 285

The Case of Jim, 288

Factor-Analytic Trait-Based Assessment, 288

Personality Stability: Jim 5 and 20 Years Later, 289

Self-Ratings and Ratings by Wife On The Neo-Pi, 291

The Person–Situation Controversy, 292

Critical Evaluation, 295

Scientific Observation: The Database, 296

Theory: Systematic? 296

Theory: Testable? 297

Theory: Comprehensive? 297

Applications, 298

Major Contributions and Summary, 299

Major Concepts, 300

Review, 300

Chapter 9 Biological Foundations of Personality, 301

Questions To Be Addressed in this Chapter, 302

Temperament, 303

Constitution and Temperament: Early Views, 304

Constitution and Temperament: Longitudinal Studies, 305

Biology, Temperament and Personality Development: Contemporary Research, 306

Inhibited and Uninhibited Children: Research of Kagan and Colleagues, 306

Interpreting Data on Biology and Personality, 310

Evolution, Evolutionary Psychology, and Personality, 314

Evolutionary Psychology, 315

Social Exchange and the Detection of Cheating, 317

Sex Differences: Evolutionary Origins? 318

Male–Female Mate Preferences, 319

Causes of Jealousy, 320

Evolutionary Origins Of Sex Differences: How Strong Are The Data?, 321

Genes and Personality, 323

Behavioral Genetics, 324

Selective Breeding Studies, 324

Twin Studies, 324

Adoption Studies, 326

Heritability Coefficient, 327

Heritability of Personality: Findings, 328

Some Caveats, 329

Molecular Genetic Paradigms, 330

Environments and Gene–Environment Interactions, 332

Mood, Emotion, and the Brain, 336

Left and Right Hemispheric Dominance, 336

Neurotransmitters and Temperament: Dopamine and Serotonin, 338

Plasticity: Biology as both Cause and Effect, 341

Neuroscientific Investigations of “Higher-Level” Psychological Functions, 344


Major Concepts, 349

Review, 350

Chapter 10 Behaviorism and the Learning Approaches to Personality, 351

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 352

Behaviorism’s View of the Person, 353

Behaviorism’s View of the Science of Personality, 354

Environmental Determinism and Its Implications for the Concept of Personality, 354

Experimentation, Observable Variables, and Simple Systems, 356

Watson, Pavlov, and Classical Conditioning, 358

Watson’s Behaviorism, 358

Pavlov’s Theory of Classical Conditioning, 360

Psychopathology and Change, 363

Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning, 371

A View of the Theorist, 371

Skinner’s Theory of Personality, 374

Structure, 374

Process: Operant Conditioning, 375

Growth and Development, 377

Psychopathology, 378

Behavioral Assessment, 379

Behavior Change, 381

Free Will? 382

Critical Evaluation, 383

Scientific Observation: The Database, 384

Theory: Systematic? 384

Theory: Testable? 385

Theory: Comprehensive? 385

Applications, 386

Major Contributions and Summary, 386

Major Concepts, 387

Review, 388

Chapter 11 A Cognitive Theory: George A. Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory Of Personality, 389

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 390

George A. Kelly (1905–1966): A View of the Theorist, 392

Kelly’s View of the Science of Personality, 393

Kelly’s View of the Person, 396

The Personality Theory of George A. Kelly, 397

Types of Constructs and The Construct System, 399

Assessment: The Role Construct Repertory (Rep) Test, 401

Unique Information Revealed By Personal Construct Testing, 403

Cognitive Complexity/Simplicity, 403

Process, 407

Growth and Development, 413

Clinical Applications, 414

Psychopathology, 414

Change and Fixed-Role Therapy, 415

The Case of Jim, 417

Rep Test: Personal Construct Theory, 417

Comments on the Data, 419

Related Points Of View and Recent Developments, 419

Critical Evaluation, 420

Scientific Observation: The Database, 420

Theory: Systematic? 421

Theory: Testable? 421

Theory: Comprehensive? 422

Applications, 423

Major Contributions and Summary, 423

Major Concepts, 424

Review, 425

Chapter 12 Social-Cognitive Theory: Bandura and Mischel, 427

Questions to be Addressed in This Chapter, 428

Relating Social-Cognitive Theory to the Previous Theories, 428

A View of the Theorists, 429

Social-Cognitive Theory’s View of the Person, 432

Social-Cognitive Theory’s View of the Science of Personality, 433

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Structure, 433

Competencies and Skills, 433

Beliefs and Expectancies, 434

The Self and Self-Efficacy Beliefs, 436

Self-Efficacy and Performance, 438

Goals, 441

Evaluative Standards, 442

The Nature of Social-Cognitive Personality Structures, 444

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Process, 445

Reciprocal Determinism, 445

Personality as a Cognitive-Affective Processing System (Caps), 446

Social-Cognitive Theory of Growth and Development, 450

Observational Learning (Modeling), 450

Acquisition versus Performance, 452

Vicarious Conditioning, 453

Self-Regulation and Motivation, 455

Self-Efficacy, Goals, and Self-Evaluative Reactions, 456

Self-Control and Delay of Gratification, 458

Learning Delay of Gratification Skills, 458

Mischel’s Delay Of Gratification Paradigm, 460

Summary of the Social-Cognitive View of Growth and Development, 462

Major Concepts, 464

Review, 464

Chapter 13 Social-Cognitive Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research, 467

Beliefs about the Self And Self-Schemas, 469

Self-Schemas and Reaction-Time Methods, 471

Self-Based Motives and Motivated Information Processing, 474

Learning versus Performance Goals, 476

Causes of Learning versus Performance Goals: Implicit Theories, 478

Standards of Evaluation, 480

Self-Standards, Self-Discrepancies, Emotion, and Motivation, 481

A ’’General Principles” Approach to Personality, 484

Psychopathology And Change: Modeling, Self-Conceptions, And Perceived Self-Efficacy, 486

Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, And Depression, 487

Self-Efficacy and Health, 488

Therapeutic Change: Modeling and Guided Mastery, 489

Stress and Coping, 494

Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy, 496

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy for Depression, 498

The Case of Jim, 500

Critical Evaluation, 502

Scientific Observation: The Database, 502

Theory: Systematic? 503

Theory: Testable? 503

Theory: Comprehensive? 503

Applications, 504

Major Contributions and Summary, 505

Major Concepts, 505

Review, 506

Chapter 14 Personality in Context: Interpersonal Relations, Culture, and Development across the Course of Life, 507

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 509

Interpersonal Relationships, 510

Rejection Sensitivity, 510

Transference in Interpersonal Relationships, 514

Meeting Academic and Social Challenges: Optimistic Strategies and Defensive Pessimism, 516

Personality Consistency in Context, 517

Personality Development in Socioeconomic Context, 520

Personality Functioning Across the Life Span, 523

Psychological Resilience in the Later Years, 523

Emotional Life in Older Adulthood: Socioemotional Selectivity, 524

Persons in Cultures, 525

Two Strategies for Thinking about Personality and Culture, 525

Personality and Self As Socially Constructed Within Culture, 528

Putting Personality in Context into Practice, 531

Assessing Personality in Context: A Case Study, 531

Personality Processes in Context: Fostering Social Change, 536

Summary, 538

Major Concepts, 538

Review, 539

Chapter 15 Assessing Personality Theory and Research, 541

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 542

On Structures, Processes, Development, and Therapeutic Change, 542

Personality Structure, 542

Process, 543

Growth and Development, 545

Psychopathology and Change, 545

The Case of Jim, 548

How Did They Do? A Critical Evaluation of Personality Theories and Research,

Scientific Observation: The Database, 549

Theory: Systematic? 551

Theory: Testable? 552

Theory: Comprehensive? 552

Applications, 553

A Final Summing Up: Theories as Toolkits, 554

Review, 555

Glossary, 557

References, 567

Name Index, 603

Subject Index, 609

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New To This Edition

  • Coverage of self-determination in Chapter 6 Rogers’s Phenomenological Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research has been significantly re-worked and expanded.
  • The discussion of the Five-Factor Model in Chapter 8 Trait Theory: The Five-Factor Model; Applications and Evaluation of Trait Approaches to Personality has been updated.
  • The presentation of Social Cognitive Theory in Chapter 12 Social-Cognitive Theory: Bandura and Mischel and Chapter 13 Social-Cognitive Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research has been revised with new material.
  • Throughout the text has been streamlined to aid in students focus and understanding.


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The Wiley Advantage

  • Integrates theory and research to demonstrate to the student how the two impact one another.
  • Integrates case material with theory to bridge the gap between the general and specific. Enables students interested in clinical psychology to see links between personality psych and clinical practice.
  • Provides a basis for comparison of theories allowing students to make their own judgements concerning the merits of each.
  • Presents complex scientific theories in an accessible manner.
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Personality: Theory and Research, 13th Edition
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October 2015, ©2016
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