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Educational Testing and Measurement, 11th Edition

January 2016, ©2016
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Educational Testing and Measurement: Classroom Application and Practice, 11th Edition
 by Tom Kubiszyn and Gary D. Borich, serves as an up-to-date, practical, reader-friendly resource that will help readers navigate today's seemingly ever-changing and complex world of educational testing, assessment, and measurement. The 11th edition presents a balanced perspective of educational testing and assessment, informed by developments and the ever increasing research base.
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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL TESTING AND MEASUREMENT 1

Tests are Only Tools; Their Usefulness Can Vary 2

Why We Developed This Text: Enhancing Test Usefulness 3

Technical Adequacy 3

Test User Competency 4

Matching the Test’s Intended Purpose 4

Matching Diverse Test-Takers to the Test 5

Test Results and Diversity Considerations 6

Tests are Only Tools: A Video Beats a Photo 7

The Difference Between Testing/Assessment and The Assessment Process 8

Tests and Assessments 9

Assessment Process 9

Types of Tests/Assessments 10

Objective, Essay, and Performance/Portfolio Tests/Assessments 11

Teacher-Made and Standardized Tests 12

Norm-Referenced Tests (NRTs) and Criterion-Referenced Tests (CRTs) 12

Curriculum-Based Measurements (CBMs) 13

Effects on the Classroom Teacher 13

About the Text 15

What If You Are “No Good in Math”? 16

Summary 16

For Discussion and Practice 17

CHAPTER 2 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS: IMPACT ON CLASSROOM TESTING AND MEASUREMENT 19

Education Reform 21

Regular Education Reform 21

Special Education Reform 23

Merging Regular and Special Education Reform: IDEIA and NCLB 24

Standards-Based Reform 25

Race to the Top (RTT) 27

The Future: NCLB, RTT, CCSS, and the CCSS-Aligned Tests 28

Other Trends: Computer-Adaptive Achievement Testing 29

Globalization and International Competitiveness 30

Competency Testing for Teachers 31

Teacher Evaluation Based on Student Test Scores: Value-Added Models (VAM) 32

Increased Interest from Professional Groups 32

A Professional Association–Book Publisher Information Initiative 33

Summary 33

For Discussion and Practice 35

CHAPTER 3 RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI) AND THE REGULAR CLASSROOM TEACHER 36

What Is RTI? 37

What If You Have Not Heard of RTI Before? 37

How New Is RTI? 38

Why Do Regular Education Teachers Need to Know About RTI? 38

An RTI Scenario 38

How Important Is RTI to Regular Education Teachers? 40

How Is RTI Supposed to Help Students and Schools? 41

RTI Definitions, Components, and Approaches 42

RTI Definitions 42

RTI Components 43

RTI Approaches 48

How Widely Is RTI Being Implemented? 50

Some Benefits of RTI 51

RTI: The Promise and Some Controversies 52

Technical Issues: Reliability, Validity, and Fairness 52

Implementation Issues 52

Summary 53

For Discussion and Practice 54

CHAPTER 4 TESTING AND EDUCATIONAL DECISION MAKING 56

Testing, Accountability, and The Classroom Teacher 57

Special Learners, the Regular Curriculum, and Annual Assessments 58

Types of Educational Decisions 59

A Pinch of Salt 62

“Pinching” in the Classroom 63

What to Measure 64

How to Measure 65

Written Tests 65

Summary 66

For Discussion and Practice 67

CHAPTER 5 NORM-REFERENCED AND CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTS AND CONTENT VALIDITY EVIDENCE 68

Defining Norm-Referenced (NRT) and Criterion-Referenced (CRT) Tests 69

Comparing NRTs and CRTs 72

Differences in The Construction of NRTs and CRTs 73

NRTs, CRTs, and Linguistic and Cultural Diversity 74

NRTs, CRTs, and Validity Evidence 75

A Three-Stage Model of Classroom Measurement 76

Why Objectives? Why Not Just Write Test Items? 78

Where Do Goals Come From? 79

Are There Different Kinds of Goals and Objectives? 81

How Can Instructional Objectives Make a Teacher’s Job Easier? 83

Summary 84

For Discussion and Practice 86

CHAPTER 6 MEASURING LEARNING OUTCOMES 87

Writing Instructional Objectives 88

Identifying Learning Outcomes 88

Identifying Observable and Directly Measurable Learning Outcomes 89

Stating Conditions 90

Stating Criterion Levels 90

Keeping It Simple and Straightforward 91

Matching Test Items to Instructional Objectives 92

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 94

Cognitive Domain 94

Affective Domain 97

The Psychomotor Domain 99

The Test Blueprint 100

Content Outline 102

Categories 102

Number of Items 102

Functions 102

Summary 104

For Discussion and Practice 104

CHAPTER 7 WRITING OBJECTIVE TEST ITEMS 106

Which Format? 107

True–False Items 108

Suggestions for Writing True–False Items 110

Matching Items 111

Faults Inherent in Matching Items 111

Suggestions for Writing Matching Items 114

Multiple-Choice Items 114

Higher-Level Multiple-Choice Questions 119

Suggestions for Writing Multiple-Choice Items 123

Completion Items 123

Suggestions for Writing Completion Items 125

Gender and Racial Bias in Test Items 126

Guidelines for Writing Test Items 127

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Objective Item Formats 128

True–False Tests 128

Matching Tests 129

Multiple-Choice Tests 129

Completion Tests 129

Summary 130

For Discussion and Practice 130

CHAPTER 8 WRITING ESSAY TEST ITEMS 132

What Is An Essay Item? 133

Essay Items Should Measure Complex Cognitive Skills or Processes 134

Essay Items: Extended or Restricted Response 135

Examples of Restricted Response Essays 136

Pros and Cons of Essay Items 138

Advantages of the Essay Item 138

Disadvantages of the Essay Item 138

Suggestions for Writing Essay Items 139

Scoring Essay Questions 140

Scoring Extended Response and Higher-Level Questions 142

General Essay Scoring Suggestions 146

Assessing Knowledge Organization 147

Open-Book Questions and Exams 149

Some Open-Book Techniques 149

Guidelines for Planning Essays, Knowledge Organization, and Open-Book Questions and Exams 153

Summary 154

For Discussion and Practice 155

CHAPTER 9 PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT 156

Performance Tests: Direct Measures of Competence 157

Performance Tests Can Assess Processes and Products 157

Performance Tests Can Be Embedded in Lessons 158

Performance Tests Can Assess Affective and Social Skills 158

Developing Performance Tests for Your Learners 160

Step 1: Deciding What to Test 160

Step 2: Designing the Assessment Context 162

Step 3: Specifying the Scoring Rubrics 165

Step 4: Specifying Testing Constraints 170

A FinalWord 171

Summary 172

For Discussion and Practice 173

CHAPTER 10 PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT 174

Rationale for the Portfolio 175

Ensuring Validity of the Portfolio 176

Developing Portfolio Assessments 176

Step 1: Deciding on the Purposes for a Portfolio 177

Step 2: Identifying Cognitive Skills and Dispositions 177

Step 3: Deciding Who Will Plan the Portfolio 177

Step 4: Deciding Which Products to Put in the Portfolio and How Many Samples of Each Product 178

Step 5: Building the Portfolio Rubrics 179

Step 6: Developing a Procedure to Aggregate All Portfolio Ratings 184

Step 7: Determining the Logistics 185

Summary 188

For Discussion and Practice 189

CHAPTER 11 ADMINISTERING, ANALYZING, AND IMPROVING THE TEST OR ASSESSMENT 190

Assembling the Test 191

Packaging the Paper-and-Pencil Test 191

Administering the Test 193

Scoring the Test 195

Analyzing the Test 196

Quantitative Item Analysis 196

Qualitative Item Analysis 202

Item Analysis Modifications for the Criterion-Referenced Test 203

Debriefing 207

Debriefing Guidelines 208

The Process of Evaluating Classroom Achievement 209

Summary 210

For Discussion and Practice 212

CHAPTER 12 MARKS AND MARKING SYSTEMS 213

What Is the Purpose of a Mark? 213

Why Be Concerned about Marking? 214

What Should a Mark Reflect? 214

Marking Systems 215

Types of Comparisons 216

Types of Symbols 219

Combining and Weighting the Components of

a Mark 221

Who Is the Better Teacher? 221

Combining Grades into a Single Mark 223

Practical Approaches to Equating Before Weighting in the Busy Classroom 225

Front-End Equating 226

Back-End Equating 226

Summary 229

For Discussion and Practice 230

CHAPTER 13 SUMMARIZING DATA AND MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 231

What Are Statistics? 232

Why Use Statistics? 233

Tabulating Frequency Data 233

The List 234

The Simple Frequency Distribution 234

The Grouped Frequency Distribution 235

Steps in Constructing a Grouped Frequency Distribution 237

Graphing Data 239

The Bar Graph, or Histogram 240

The Frequency Polygon 240

The Smooth Curve 243

Measures of Central Tendency 246

The Mean 246

The Median 248

The Mode 252

The Measures of Central Tendency in Various Distributions 254

Summary 255

For Discussion and Practice 257

CHAPTER 14 VARIABILITY, THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION, AND CONVERTED SCORES 258

The Range 259

The Semi-Interquartile Range (SIQR) 260

The Standard Deviation 261

The Deviation Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviation 264

The Raw Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviation 265

The Normal Distribution 267

Properties of the Normal Distribution 268

Converted Scores 270

z-Scores 273

T-Scores 277

Summary 278

For Discussion and Practice 278

CHAPTER 15 CORRELATION 280

The Correlation Coefficient 282

Strength of a Correlation 282

Direction of a Correlation 282

Scatterplots 283

Where Does r Come From? 285

Causality 286

Other Interpretive Cautions 287

Summary 289

For Discussion and Practice 290

CHAPTER 16 VALIDITY EVIDENCE 292

Why Evaluate Tests? 292

Types of Validity Evidence 293

Content Validity Evidence 293

Criterion-Related Validity Evidence 294

Construct Validity Evidence 295

What Have We Been Saying? A Review 296

Interpreting Validity Coefficients 298

Content Validity Evidence 298

Concurrent and Predictive Validity Evidence 298

Summary 302

For Discussion and Practice 302

CHAPTER 17 RELIABILITY 304

Methods of Estimating Score Reliability 305

Test–Retest or Stability 305

Alternate Forms or Equivalence 306

Internal Consistency 306

Interpreting Reliability Coefficients 309

Summary 312

For Discussion and Practice 313

CHAPTER 18 ACCURACY AND ERROR 315

Error—What Is It? 316

The Standard Error of Measurement 317

Using the Standard Error of Measurement 318

More Applications 321

Standard Deviation or Standard Error of Measurement? 323

Why All the Fuss About Error? 324

Error Within Test-Takers 324

Error Within the Test 324

Error in Test Administration 325

Error in Scoring 325

Sources of Error Influencing Various Reliability Coefficients 325

Test–Retest 325

Alternate Forms 326

Internal Consistency 326

Band Interpretation 328

Steps: Band Interpretation 329

A FinalWord 332

Summary 332

For Discussion and Practice 333

CHAPTER 19 STANDARDIZED TESTS 335

What Is a Standardized Test? 337

Do Test Stimuli, Administration, and Scoring Have to Be Standardized? 338

Standardized Testing: Effects of Accommodations and Alternative Assessments 339

Uses of Standardized Achievement Tests 340

Will Performance and Portfolio Assessment Make Standardized Tests Obsolete? 341

Administering Standardized Tests 341

Types of Scores Offered for Standardized Achievement Tests 343

Grade Equivalents 343

Age Equivalents 344

Percentile Ranks 345

Standard Scores 346

The Norms Table 347

Interpreting a Norms Table 349

Interpreting Standardized Tests: Test and Student Factors 350

Test-Related Factors 351

Student-Related Factors 354

Aptitude–Achievement Discrepancies 358

Interpreting Standardized Tests: Parent–Teacher Conferences and Educational Decision Making 361

An Example: Pressure to Change an Educational Placement 361

Interpreting Standardized Tests: Score Reports from Publishers 366

Report-Based Interpretive Scenarios 371

Authors’ Responses 372

Summary 373

For Discussion and Practice 375

CHAPTER 20 TYPES OF STANDARDIZED TESTS 377

Standardized Achievement Tests 378

Achievement Test Batteries, or Survey Batteries 379

Single-Subject Achievement Tests 380

Diagnostic Achievement Tests 380

Standardized Academic Aptitude Tests 381

The History of Academic Aptitude Testing 381

Stability of IQ Scores 382

What Do IQ Tests Predict? 383

Individually Administered Academic Aptitude Tests 384

Group-Administered Academic Aptitude Tests 384

Standardized Personality Assessment Instruments 385

What Is Personality? 385

Objective Personality Tests 386

Projective Personality Tests 387

Summary 388

For Discussion and Practice 389

CHAPTER 21 IN THE CLASSROOM: A SUMMARY DIALOGUE 390

APPENDIX A MATH SKILLS REVIEW 396

APPENDIX B ANSWERS FOR DISCUSSION OR PRACTICE QUESTIONS 402

SUGGESTED READINGS 408

REFERENCES 413

CREDITS 418

INDEX 419

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New To This Edition

  • New Informs readers of the latest testing and assessment changes and challenges, including legislative initiatives and requirements that drive testing policy and practice
  • New Incorporates recent and existing state and national educational reforms to inform readers about the way they have influenced testing practice. The authors describe how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have evolved since the last edition. They integrate the state-sponsored CCSS with the national Race to the Top (RTT) voluntary initiative and the RTT sponsored multi-state assessment consortia (i.e., the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and the Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, or PARCC).
  • New Learning Outcomes were added to the beginning of chapters to provide a preview of the primary topics covered in each chapter
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The Wiley Advantage

  • Highlights traditional and contemporary topics and provides examples that deal with practical, day-to-day issues related to the testing and assessment of students and measuring their behavior, in the context of NCLB, state high stakes testing programs, IDEIA, RTI, the CCSS, and the RTT initiative.
  • Presents both sides of the various controversies around educational testing and assessment in hopes of enabling readers to be informed enough to form their own opinions.
  • Complex test and measurement content is presented in a nonintimidating and unique manner, and related back to important developments in educational measurement and assessment.
  • Uses a friendly, conversational style to enhance the emphasis on the application of theory
  • Provides sufficient theoretical background to ensure that readers will understand the foundations of measurement and avoids an oversimplified approach to measurement
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Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
Instructor's Manual
Offers helpful teaching ideas, sample test questions, learning objectives, and class activities.
Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education
A guide for professionals to provide and use tests that are fair to all test takers regardless of age, gender, disability, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, linguistic background, or other personal characteristics.
Video: ABCs of Education Measurement
Supplemental Chapters
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Students Resources
Wiley Student Companion Site
Video: ABCs of Education Measurement
Supplemental Chapters
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Educational Testing and Measurement, 11th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-119-22809-7
490 pages
December 2015, ©2016
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Educational Testing and Measurement, 11th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-119-23915-4
442 pages
January 2016, ©2016
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