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Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, Sixth Edition

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Newly updated, Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, 6th Edition incorporates material that the authors, Susan Krauss Whitbourne and Stacey B. Whitbourne, believe is essential to students understanding this rapidly-developing and fascinating field of study. This text focuses on three key themes: a multidisciplinary approach, positive images of aging, and the newest and most relevant research. Much of what students will read comes directly from Susan’s classroom teaching of the Psychology of Aging course; she continues to incorporate her day-to-day teaching of the course into the text, which keeps the material current, fresh, and engaging.
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Table of Contents

Preface v

CHAPTER 1 Themes and Issues in Adult Development and Aging 1

The Biopsychosocial Perspective 2

Four Principles of Adult Development and Aging 3

1. Changes Are Continuous Over the Life Span 3

2. Only the Survivors Grow Old 4

3. Individuality Matters 5

4. ”Normal” Aging Is Different From Disease 6

The Meaning of Age 7

Using Age to Define ”Adult” 8

Divisions by Age of the Over-65 Population 9

Functional Age 9

Personal Versus Social Aging 10

Key Social Factors in Adult Development and Aging 12

Sex and Gender 12

Race 13

Ethnicity 13

Socioeconomic Status 14

Religion 14

The Baby Boomers Grow Up: Changes in the Middle-Aged and Older Populations in the United States and the World 14

United States 15

Aging Around the World 17

Summary 19

CHAPTER 2 Models of Development: Nature and Nurture in Adulthood 21

Key Concepts in the Study of the Life Span 22

Models of Individual–Environment Interactions 23

Reciprocity in Development 25

Sociocultural Models of Development 25

Ecological Perspective 26

The Life Course Perspective 27

Ageism as a Social Factor in the Aging Process 28

Psychological Models of Development in Adulthood 31

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory 31

Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 33

Identity Process Theory 34

The Selective Compensation with Optimization Model 37

Biological Approaches to Aging in Adulthood 38

Genes and DNA 38

Programmed Aging Theories 40

Random Error Theories 42

Summary 44

CHAPTER 3 The Study of Adult Development and Aging: Research Methods 47

Variables in Developmental Research 48

Descriptive Research Designs 49

Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement 49

Longitudinal Designs 50

Cross-Sectional Designs 53

Sequential Research Designs 55

The Most Efficient Design 55

Correlational Designs 56

Simple Correlational Designs 56

Multivariate Correlational Designs 57

Types of Research Methods 59

Laboratory Studies 59

Qualitative Studies 59

Archival Research 59

Surveys 60

Epidemiological Studies 60

Case Reports 60

Focus Groups 61

Daily Diaries 61

Observational Methods 61

Meta-Analysis 62

Measurement Issues in Adult Development and Aging 62

Ethical Issues in Research 63

Summary 65

CHAPTER 4 Physical Changes 67

Appearance 68

Skin 68

Hair 70

Body Build 71

Mobility 73

Muscles 73

Bones 75

Joints 75

Vital Bodily Functions 77

Cardiovascular System 77

Respiratory System 79

Urinary System 79

Digestive System 81

Bodily Control Systems 81

Endocrine System 81

Immune System 85

Nervous System 85

Central Nerous System 85

Sleep 88

Temperature Control 89

Sensation and Perception 89

Vision 89

Hearing 91

Balance 92

Smell and Taste 94

Somatosensory System 94

Summary 95

CHAPTER 5 Health and Prevention 97

Key Concepts in Health and Prevention 98

Diseases of the Cardiovascular System 98

Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Conditions 99

Incidence 100

Behavioral Risk Factors 100

Prevention of Heart Disease and Stroke 102

Cancer 103

Risk Factors and Prevention 103

Treatments 105

Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System 105

Osteoarthritis 105

Osteoporosis 106

Diabetes 107

Characteristics of Diabetes 107

Incidence and Risk Factors 107

Prevention and Treatment 108

Respiratory Diseases 108

Neurocognitive Disorders 109

Alzheimer’s Disease 110

Other Forms of Neurocognitive Disorder 116

Summary 118

CHAPTER 6 Basic Cognitive Functions: Information Processing, Attention, and Memory 119

Processing Speed and Attention 120

Reaction Time 120

Attention 120

Video Games and Attention 124

Driving and Aging 124

Memory 127

Working Memory 128

Effects of Aging on Long-Term Memory in Adulthood 129

Psychosocial Influences on Memory 131

Memory and Health-Related Behaviors 132

Memory Training Studies 134

Summary 136

CHAPTER 7 Higher-Order Cognitive Functions 139

Executive Functioning and its Measurement 140

Intelligence Tests 140

Neuropsychological Assessment 141

Aging and Executive Functioning 142

Language 143

Cognitive Aspects of Language 143

Social Aspects of Language 145

Bilingualism and Aging 146

Everyday Problem Solving 146

Characteristics of Problem Solving 146

Problem Solving in Adulthood 147

Adult Learners 150

Intelligence 151

Theoretical Perspectives on Adult Intelligence 152

Research on Adult Intelligence 153

Training Studies 157

The Psychology of Wisdom 157

Summary 159

CHAPTER 8 Personality 161

Psychodynamic Perspective 162

Ego Psychology 162

Vaillant’s Theory of Defense Mechanisms 166

Adult Attachment Theory 167

Trait Approaches 168

Research on Aging and the Five-Factor Model 169

Health and Personality Traits 169

Social Cognitive Approaches 172

Cognitive Perspective 174

Possible Selves Theory 175

Coping and Control 175

Identity Process Theory 177

Midlife Crisis Theories and Findings 178

Theory of the Midlife Crisis 178

Critiques and Research on the Midlife Crisis 180

Summary 182

CHAPTER 9 Relationships 183

Marriage and Intimate Relationships 184

Marriage 184

Cohabitation 185

Same-Sex Couples 187

Divorce and Remarriage 187

Widowhood 189

Psychological Perspectives on Long-Term Relationships 190

Families 193

Parenthood 193

The Empty Nest 195

Parent–Adult Child Relationships 197

Siblings 200

Grandparents 200

Friendships 202

Theoretical Perspectives 202

Patterns of Friendships 202

Summary 203

CHAPTER 10 Work, Retirement, and Leisure Patterns 205

Work Patterns in Adulthood 206

Vocational Development 209

Holland’s Vocational Development Theory 209

Super’s Life-Span Life-Stage Theory 211

Occupation as Calling 212

Variations in Vocational Development 213

Vocational Satisfaction 213

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors 213

Positive and Negative Moods 215

Person–Environment Correspondence 215

Work Stress 216

Relationships Between Work and Family Roles 217

Age and Vocational Satisfaction 218

Age and Vocational Performance 219

Retirement 221

Definitions of Retirement 221

Facts About Retirement 221

The Effects of Retirement on the Individual 223

Leisure Pursuits in Later Adulthood 225

Summary 227

CHAPTER 11 Mental Health Issues and Treatment 229

Psychological Disorders in Adulthood 230

Major Depressive Disorder 231

Bipolar Disorder 233

Anxiety Disorders 233

Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 234

Trauma and Stress-Related Disorders 235

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders 235

Substance-Related Disorders 236

Personality Disorders 237

Elder Abuse 238

Suicide 240

Treatment Issues in Mental Health Care 240

Assessment 241

Treatment 243

Serious Mental Illness 247

Summary 248

CHAPTER 12 Long-Term Care 251

Institutional Facilities for Long-Term Care 252

Nursing Homes 252

Residential Care Facilities 253

Community-Based Facilities and Services 255

Home Health Services 255

Day Treatment Services 255

Community Housing Alternatives 256

The Financing of Long-Term Care 256

Medicare 257

Medicaid 259

Legislative Landmarks in the Long-Term Care of Older Adults 260

1987 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987

(OBRA 1987) 260

1999–2000 Congressional Hearings on Nursing Home Abuse 262

2002 Nursing Home Quality Initiative 263

The Quality of Long-Term Care 263

Psychological Issues in Long-Term Care 265

Models of Adaptation 265

Suggestions for Improving Long-Term Care 267

Summary 268

CHAPTER 13 Death and Dying 271

What Do We Know About Death? 272

Medical Aspects of Death 272

Death by the Numbers 273

Sociocultural Perspectives on Death and Dying 277

Psychological Perspectives on Death and Dying 278

Issues in End-of-Life Care 279

Advance Directives 279

Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia 281

Hospice Care 282

Improving Health Care and Mental Health Services to Dying Patients 282

Bereavement 283

Summary 286

CHAPTER 14 Successful Aging 287

What Is Successful Aging? 288

An Overview of Successful Aging 288

Successful Cognitive Aging 290

Factors That Promote Successful Aging 291

Creativity and Aging 295

What Is Creativity? 295

Creative Older Adults 296

Characteristics of Last Works 297

Sociocultural Perspectives on Creativity and Aging 300

Successful Aging: Final Perspectives 300

Summary 301

Glossary 303

References 321

Author Index 383

Subject Index 401

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New To This Edition

  • Featuring nearly 300 references, updated through early 2016
  • Expanded coverage to global population and health data in keeping with our stated goal of providing an international perspective
  • Updated chapters, figures, and tables
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The Wiley Advantage

  • Offers an innovative approach to the field of adult development with an engaging writing style to appeal to today’s student.
  • Each chapter opens with quotations from well-known authors, poets, and celebrities to provide thought-provoking observations on aging.
  • What Do You Think? critical thinking questions keyed into the text content encourage students to think in-depth about the material.
  • The “Aging in the News” feature that offers the story of a remarkable achievement by a middle-aged or older adult.
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Wiley E-Text   
Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, 6th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-119-29898-4
424 pages
November 2016, ©2017
$48.00   BUY

Paperback   
Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, 6th Edition
ISBN : 978-1-119-25726-4
424 pages
November 2016, ©2017
$154.95   BUY

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