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Aquatic Pollution - An Introductory Text 4e

April 2017, ©2018
Aquatic Pollution - An Introductory Text 4e (EHEP003701) cover image

Description

Since the publication of the third edition of Aquatic Pollution in 2000, there have been many major developments within the field in terms of research, regulations, and also large-scale catastrophes that have had a significant impact on the aquatic environment; the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the Fukushima nuclear disaster have taken their toll, and research on ocean acidification has developed enormously over the last decade. Recognizing, controlling, and mitigating aquatic pollution on a global scale is one of the most important and most difficult challenges facing society today.

Fully updated to reflect current understanding and discussing these major recent developments, this fourth edition of Aquatic Pollution covers every aspect of pollution associated with urban runoff, acid rain, sewage disposal, pesticides, oil spills, nutrient loading, and more. Case studies of major pollution sites, all original to this new edition, help to illustrate points made in general discussion.

Offering unprecedented depth of coverage, and discussing both fresh and sea water environments, this unique text provides a key teaching and learning tool for courses in environmental science, zoology, oceanography, biology, and civil or sanitary engineering, as well as a vital book for government policy makers. It is also an excellent primer for policymakers and activists focused on environmental issues.
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

1 Fundamental Concepts 1

Simple Food Chain Theory 1

Ecological Pyramids 3

Recycling and the Microbial Loop 6

Food Chain Magnification 9

Food Webs 10

Food Webs and Ecosystem Stability 12

Questions 13

References 15

2 Photosynthesis 17

Light Limitation of Photosynthesis 18

Nutrient Limitation of Photosynthesis 22

Nutrient Enrichment Experiments 26

Long Island Bays 30

Canadian Experimental Lakes 31

Nitrogen versus Phosphorus Limitation 33

Questions 37

References 38

3 Physical Factors Affecting Production 43

Physical Properties of Water 43

Water Column Stability and Overturning 45

The Importance of Overturning 48

Seasonal Production Cycles 49

Trophic Status 50

Susceptibility of Systems to Oxygen Depletion 51

Estuaries: A Special Case 52

Chesapeake Bay 55

The Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone 64

Questions 67

References 68

Contents

4 Cultural Eutrophication Case Studies 71

Case Study 1: Lake Washington 72

History of Eutrophication 73

Effects of Sewage Diversion 76

Nutrient Limitation 79

Oxygen Depletion 80

Water Clarity 83

Cyanobacteria 84

Theoretical Predictions 85

Case Study 2: Lake Erie 88

The Destruction of Fish Spawning and Nursery Grounds as a Result of Land‐Use Modifications 89

The Depletion of Fish Stocks Due to Overfishing 90

The Creation of Anoxic Bottom Water Conditions Due to Cultural Eutrophication 93

The Disposal of Toxic Wastes 94

Sediment in Land Runoff 96

Contamination of Nearshore Areas with Sewage Wastes 96

Remedial Efforts 98

Toxic Substances 98

Eutrophication 99

Prospects for Lake Erie 105

Case Study 3: Kaneohe Bay 114

Physical Setting 114

The Coral Reefs 116

Urbanization of the Watershed 116

Changes in Land Runoff 116

Sewage Disposal 119

Effects of Sewage Disposal 120

Response to Sewage Diversion 121

Current Status and Prospects for Kaneohe Bay 123

Questions 126

References 128

5 Nonpoint Source Pollution 133

Definitions 133

Composition of Land Runoff 134

Types of Sewer Systems 136

Corrective Measures 138

Use of Settling Basins 138

Ground Recharge Basins 139

Storage in Underflow Tunnels or Tanks 140

Minimizing Runoff 141

Summary 143

A Case Study: Lake Jackson, Florida 143

Correctives 150

Questions 155

References 156

6 Sewage Treatment 159

Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Treatment 159

Secondary Treatment for BOD Removal 161

Trickling Filters 161

Activated Sludge 162

Pros and Cons of Trickling Filter and Activated Sludge Treatment 163

The Anaerobic Digester 164

Tertiary Treatment 165

Phosphorus Removal 166

Nitrogen Removal 167

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products 168

Cost of Conventional Sewage Treatment 169

Land Application of Sewage 170

Results of Spray Irrigation Studies 172

Limiting Factors 179

Use of Sewage Sludge 180

Unconventional Sewage Treatment 183

Detergent Phosphates 185

Questions 188

References 190

7 Pathogens in Natural Waters 195

Sources of Pathogens 197

Types of Pathogens and Their Detection 198

Bacterial Pathogens 199

Protozoan Pathogens 206

Viral Pathogens 208

Helminths 212

Tests for Pathogens 213

Treatment of Public Water Supplies 219

Removal of Suspended Solids 219

Filtration 219

Chlorination 220

Alternatives to Chlorination 221

Impact of Treatment 222

Questions 222

References 224

8 Toxicology 229

The Role of Toxicology in Water Quality Management 229

Kinds of Toxicity 231

Sublethal Effects 231

Reproduction 232

Development and Growth 234

Behavior 237

Determination of Toxicity 237

Acute Toxicity Determination 238

Chronic Toxicity Determination 239

Median Survival Times 240

Incipient Lethal Levels 241

Sublethal Effects 242

Water Quality Standards 243

Acute Effects 243

Chronic Toxicity 244

Acute/Chronic Ratios 245

Toxicity to Plants 247

The Two-Number Criterion 247

Complicating Factors 248

Interactions with Harmless Substances or Conditions 248

Incorporation into Water Quality Guidelines 250

Conditioning and Acclimation 252

Interactions between Toxic Substances 253

Public Health 257

Noncarcinogenic Effects 257

Application to Cadmium 260

Carcinogenic Effects 262

Protection of Wildlife 264

Commentary 264

Questions 265

References 268

9 Industrial Pollution 273

The Oxygen Sag 273

Innovative Strategies for Reducing Industrial Pollution 276

The Hawaiian Sugar Cane Industry 279

Sugar Cane Production: Field Operations 282

Sugar Cane Production: Harvesting 282

Sugar Cane Production: Factory Operations 283

Survey of Water Pollution Problems 285

Response to the EPA Survey 286

Present Status of the Industry 288

The Pulp and Paper Industry 290

Steps in the Production of Paper 292

Objectionable Characteristics of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent 295

Suspended Solids 296

Dissolved Organics 298

Toxic Substances 299

Wastewater Treatment 300

A Case Study: The Buckeye Cellulose Corporation Pulp and Paper Mill at Perry, Florida 301

Commentary 304

Questions 306

References 307

10 Pesticides and Persistent Organic Pollutants 311

Classification of Pesticides 313

Mode of Action 315

Pesticide Use 316

Public Health 316

Use of DDT to Control Malaria 316

Agriculture 319

Forestry 321

Pesticide Effects on Nontarget Species 322

Forest Spraying with DDT to Control Spruce Budworms in New Brunswick, Canada 322

DDD Treatment to Control Gnat Populations on Clear Lake, California 323

Exaggerated and/or Erroneous Charges against Pesticide Use 324

The Destruction of Speckled Sea Trout in the Laguna Madre, Texas 325

DDT Reduces Photosynthesis by Marine Phytoplankton 326

DDT Residues of 5 ppm (Wet Weight) in the Eggs of Freshwater Trout Result in 100% Mortality of Fry 328

DDT Causes Cancer 330

Implications 331

Pesticide Persistence in the Biosphere and Food Chain Magnification 332

Pesticide Effects on Birds 336

Field Observations 337

Laboratory Studies 339

Summary of Pesticide Effects on Birds 342

Pest Resistance 343

Mechanisms of Resistance 344

The Cost of Pest Resistance 344

Alternatives to Synthetic Pesticide Use 345

Biological Control 345

Natural Predators and Parasites 345

Pathogens and Natural Toxins 346

Genetic Control 347

Resistant Plants 347

Sterile Males 348

Chemical Control 350

Integrated Pest Management 351

Commentary 353

EPA Hearings, 13 January, 1972. Afternoon Session 355

Persistent Organic Pollutants 359

Polychlorinated Biphenyls 359

Problems with PCBs 361

Persistence of PCBs 363

Questions 365

References 367

11 Thermal Pollution and Power Plants 375

Power Plant Design 376

Water Quality Criteria 377

Cooling Water System Characteristics 378

Toxic Effects of Effluent Waters on Biota 379

Sublethal Effects 381

Commentary 383

A Case Study – The Florida Power and Light Power Plant at Turkey Point 383

The Study Area 383

The Power Plant 385

Effects on Biota 386

Modifications 388

Commentary 389

Correctives 389

Cooling Canals 390

Cooling Towers 390

Problems 390

Internal Plant Kills 392

Screen Impingements 392

Inner Plant Kills 395

Commentary 397

Correctives 398

Possible Beneficial Uses of Thermal Discharges 400

Cogeneration Power Plants 400

Agriculture 402

Aquaculture 403

Other Uses 406

Questions 407

References 408

12 Metals 413

The Question of Biological Magnification 416

Case Studies 417

Mercury 418

Production and Uses 418

Fluxes to the Environment 422

Speciation of Mercury and Toxicology 426

Minamata Bay: A Case Study 432

Seafood Consumption 438

Cadmium 439

Distribution, Production, and Uses 439

Emissions to the Environment 442

Natural Fluxes to Aquatic Systems 445

Anthropogenic Fluxes to Aquatic Systems 445

Toxicity 445

Itai‐Itai Disease: A Case Study 447

Correctives and Prospects for the Future 451

Lead 453

Production and Use 453

Emissions 457

Toxicology 462

Commentary 465

Questions 469

References 471

13 Oil Pollution 479

Oil Discharges to the Marine Environment 480

Natural Sources 480

Marine Seeps 480

Anthropogenic Sources 481

Platforms 481

Atmospheric Deposition 482

Produced Waters 482

Pipeline Spills 482

Tanker Spills 482

Operational Discharges (Cargo Washings) 483

Coastal Facility Spills (Refined Products) 485

Atmospheric Deposition (From Tankers) 485

Land‐Based Runoff 485

Recreational Marine Vessels 485

Spills (Non‐tankers) 485

Operational Discharges (Vessels >100 GT) 486

Operational Discharges (Vessels <100 GT) 486

Atmospheric Deposition 486

Aircraft Dumping 486

Commentary 486

The Genesis of Oil 488

Sedimentation 488

Metamorphosis 489

Migration 489

What Is Oil? 490

Alkanes: Paraffins or Aliphatic Compounds 490

Cycloalkanes or Naphthenes 491

Aromatics 491

Toxicology 493

Oiling and Ingestion 493

Weathering 496

Lethal and Sublethal Effects 498

Human Health 500

Case Studies 501

Exxon Valdez 501

The Accident and Initial Containment Efforts 501

Cleanup 502

Fate of Spilled Oil 503

Effects on Organisms 503

Summary 507

Deepwater Horizon 508

Buzzards Bay 510

Summary 513

Correctives 514

Prevention 514

Cleanup 515

Offloading 515

Burning 516

Chemical Dispersal 516

Mechanical Containment and Cleanup 517

Sinking 517

Bioremediation 518

Summary 519

Oil Fingerprinting 520

Commentary 522

Questions 523

References 524

14 Radioactivity 529

Physical Background 529

Radiation Toxicology 532

The No Threshold and Linear Dose–Response Hypotheses 534

Health Effect Estimates 536

Current Levels of Exposure 538

Importance of Certain Radionuclides 541

Effects on Aquatic Systems 542

Nuclear Fission and Fission Reactors 544

Nuclear Fusion 550

Radiation Releases by Power Plants 552

Routine Radionuclide Releases 553

Accidents 556

The NRX Accident 556

Windscale 557

The SL‐1 Incident 559

The Fermi Reactor Accident 560

The Three Mile Island Incident 562

Chernobyl 563

Fukushima Daiichi 565

Summary 565

Waste Disposal 569

Types of Radioactive Waste 569

History of Disposal 569

The Search for Long‐Term Disposal Sites 573

Transmutation 576

Uranium Mine Wastes 576

Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors 579

Commentary 581

Questions 582

References 584

15 Acid Deposition and Ocean Acidification 589

Acid Deposition 589

Acid Rain 590

History of the Acid Deposition Problem 591

Susceptibility of Lakes to Acid Deposition Effects 594

Acid Deposition Toxicology 595

Magnitude of Anthropogenic Emissions 598

Correctives 600

SOx Removal 601

Pretreatment 601

Conversion 602

Coal Gasification 602

Coal Liquefaction 602

Methanol Production 602

Combustion 603

Fluidized Bed Combustion 603

Lime Injection in Multistage Burners (LIMB) 603

Post‐combustion 603

Stack Gas Scrubbing 603

Electron Beam Method 604

NOx Removal 604

Pretreatment and Conversion 604

Combustion 604

Post‐combustion 605

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle 605

Comments 605

Legal Aspects 606

A Case Study: The Netherlands 608

Commentary 610

Ocean Acidification 610

Solutions 617

Questions 618

References 618

16 Groundwater Pollution 623

Reliance on Groundwater 623

General Aquifer Information 624

Overdrafting 625

The Extent of Groundwater Pollution 627

Septic Tanks 627

Saltwater Contamination 627

Fracking 628

Sewage 628

Mining Activities 629

Leaking Underground Storage Tanks 629

Toxic Chemicals 629

Illegal Disposal 632

Magnitude of the Problem 634

A Case Study: The Rocky Mountain Arsenal 636

Legal Considerations 641

RCRA 641

SDWA 642

CWA 643

CERCLA 644

Other Legislation 646

Enforcement 647

Correctives 648

Cleanup 648

Prevention 650

The EPA Groundwater Protection Strategy 653

Questions 654

References 655

17 Plastics in the Sea 659

The Nature of the Problem 659

Effects 661

Aesthetics 661

Ingestion 662

Entanglement 664

Ghost Fishing 665

Other Causes of Entanglement 667

Damage to Vessels 668

Correctives 668

MARPOL Annex V 668

Other Legislation 671

Degradable Plastic 673

Solutions Through Technology 673

Education 674

Questions 675

References 676

Units of Measurement and Abbreviations 681

References 683

Aquatic Pollution 685

Answers to Questions 685

References 705

Glossary 707

Index 733

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Aquatic Pollution: An Introductory Text, 4th Edition
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