Slide 15: At oil terminals, such as this one at Sea Island in Saudi Arabia (Ras Tanura) oil is loaded unto super-tankers with the aid of very efficient loaders known as "Chiksan Arms". The oil is then transported cheaply by sea to its customers in East Asia, Europe and the Americas. As shown in Slide 4 more-and-more of the oil is transported via pipeline to the Red or even the Mediterranean Sea before it is loaded onto tankers. That minimizes the travel distance to market and reduces cost. See the article "World Oil Transit Chokepoints" by the EIA (Energy Information Administration).
Credit: (c)Thaine Manski/The Stock Market.