|AICPA Code of Professional Conduct · Responsibilities to Clients · ET Section 391 - Ethics Rulings on Responsibilities to Clients|
ET Section 391
Ethics Rulings on Responsibilities to Clients
1.Computer Processing of Clients' Returns
.001QuestionMay a member make use of an outside service bureau for the processing of clients' tax returns? The member's firm would control the input of information and the computer service would perform the mathematical computations and print the return. Is there any violation of the confidential relationship in the fact that client information leaves the member's office?
.002AnswerA member may utilize outside services to process tax returns. He must take all necessary precautions to be sure that the use of outside services does not result in the release of confidential information.
2.Distribution of Client Information to Trade Associations
.003QuestionA member's firm is requested by a trade association to supply profit and loss percentages taken from the reports of the accountants' clients. The association would distribute them to its members. May the firm comply with the request?
.004AnswerRule 301 [ET section 301.01] would not be violated if the firm has the clients' permission to distribute the figures.
3.Information to Successor Accountant About Tax Return Irregularities
.005QuestionA member withdrew from an engagement on discovering irregularities in his client's tax return. May he reveal to the successor accountant why the relationship was terminated?
.006AnswerRule 301 [ET section 301.01] is not intended to help an unscrupulous client cover up illegal acts or otherwise hide information by changing CPAs. If the member is contacted by the successor he should, at a minimum, suggest that the successor ask the client to permit the member to discuss all matters freely with the successor. The successor is then on notice of some conflict. Because of the serious legal implications, the member should seek legal advice as to his status and obligations in the matter.
[4.]Prior Client Relationship
[.007-.008] [Deleted August 1989]
5.Records Retention Agency
.009QuestionMay a member use a records-retention agency to store his clients' records, working papers, and so forth?
.010AnswerThere is no objection to the use of such a records center. However, responsibility for preserving the confidential nature of the records rests with the member.
6.Revealing Client Information to Competitors
.011QuestionA municipality in a particular state enforces a personal property tax on business inventories, fixtures and equipment, and machinery by retaining a firm of CPAs to examine the books and records of the businesses to be sure the proper amount has been declared. In the course of its engagement, the CPA firm will examine sales, purchases, gross profit percentages, and inventories as well as fixed asset accounts. A member serving one of the companies involved objects to these procedures on the ground that information gathered from the books and records of his client could be inadvertently conveyed to competitors by employees of the CPA firm doing the audit. Is such an engagement ethically proper?
.012AnswerIt would be proper for a member's firm to perform such services. It should be emphasized to everyone concerned that rule 301 [ET section 301.01] prohibits members from revealing to others any confidential information obtained in their professional capacity.
7.Revealing Names of Clients
.013QuestionMay a member in public practice disclose the name of a client for whom the member or the member's firm performed professional services?
.014AnswerIt is permissible under rule 301 [ET section 301.01] for a member to disclose the name of a client, whether publicly or privately owned, without the client's specific consent unless the disclosure of the client's name constitutes the release of confidential information. For example, if a member's practice is limited to bankruptcy matters, the disclosure of a client's name would suggest that the client may be experiencing financial difficulties, which could be confidential client information.
[Replaced previous ruling No. 7, Revealing Names of Employer's Clients, effective August 31, 1989.]
[8.]Fee as Percentage of Bond Issue
[.015-.016][Deleted June 1991]
[.017-.018][Deleted June 1991]
[10.]Fee as Expert Witness
[.019-.020][Deleted June 1991]
[11.]Fee Contingent on Mortgage Commitment
[.021-.022][Deleted June 1991]
[12.]Fee as Percentage of Tax Savings
[.023-.024][Deleted June 1991]
[13.]Contingent Fees to Fire Adjuster
[.025-.026][Deleted June 1991]
14. Use of Confidential Information on Management Consulting Service Engagements
.027QuestionIn the course of performing a feasibility study a nonclient outside source has provided pertinent information to the member's firm with the understanding that the source and the details of the information will not be disclosed. The information, which the firm believes is pertinent, directly affects its conclusions and recommendations. How may this information be utilized in connection with the feasibility study engagement and related conclusions and recommendations?
.028 AnswerRule of conduct 301 [ET section 301.01] regarding confidential client information is not directly applicable to the circumstances described; however, Rule of conduct 501, Acts Discreditable [ET section 501.01], is applicable to situations involving confidential relationships with non-clients. For an engagement in which it appears likely that the development of pertinent information will have to come from outside non-client sources, and such information must remain confidential, the terms of the engagement with the client should specify that the confidences of outside non-client sources will not be divulged by the member's firm even when they might affect the outcome of the engagement. If the use of confidential outside sources is necessary and the terms of the engagement are silent regarding disclosure of source and details, the member should promptly seek the approval of the client to present his recommendations without making disclosures that include confidential information. If the client does not agree to this, the member should withdraw rather than breach a confidence or improperly limit the inclusion of information in his final recommendation.
15. Earlier Similar Management Consulting Service Study with Negative Outcome
.029QuestionA prospective client has asked a member's firm to study the desirability of his using a newly developed electronic ticketing system for his business. A recent study made for another client leads the member's firm to believe that the system would not be desirable for him. Must the firm state its reservations at the risk of disclosing information acquired while performing an assignment for a client competitor?
.030AnswerRule of conduct 301 [ET section 301.01] provides that a member shall not disclose any confidential information obtained in the course of a professional engagement except with the consent of the client. Knowledge and expertise which results in a special competence in a particular field can be provided to a client without violating the confidence of another client. Reservations that the firm may have concerning the electronic ticketing system should be communicated to the prospective client provided the details of the other client's engagement are not disclosed. If, however, circumstances are such that the prospective client would clearly know the origin of the information on which the member's reservations are based, and such information is sensitive, the engagement should not be accepted without clearance with the first client.
16. Disclosure of Confidential Client Information
.031QuestionA member has prepared a married couple's joint tax returns for several years. The member was engaged by and has dealt exclusively with spouse A. Divorce proceedings are now under way and spouse B has approached the member with requests for confidential information relating to prior tax returns. Spouse A has directed the member not to comply with spouse B's requests. Would release of this information by the member to spouse B constitute a violation of rule 301 [ET section 301.01]?
.032AnswerAs defined by the Code of Professional Conduct, spouse B would be considered to be a client with respect to the prior tax returns in question. Therefore, release of the requested information to spouse B would not be prohibited by rule 301 [ET section 301.01]. The member should consider, however, reviewing the legal implications of such a disclosure with an attorney.
17. Definition of the Receipt of a Contingent Fee or a Commission
.033QuestionRules 302 [ET section 302.01] and 503 [ET section 503.01] prohibit, among other acts, the receipt of contingent fees for the performance of certain services and the receipt of a commission for the referral of products or services under certain circumstances. When is a contingent fee or commission deemed to be received?
.034AnswerA contingent fee or a commission is deemed to be received when the performance of the related services is complete and the fee or the commission is determined. For example, if in one year a member sells a life insurance policy to a client and the member's commission payments are determined to be a fixed percentage of future years' renewal premiums, the commission is deemed to be received in the year the policy is sold.
18. Bank Director
.035QuestionMay a member in public practice serve as a director of a bank?
.036AnswerYes; however, before accepting a bank directorship, the member should carefully consider the implications of such service if the member has clients that are customers of the bank.
These implications fall into two categories:
- Confidential Client InformationRule 301 [ET section 301.01] provides that a member in public practice shall not disclose any confidential client information without the specific consent of the client. This ethical requirement applies even though failure to disclose information may constitute a breach of the member's fiduciary responsibility as a director.
- Conflicts of InterestInterpretation 102-2 [ET section 102.03] provides that a conflict of interest may occur if a member performs a professional service (including service as a director) and the member or his or her firm has a relationship with another entity that could, in the member's professional judgment, be viewed by appropriate parties as impairing the member's objectivity. If the member believes that the professional service can be performed with objectivity and the relationship is disclosed to and consent is obtained from all appropriate parties, performance of the service shall not be prohibited.
In view of the above factors, it is generally not desirable for a member in public practice to accept a position as bank director where the member's clients are likely to engage in significant transactions with the bank. If a member is engaged in public practice, the member should avoid the high probability of a conflict of interest and the appearance that the member's fiduciary obligations and responsibilities to the bank may conflict with or interfere with the member's ability to serve the client's interest objectively and in complete confidence.
The general knowledge and experience of CPAs in public practice may be very helpful to a bank in formulating policy matters and making business decisions; however, in most instances, it would be more appropriate for the member as part of the member's public practice to serve as a consultant to the bank's board. Under such an arrangement, the member could limit activities to those which did not involve conflicts of interest or confidentiality problems.
19. Receipt of Contingent Fees or Commissions by Member's Spouse
.037QuestionMay a member's spouse provide services to the member's attest client for a contingent fee or refer products or services for a commission to or from the member's attest client without causing the member to be in violation of rule 302 [ET section 302.01] or rule 503 [ET section 503.01]?
.038AnswerYes, if the activities of the member's spouse are separate from the member's practice and the member is not significantly involved in those activities. The member, however, should consider whether a conflict of interest may exist as described in rule 102 [ET section 102.01] and interpretation 102-2 [ET section 102.03].
20. Disclosure of Confidential Client Information to Professional Liability Insurance Carrier
.039QuestionA member has learned of a potential claim that may be filed against the member. The member's professional liability insurance policy requires that the carrier be promptly notified of actual or potential claims. If the member notifies the carrier and complies with its request for documents that would constitute confidential client information without the client's permission, would the member be in violation of rule 301 [ET section 301.01]?
.040AnswerNo. Rule 301 [ET section 301.01] is not intended to prohibit a member from releasing confidential client information to the member's liability insurance carrier solely to assist the defense against an actual or potential claim against the member.
21. Member Providing Services for Company Executives
.041QuestionA member has been approached by a company, for which he or she may or may not perform other professional services, to provide personal financial planning or tax services for its executives. The executives are aware of the company's relationship with the member, if any, and have also consented to the arrangement. The performance of the services could result in the member recommending to the executives actions that may be adverse to the company. What rules of conduct should the member consider before accepting and during the performance of the engagement?
.042AnswerBefore accepting and during the performance of the engagement, the member should consider the applicability of Rule 102, Integrity and Objectivity [ET section 102.01]. If the member believes that he or she can perform the personal financial planning or tax services with objectivity, the member would not be prohibited from accepting the engagement. The member should also consider informing the company and the executives of possible results of the engagement. During the performance of the services, the member should consider his or her professional responsibility to the clients (that is, the company and the executives) under Rule 301, Confidential Client Information [ET section 301.01].
[22.] Member Removing Client Files From an Accounting Firm
[.043-.044] [Deleted December 1998]
23. Disclosure of Confidential Client Information in Legal or Alternative Dispute Resolution Proceedings
.045QuestionA member discloses confidential client information to the member's attorney or a court or in documents or proceedings in connection with an actual or threatened lawsuit or alternative dispute resolution proceeding relating to that client. Would the member be in violation of rule 301 [ET section 301.01] of the Code of Professional Conduct?
.046AnswerNo. Rule 301 [ET section 301.01] is not intended to prohibit a member from disclosing the information necessary to initiate, pursue or defend himself or herself in such proceedings.
This ruling is not intended to prohibit a member's compliance with applicable federal or state laws or regulations.
24. Investment Advisory Services
.047QuestionA member or member's firm ("member") provides investment advisory services for an attest client for a fee based on a percentage of the client's investment portfolio. Would the member be considered to be in violation of Rule 302, Contingent Fees [ET section 302.01]?
.048AnswerYes. However, the fee would not be contingent upon portfolio performance and, therefore, would not be in violation of rule 302 if all of the following conditions are met:
- The fee is determined as a specified percentage of the client's investment portfolio.
- The dollar amount of the portfolio on which the fee is based is determined at the beginning of each quarterly period (or longer period of time as may be agreed upon) and is adjusted only for additions or withdrawals made by the client during the period.
- The fee arrangement is not renewed with the client more frequently than on a quarterly basis.
When performing such services, the member should also consider Rule 101, Independence [ET section 101.01], especially interpretation 101-3 [ET section 101.05].
25.Commission and Contingent Fee Arrangements With Nonattest Client
.049QuestionA member or member's firm (member) provides for a contingent fee investment advisory services, or refers for a commission products or services of a nonclient or a nonattest client, to the owners, officers, or employees of an attest client or to a nonattest client employee benefit plan sponsored by an attest client. Would the member be considered to be in violation of either rule 302 [ET section 302.01] or rule 503 [ET section 503.01]?
.050AnswerNo. The member would not be in violation of either rule 302 [ET section 302.01] or rule 503 [ET section 503.01] provided that, with respect to rule 503 [ET section 503.01], the member discloses the commission to the owners, officers, or employees or to the employee benefit plan. The member should also consider the applicability of interpretation 102-2, Conflicts of Interest [ET section 102.03], and his or her professional responsibility to clients under Rule 301, Confidential Client Information [ET section 301.01].