Author's Guide for Art Preparation

Introduction

This guide is designed to help you create an effective illustration program that will significantly enhance the presentation of your published work. It outlines preparation guidelines that will help ensure the quality and accuracy of each piece and explains the process artwork goes through at John Wiley and Sons to reach its final destination in your text. Sample line drawings are given which clearly illustrate the points in the guide, and a Checklist for Computer-Prepared Art is provided for your use. Some of the instructions given here are highly detailed and require knowledge of computer illustration programs such as Adobe Illustrator. If you have trouble understanding them, call upon your Subject Editor for assistance or advice.

The Artwork Process

It is essential that your artwork be submitted simultaneously with your text and that it be complete. Like the text, artwork goes through several production stages before it is placed onto a page, and it travels separately from the text from the very beginning of the production process. Artwork goes to our Illustration Department where it is logged in and analyzed by an Illustration Supervisor. It is then sent to a studio for rendering, correcting, and sizing, as needed. Photocopies for editing purposes are created and sent to the copyeditor along with the text. You have an opportunity to review the artwork when you review the copyedited manuscript. When all corrections are made and sizes have been established, the artwork then travels to the typesetter, where it is combined with the text and appears in proofs for you to review for proper placement. In order for this process to be successful and for material to travel concurrently, all artwork in final form must be on hand when the manuscript is accepted into production. Missing figures that are submitted late can delay the entire production process and jeopardize the publication date.

Captions and Tables

Figure captions (legends) and tables should not be submitted as artwork or appear on the artwork itself. Figure captions and tables are part of your text manuscript and should appear separately at the back of each chapter. Captions should be grouped together in a list. Both captions and tables will be typeset with your text and will travel with the text to the typesetter, not with the artwork. If there is artwork within a table or a caption, provide the artwork separated from the text so that it can travel with the rest of the art manuscript.

Defining Artwork

Illustrations are either line art or halftones (photographs). These can be submitted as camera-ready art, conventionally drawn art, tearsheet art, and computer-drawn art. A brief definition of each category follows. Detailed instructions regarding submission requirements for each are presented later.

Line Art

Line art consists entirely of lines that are 100% black on a white background. Bar and line graphs, pie charts, and schematics are typically line art. Screens, which are dot patterns, can also appear in line art. Screens can appear at densities of from 10 to 40% of 100% black, but need to be used discretely and appropriately (see screens for more details).

Halftones (Photographs)

A halftone is the reproduction of a continuous-tone piece of art, such as a photograph, slide, or painting, through a screening process which converts an image into small dots of various sizes, with equal spacing between their centers. The resulting gray tones distinguish halftones from line art.

Camera-Ready Art

Camera-ready art is ready to be reproduced in your book as you have submitted it. It will not go to a studio for any additional work other than size reduction, if needed, or cropping, if a halftone. Camera-ready art can consist of such items as charts, graphs, printed forms, photographs, and computer printouts. Two broad categories of camera-ready art are given below. For your art to be truly camera ready, you need to follow the stipulations in this guide carefully.

Conventionally Drawn Art

This category of camera-ready art refers to artwork that is not prepared on the computer but is drawn with pen and ink by hand. Conditions for its submission are given later.

Tearsheet Art

Tearsheet art consists of pages taken directly from a previously published work such as a book or journal. Apart from the obvious need to have permission for its use, such art cannot be a halftone and needs to be very clear in its printing so that it can be printed again. Tearsheet art should be submitted only if no other form of artwork is available for a graphic you feel is essential.

Computer-Drawn Art

This grouping consists primarily of line art that is prepared on the computer using drawing software such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. The requirements for its creation are given in detail below and need to be scrupulously followed.

General Requirements for All Submissions

  • Always send representative sample figures to your subject editor for evaluation before you prepare your art program. You may save yourself a great deal of work by doing so. Our Illustration Department will provide helpful feedback that most likely will enhance your presentations considerably.

  • Be consistent in the use of line and type. All figures should be of proportionate size with one another which will give your work a professional high-quality appearance.

  • Know what final trim size (full page dimensions), type area (area where print will appear), and number of text columns your book will have before you begin creating artwork. Your subject editor will be able to provide you with this information. You will then be able to create properly sized art that will fit proportionately onto your final book page. The following dimensions are typical:

Trim Size(inches) Corresponding type page(note: 6 picas=1 inch)
6 x 9 27 x 44 picas (4-1/2 x 7-1/4 inches)
6-1/8 x 9-1/4 28 x 47 picas (4-5/8 x 7-3/4 inches)
7 x 10 (one column) 30 x 50 picas (5 x 8-1/4 inches)
7 x 10 (two column) 32-1/2 x 50 picas (5-3/8 x 8-1/4 inches); each column is 15-1/2 picas (2-5/8 inches)
8-1/2 x 11 (two column) 42 x 56 picas (7 x 9-1/2 inches); each column is 20 picas (3-1/4 inches)
8 x 10 38 x 49 picas
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 35 x 45 picas

  • For conventional or camera-ready art submissions, keep in mind the "final size" that the illustration will be when published. Wherever possible, figures and type should be more or less uniform in size. If figures must be reduced, remember that the type will also be reduced and should be created proportionately so that it is clearly readable at the smaller size. The ideal final type size is 8 to 9 points.

  • For graphs and charts, use tick marks along axes rather than overall gridlines. Tick marks are far less confusing and have a cleaner look.

  • Do not place boxes or borders around illustrations if they are not part of the illustration. These give your page a boxed in look and take up too much space.

  • Be certain that you have cited in text every figure you have submitted and that you have given an approximate location in the text where you want the figure to appear. This is usually at the first mention of the figure.

  • Submit original artwork separated out from the text. As stated earlier, artwork will travel on its own path through production and needs to be submitted apart from the text. You may include duplicates of the art in the text if you wish.

  • Be sure to proofread your artwork carefully before submitting it. As with your text, your care in submitting artwork will help ensure an accurate and timely publication.

  • Double check to be certain that each piece of art is clearly identified. Indicate your name, and then chapter and figure number beneath the image area or on a gummed label attached to the back of the figure, if necessary. Do NOT write on the back of the figure. Writing on the back of an illustration or photograph can make an impression that is visible on the front and that will affect the final appearance.

General Requirements for Computer-Drawn Art

  • For computer-drawn art, use object-oriented graphics and drawing applications. These applications allow you to construct illustrations based on mathematically defined lines and curves. Save them in the native application file format, .TIF, .PCX, and as Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) (but with a TIFF preview whenever available). Encapsulated PostScript files can easily be imported into page layouts with no damage or loss to the originally submitted files.

  • The graphics software Wiley prefers is Adobe Illustrator in its latest version, but the following applications are also acceptable: Aldus Freehand, Corel Draw, Claris Draw, and Canvas. We discourage the use of bitmapped art packages (such as MacDraw) and presentation software (such as PowerPoint, Persuasion, and Harvard Graphics), as these are not book-software friendly tools. In most cases, illustrations created in these programs must be redrawn.

  • If submitting computer art files, always include a high-quality hard copy of each figure (minimum 300 dots per inch) along with the disks or cartridges.

  • When submitting computer art files, be sure to identify both the software used, including the version (e.g., Adobe Illustrator 7.0) and the operating system (Macintosh, DOS, Windows, etc.).

  • Provide a thorough printed directory listing the contents of each disk or cartridge.

  • Save each piece at final size. The term "final size" refers to the actual size that the illustration will be when published. Larger pieces of art will be reduced to fit within the page width or height. Keep this in mind when lettering such large pieces, as the lettering will be reduced as well.

  • Wiley can accept art on any of the following media: 3.5" disks, 44, 88, or 200 megabyte SyQuest cartridges, Zip cartridges, or magneto-optical cartridges of 128 megabytes, 650 megabytes, or 1.2 gigabytes.

  • Do not gang multiple illustrations into a single file. Save each figure individually.

  • See the discussion on graphics and file-naming conventions in the Wiley Author Guide, Preparing Your Manuscript, pages 8 - 10. Identify each illustration in its separate file by indicating chapter and figure number beneath the image area, e.g., 01.01, 01.02, 01.03. If you are having your art prepared by an outside source, be certain that a consistent style is being followed for labeling. For example:

    Smith / Spectroscopy (author name and short title of book) Fig. 01-01 (chapter number and figure number)

    Double check to see that no identification, tag lines, or figure captions (legends) are attached to or are part of the artwork. We would not want an art studio to have to go through the costly and time-consuming procedure of opening each art file in order to reposition such labels or delete figure captions (see captions for more details).

  • Retain an electronic (disk) copy of all computer art submitted. Disks and cartridges can easily be damaged or erased in transit. Under such circumstances, your backup files are critical.

Detailed Requirements for Computer-Drawn Art

Type

Use only those fonts that are choices in your drawing application's font menu. Do not artificially apply a style attribute to your type. These attributes will NOT be able to be reproduced. Only those typefaces that are within your drawing application's font menu can be used. Include a listing of all fonts used in any EPS or TIFF files you create. By following these instructions, you will ensure that your text in the figures will flow and appear as you have submitted it. Note the important points that follow:

  • Use Adobe Type 1 type fonts: True Type fonts are not acceptable because they are not compatible with output devices that printers support. Adobe Type 1 fonts are compatible with printing devices and, if used, should cause no difficulties in the printing phase.

  • Labels: Use clean, simple typefaces for your art labels such as Trade Gothic, Helvetica, and Times Roman. Final type size should be 8 to 9 points in height.

  • Superscripts and subscripts: Make these two points smaller than the type they're associated with.

  • Greek letters: Capital letters should be roman; lowercase letters should be italic.

  • Multiple-part figure labels (e.g., a, b, and c): Use lowercase italic letters within Roman parentheses: (a), (b), (c), etc.

  • Bullets and brackets: Use standard bullets and 0.25 point weight for brackets and braces.

Line Weights

Use 0.5 point as a basic line weight for drawing, with heavier or lighter line weights for emphasis and clarity according to the following scheme (do not use "hairline" rules, as they do not reproduce well):

A 0.35 Graph axes; also used for boxes in flow diagrams and to show flow or direction lines

B 0.5 Graph border; also used for outlines of machinery

C 1.2 Curves

G 0.2 Tick marks (6 points and 4 points in length); leaders for callouts

W 1.0 Wires on schematics and flowlines on flow charts

V 1.7 Vectors

A, B, and G lines use a small arrowhead (0.29); W and C lines use a large arrowhead

(0.31). Be sure to use arrowhead styles consistently throughout the art program.

Screens

Use screens as appropriate but with discretion. Texture or diagonal line patterns are also options to screen use. If screens are used, keep these points in mind:

  • Black elements that touch any shaded elements must be designated in your file to overprint.

  • To ensure the clearest reproduction, screen densities should be within the 10 - 40% range. Any screen lighter than 10% will not be effective; a screen darker than 40% will appear too black.

Mitering, Arrows, Axes

A miter refers to a corner's degree of angularity. The miter limit specifies when a line switches from a mitered (pointed) join to a beveled (squared off) join. To comply with Wiley specifications, use a miter angle of 4. In the Paint Style screen in Adobe Illustrator, the display provides information about a selected object and lets you modify its current attributes and apply line weights. This is where you would apply the proper line weights and set the miter limit at 4.

Arrows
Flow (bold)
Axis
Pointer

Arrows This image is 15KB

Specialty (filled with 20% black)
Axis
Dimension

For all of the above, it is important to be consistent with chosen styles.

Saving, Compressing, Scanning

  • Please label each disk carefully with the author's name, book title, and software used (including version number). Art files should be on separate disks from text files. Note which disks contain art and what number the disk is in the sequence of disks with art.

    Example: Art Disk 3 of 7

  • All art files created electronically on Adobe Illustrator should be saved as EPS files and should preview as 1-bit IBM PC.

  • All art files created electronically on either the DOS or MAC platform should be saved in one of the following file formats: EPS, TIFF, PICT, and PCX. We prefer EPS files.

  • If you decide to compress your data in order to fit more files onto your media or to send your files via the Internet, you may want to use one of the file compression utilities listed below.

    Macintosh Dos UNIX

    DiskDoubler PKZIP UNIX compress

    Stuffit gzip

  • Compressed files cannot be imported into page layout systems. They are useful only for storage or archiving purposes and must be decompressed to gain access to file content.

  • Scans should be in LZW compressed TIFF format for IBM PC or Macintosh. Use 600 dots per inch (dpi) resolution for line artwork and 300 dpi if halftones are scanned. All scans should be at 100%, or same size.

Sample Line Drawings

The following three samples illustrate all the points discussed in this Guide for line art submissions. They present the preferred type and type sizes to be used in creating art, the correct line weights for curves, axes, and tick marks, the proper use of screens, and the preferred convention for labeling each piece.

Sample Figure 1 The image is 22KB

Sample Figure 2 The image is 32KB

Sample Figure 3 The image is 46KB

Screen Captures

Screen captures (also called screen shots or screen dumps) can be an important instructional aid in computer books. A screen capture is literally a picture taken of the image that appears on a computer screen. It is often used for illustrating such devices as dialogue boxes or warnings. If you are submitting screen captures on disk, include the name and version of the screen capture program you used, as well as the type of hardware.

Please submit a sample art disk to your editor as early as possible, including on it two or three screen shots, each saved in a few different file formats. The screens that you select should be typical of your screen captures and should differ substantially from one another. Do not crop figures if you do not want the entire screen capture. Instead, circle what you want on a hard copy printout, and we will crop it for you.

We will test your files for compatibility with our typesetter's equipment and select the file format that produces the clearest image. Additional passes of the test disks may be needed in order to best match your art with our quality and equipment needs.

The following programs are suggested for your use: Collage for Windows (version 3.0 and higher); Decipher (Arts & Letters); HotShot; DoDot for Windows; Hijaak (versions 2.0 and higher); Clip 'n Save; or Image Prep (versions 3.0 and higher). A .PCX or .TIFF file format using the highest possible resolution is preferred. For Windows screen captures, make sure you save the image in a 256 gray scale (true gray) format rather than in a color format, as the color format will not reproduce well in black and white. If the capture program you are using saves the screens in a different format, make sure the program provides a utility that lets you convert your screens to a .TIFF file format. Very large screen capture files can be compressed with a utility like PKZIP.

Submitting Halftones

  • To ensure sufficient contrast upon reproduction, photographs should be clear, sharp, and preferably glossy black and white. White areas should be clean and the overall image should be neither weak and overexposed nor dark and muddy.

  • Use original art. Photographs cut from newspapers, journals, or books (tearsheets) are unacceptable since they have already been screened once and will therefore reproduce poorly if they are screened again. Photocopied halftones are also unacceptable.

  • Try to submit photographs that are 8 x 10 inches or smaller in size. Larger photographs are cumbersome and more prone to damage. Note, however, that very small photographs may be difficult to see and will appear grainy and blurry if they require substantial enlargement. The ideal size for photos submitted would be near to or slightly larger than the size they will appear on the printed page.

  • Submit photographs without attaching them to a backing material (i.e., unmounted). We will do the necessary mounting and cropping (framing the areas of the image that will appear). If you want a photograph cropped to isolate portions of the image, lightly mark the area to be cropped in the white border of the photograph with small tick marks at top and bottom and left and right borders. If specific cropping is desired but the photograph has no border, include a photocopy of the photograph with the intended crop marks indicated for reference.

  • Unless your photograph is to appear in color, per your agreement with your subject editor at Wiley, avoid submitting color prints, transparencies, or slides. Such color prints will have to undergo conversion to black and white, which is costly and can result in loss of details in the image.

  • When identifying photographs, never write on the image area of the art. Type or clearly write identification numbers on gummed labels and attach to the back of each figure with tape. Do not write directly on the back of the photograph. Writing on the back can make an impression that is visible on the front and that will affect the final appearance.

  • Avoid using rub-on type on halftones as it tends to break up and rub off in handling.

  • If labels are to be added to a photograph, write the labels on a photocopy of the figure and include the photocopy with the original.

  • Never bend a photograph, attach paper clips to it, or write on its reverse. The slightest crease or indentation will appear in the final reproduction. Do not place tape of any kind in the image area. It will destroy the surface of the photograph if removed, and will alter the image if allowed to remain.

  • Mail photographs flat. Protect them with oversized cardboard backing to prevent bending or crumpling. Carefully protect the corners. If you are mailing photos, mark the package "Photos - Do Not Bend."

Preparing Conventional Art and Tearsheets

  • When preparing conventional art (artwork drawn by hand), do not use rub-on type as it tends to flake off.

  • Use technical quality pens with permanent black ink.

  • If art is mounted, it should be on paper no thicker than 1/32 inch.

  • Always provide original art for best results, not tearsheets.

  • Do not draw borders or boxes around art if they are not integral to the figure.

  • If original art submitted is larger than it will appear at final size, be sure that any type it may contain is proportionately large enough to be reduced to the ideal final point size of 8 to 9-points.

  • If you must submit tearsheet art (for line art only), please note, you must obtain permission for use of tearsheet art. See the guide Copyrights and Permissions for usage of previously published material. Tape each tearsheet on its own standard 8-1/2 x 11 inch piece of typing paper, making certain that the tape is away from the image area. Clearly identify the art, giving the author and book title from which it is taken, and the chapter and figure number it now represents in your book. If the tearsheet is taken from a previous edition of your book, clearly indicate the page number and figure number from the previous edition so that the image can be retrieved from the printer, if still available. Cross out any area of the page that is not relevant. If both sides of the tearsheet page contain wanted images, you will have to supply two copies of the same page or, if not available, a clear, clean photocopy may be provided for the second copy.
Author's Guide to Art Preparation Author's Guide to Copyrights and Permissions Author's Guide to Preparing Camera-Ready Copy Author's Guide to Index Preparation Author's Guide to Checking Copyediting and Proof Author's Guide to Preparing Your Manuscript