Checking Copyediting and Proofreading

Disk Submissions, Copyediting, and Proofreading

If you have used a computer to write your manuscript, we urge you to submit the disk when you send in the hard copy version. (See the guide Preparing Your Manuscript, Section I, for disk submission requirements.) Your disk will be evaluated by the typesetter for use of the keystrokes. Factors determining its use are the amount of attention needed to bring the disk into final form (e.g, heavy input of copyediting changes), your consistency in formatting the disk, and the content of your book (e.g., tabular, math, or chemistry may not be usable). Even if your disk is used, the copyeditor most likely will NOT be editing on screen and will be working with the hard copy printout. Therefore, you will need to follow the instructions given in this guide when checking the copyedited manuscript. In addition, you still need to proofread in the galley or page proof stage. In using the disk, material can be dropped and errors introduced in the course of transferring your keystrokes to the compositor's typesetting system. Therefore, you will need to read the proof and check for continuity, completeness, correct formatting, and so on, as specified in this guide.

Copyediting

Click here for example of copyeditor's marks.

The Copyeditor

Copyediting and your check of the copyeditor's work are two important steps in transforming a manuscript into a published book. If these steps are accomplished well, a good foundation will have been established for the rest of the production process.

The copyeditor's responsibilities are numerous and varied. One responsibility is to ensure the mechanical accuracy of spelling, punctuation, and grammar, as well as the stylistic consistency of the writing. Our copyeditors are selected based on the subject areas being edited; however, they do not possess the level of knowledge you do and may inadvertently alter your meaning. It is essential, therefore, that you check the copyediting carefully. In addition, by providing us with your editorial style sheet (see Preparing Your Manuscript), the copyeditor can be aware of your preferences and of nomenclature particular to your discipline. The copyeditor will also query you when your meaning seems unclear, when information is missing, and when there are discrepancies between text citations and the reference list. He or she will check the illustrations against the legends and text discussion for consistency. The copyeditor will NOT normally question the factual accuracy of the content, however, unless the error is obvious. You have sole responsibility for the accuracy of the content.

The copyeditor also checks that all required credit lines have been inserted into the correct locations of the text, as required by the copyright holder in their permission release letter. However, this task can be performed only if all permission letters are on hand at the time of copyediting. The copyeditor may query whether you have obtained permission for material that has been taken from another source and for which no permission is on hand. You will need to resolve such queries quickly at the time you check the edited manuscript.

The copyeditor marks the manuscript for the typesetter by adding typesetting codes at the occurrence of individual text elements such as headings, quotations, and displayed equations. He or she will also call out figures, tables, and footnotes in the margin of the manuscript to indicate their approximate location on the printed page.

Reviewing the Copyedited Manuscript and Illustrations

When copyediting is complete, your Associate Managing Editor (AME) who has been assigned your title will send you the edited manuscript along with the illustrations and legends for your review. You will need to check all aspects of the manuscript at this time. A style sheet listing the copyeditor's decisions regarding spelling, word usage, capitalization, and so on, will also be included for your reference.

Answer all of the copyeditor's queries and make any corrections or additions required. Changes made at this time have no effect on costs. Later on in the production process, however, alterations become very expensive and can also cause serious delays.

When you return the edited manuscript and its illustrations, they are considered to be in their final form and accepted by you for typesetting. Any changes in content that are made on the typeset proofs will be considered to be author's alterations, even if you are restoring your original wording. Therefore you need to be methodical and thorough in reviewing the manuscript and illustrations. (See "Author's Alterations," for further discussion.) Please follow the guidelines below.

Guidelines for Reviewing Copyediting

  • Become familiar with the copyeditor's markings (see copyeditor's marks) so that you can understand what has been indicated in the manuscript before you comment on it.
  • Be certain that all corrections, changes, or additions are exactly as you want them to appear in the text.

  • Respond to all the copyeditor's queries. Print NEATLY (do NOT use block capital letters) in the manuscript. Use the margins or add a new sheet if additions do not fit (see below). What you are writing will be used to set the text. USE PENCIL, NOT INK, of a different color from that already used on the manuscript so that your additions are distinguishable from those of the copyeditor.

  • If updates or additions are extensive, insert a new manuscript page and number the new page as an addendum to the page being revised (e.g., p. 24a). Note clearly on the original page where the added copy is to be inserted.

  • To delete a word or phrase clearly cross out the material with a single line.

  • To change or add a word or phrase neatly print in upper and lowercase letters the new material above the crossed out text.

  • If the copyeditor has made a change and you wish to restore the original version, underscore the original with dots and write "stet" in the margin. Stet means "let it stand."

  • Do NOT write vertically on the manuscript.

  • Do NOT write on the other side of the manuscript page.

  • Check all illustration and table callouts. Be sure illustrations and tables are positioned where you want them to appear and that they are in the proper sequence.

  • Check all labeling on and the correctness of the illustrations. Be certain that the text discussion agrees with the illustration and that all parts of the illustration have been provided. Submit any revisions or new artwork at this time.

  • Your AME will give you a time frame to check and return the manuscript. Please adhere to this schedule as any delays will affect the entire production schedule and the publication date.

Permissions

All permissions should be on hand when you return your final, reviewed manuscript to your AME. Obtaining permissions to use copyrighted material is your sole responsibility (see the guide Copyrights and Permissions ). Please be certain to include all outstanding permissions, related correspondence, and the completed permissions summary form with your reviewed manuscript if you haven't already done so.

It is your responsibility to insert all required credit lines in the correct locations in your manuscript before you return the reviewed text to your AME. Although the copyeditor is checking these credit lines against permission releases, he or she is not inserting them into the text. Also, if credit lines need to be inserted into typeset material later on, such additions will be considered author's alterations and will be charged against your contractual allowance.

Proofreading

Click here for example of proofreader's marks.

Accurate proofreading and clear marking of corrections are indispensable requisites to the production of a quality book. Proofreading is solely your responsibility in the proof stage. No one else will proofread the typeset text. Please read this section carefully.

Galleys or Pages?

Your book can either be set directly into pages or first into galleys and then into pages. Galleys are the typeset text showing continuous word flow uninterrupted by illustrations, tables, footnotes, or figure captions. Tables, footnotes, and captions are set together in their own sections at the end of the text galleys. Page numbers do not yet exist at the galley stage. Page proofs, however, contain all figures and their captions, tables, footnotes, and other text elements as they will appear in final page form. Running heads (brief headings at the top of each page) and page numbers also appear.

The decision to set a book into galleys first rather than pages is based on an assessment of the complexity of the content, the likelihood of extensive alterations during the first proof stage, as well as the demands of the schedule. The majority of titles are set directly into pages, omitting the galley stage. Below are instructions for checking each stage as well as general guidelines that pertain to both.

General Guidelines for Proofreading

  • Proofread slowly and with great care. Do not read at your normal reading speed as you will easily overlook errors that way.

  • Make all necessary corrections using the proofreader's marks.

  • ALWAYS make a backup copy of the proofs after you have finished correcting them. Not only will the copy serve as a reference should questions arise later, but it will preserve your work should the proofs you send to Wiley be accidentally misplaced or lost in the mail.

  • Do NOT enter corrections between lines of type. Such markings can easily be overlooked or misread. Place corrections neatly in the margins.

  • Do NOT use block capital letters when writing corrections. The typesetter cannot interpret which letters are meant to be capitals and which lowercased.

  • Do NOT write on the proofs so that the page must be turned to be read. If an addition will not fit, type it on a separate sheet and indicate clearly where it is to be inserted in the text.

  • If an error was made by the typesetter, write and circle the letters "PE" (printer's error) in the margin (see portion of a corrected galley. This will prevent PEs from being charged against your contractual allowance for author's alterations, since these types of errors are corrected free of charge. If a correction appears without the notation "PE", it is assumed to be an author's alteration and the typesetter will charge for making it.

  • Be brief and exact in writing your corrections. Do not give explanations for your alterations. Unnecessary written comments only clutter up the proof page and confuse the typesetter about what change is actually wanted.

  • Draw a vertical line through an incorrect character or a horizontal line through an incorrect word or passage in the text. Write the new text or the instructions to the typesetter in the margin adjacent to the text being corrected.

  • To show that new material is to be added, place a caret (^) at the point in the text line where material is to be added. Then write the new material in the adjacent margin.

  • If there are two or more corrections in a line, the corrections should appear in the margin in their proper order, separated by a slash (see portion of a corrected galley).

  • To show that material crossed out in the text is to be removed, write a deletion sign in the adjacent margin (see portion of a corrected galley). Do NOT rewrite the material that is to be deleted next to the deletion sign in the margin. Do NOT use the deletion sign if new material is to be substituted for the crossed out material.

  • To insert a space, write a caret (^) in the text where the space is wanted, then write the space mark (#) in the adjacent margin.

  • To remove a space, use the closeup sign in both the text and the margin.

  • If you mark type to be deleted and subsequently decide to restore it, write the term "stet" in the margin and then underscore the material to be kept with dots.

Checking Galleys

You will receive the copyedited manuscript to proofread against the typeset galleys. Make all your corrections on the galleys, NOT in the copyedited manuscript.

  • You will also receive sized copies of all the illustrations. These are only photocopies and do not represent the finished quality of the art. Check that each is complete, is right side up, is properly identified, that the caption matches each figure, and that the text discussion matches the number of each figure. You may indicate corrections to the figures directly on the photocopies. NOTE: Only typos or numbering errors should be marked at this stage. Any other corrections are considered author's alterations and will be charged against your contractual allowance for such changes.

  • Make certain that the typesetter has indicated the approximate location of every figure, table, footnote, chemical structure, or other display text element by calling them out in proper sequence in the margin. Be sure that their appearance makes sense at that location.

  • Check the order of headings, equations, chemical schemes, or any other sequentially numbered elements to be sure they are correct and that nothing has been inadvertently dropped.

  • Answer all queries called out in the galleys except, of course, those pertaining to page cross references, which must be answered in the page proof stage. Technical queries related to typesize, spacing, and so on, are directed to your AME and should not concern you.

Click here to view portion of a corrected galley.

Returning Galleys to Wiley

When you have completed checking the galleys and illustrations and have made a copy of your corrected material, return the corrected set, the illustration proof, and the copyedited manuscript to your AME. Use a reliable and traceable express mail service. If you are unsure how to mail your material back, consult your AME.

Lateness

If you cannot meet the schedule set up by your AME, please let her or him know as early as possible so that the typesetter and all concerned at Wiley can plan to handle the material effectively when you eventually send it in. Your publication date may also be affected, which will impact on marketing data, cover design schedules, as well as the printer's schedule. If you inform your AME early, she or he may be able to make arrangements for you to batch material to Wiley, which may help to offset further delays later on in the overall schedule.

Checking Pages

  • If you saw galleys, you will receive the galleys you previously checked and the page proofs, which will reflect the corrections you indicated and will show final placement of all display elements within the numbered pages.

  • If you saw galleys, check that all alterations indicated on the galleys have been carried out in the pages and that no new errors have been introduced. You do not need to reread all typeset material. However, an alteration may have caused several lines above and below the correction to be reset, so be sure to read a few lines above and below the corrected line to be certain no material has been altered or left out.

  • If your book was set directly into pages, you will be seeing this set of proofs only. Therefore, you must check once again the General Guidelines for proofreading and follow these and the instructions below carefully. In addition to the pages, you will receive the copyedited manuscript from which the pages were set. You will need to proofread all typeset material against the manuscript. Please indicate corrections to the pages ON THE PAGE PROOFS and NOT IN THE MANUSCRIPT.

  • Check the sequence of page numbers to be sure they are in order.

  • Proofread the running heads. Running heads are short referent phrases that appear at the top of each page and are usually associated with the page numbers. Often the left-hand page running head is a short form of the chapter title and the right-hand page running head is a short form of the last major text heading. The typesetter may ask you to provide a shortened version of the chapter title or text heading for this purpose.

  • Check the positioning of all artwork, tables, footnotes, and other display elements. Ideally, an illustration should appear within one page after its mention. It should not appear before its text mention.

  • Check the order of headings, equations, chemical schemes, or any other sequentially numbered elements to be sure they are correct and that nothing has been inadvertently dropped.

  • Check that each figure has been correctly associated with its legend.

  • Answer all queries called out in the pages. Enter any needed cross-reference page numbers. Technical queries related to typesize, spacing, and so on, are directed to your AME and should not concern you.

  • If you have received the Contents for the book or your chapter contains a contents, enter all page numbers and cross check the headings in the text against those listed in the contents to be certain they are consistent.
Returning Pages to Wiley

When you have completed checking the pages and have made a copy of your corrected material, return the corrected set and the copyedited manuscript to your AME. Use a reliable and traceable express mail service. If you are unsure how to mail your material back, consult your AME.

Lateness

If you cannot meet the schedule set up by your AME, please let her or him know as early as possible so that the typesetter and all concerned at Wiley can plan to handle the material effectively when you eventually send it in. Your publication date may also be affected, which will impact on marketing data, cover design schedules, as well as the printer's schedule. If you inform your AME early, she or he may be able to make arrangements for you to batch material to Wiley, which may help to offset further delays later on in the overall schedule.

Author's Alterations

Your contract with Wiley stipulates what budgetary amount you are allowed for altering your material once it has been set into type. This amount is usually related to a percentage of the overall cost of composition. If you exceed this amount, the overage is generally charged against your royalties.

The reason for concern is that revisions to typeset material are far more costly than the initial typesetting, since even the smallest change to a galley or page requires time and expense to make. The error will require replacement of at least one line of type, and possibly many more, creation of a new proof, proofreading, and, if another error is introduced, a repetition of this process. Extensive alterations in page proofs can affect the paging of the entire book and delay creation of the index as well as the finalizing of the Contents. These changes, of course, take time and can easily jeopardize the publication date by adding unanticipated tasks to the proof stages. Late publication may also mean that sales may be hurt, particularly if your title is scheduled to appear at a conference or meeting where many potentially interested participants will attend.

Your AME will advise you if you are exceeding your contracted allowance for alterations. She or he also can assist you in helping to identify the causes of the alterations and suggest ways to minimize them.

How to Avoid Excessive Author's Alterations

The easiest way to avoid excessive alterations is to prepare your manuscript carefully and to finalize its content during your check of copyediting. If you follow the guidelines given in this pamphlet and adhere to the steps below, the number of corrections that must be made in the proof stage will be kept to a minimum:

  • Carefully proofread your manuscript before you submit it and tie up all loose ends. Don't plan on resolving minor problems during the production process. Once this process begins, there is little room for delay or for added expense.

  • Update your material as close as possible to the date you initially submit your manuscript to Wiley. Don't plan on updating the material during the production process. If you must update again, do it during the check of edit stage when your book is still in manuscript form.

  • Check the copyeditor's work carefully and follow the guidelines given in this pamphlet. Resolve any problems with style or other editing points at this time.

  • Typeset proofs should never be considered "drafts." Checking math, deciding what notation to use, "polishing" your language, adding the latest findings, and so on, should all have been done before Wiley received your manuscript, or, at the very latest, when you checked the copyedited manuscript.

  • If alterations must be made in proofs, try to maintain the number of lines on the page. If you must add two lines of text, try to compensate for this by deleting two lines elsewhere on the page, if possible, or within a page or two of the additions.

  • Confine your alterations only to errors of fact. Do not alter style or word choices.
Author's Guide to Art Preparation Author's Guide to Copyrights and Permissions Author's Guide to Preparing Camera-Ready Copy Author's Guide to Index Preparation Author's Guide to Checking Copyediting and Proof Author's Guide to Preparing Your Manuscript