Guidelines for Preparing Camera-Ready Copy

INTRODUCTION

Today, with the aid of a computer and laser printer, you can create text and art on your own suitable for publication. However, this task is no small undertaking. You will need to become versed in the skills of bookmaking and art creation in order to achieve your goal. The guidelines given here have been prepared by Wiley's production staff to help you through the bookmaking process. Of necessity, these are general guidelines and cannot address the very specific questions that sometimes arise in preparing technical copy. The person at Wiley with whom you will be working directly, your Associate Managing Editor (AME), will be available to answer your questions and help you prepare a book of high quality.

Your book will be printed by a photo-offset process directly from the camera-ready copy you supply. It becomes critical, therefore, that you review all the instructions in this guide, that you submit a sample of your work before proceeding, and that you thoroughly proofread your finished work before you submit it. Remember, the way you submit your camera-ready copy to the publisher is the way you will see it in print.

As the sole preparer of your book, you have taken on the role of the typesetter, the pagemaker, the illustrator, the proofreader, and the quality-control expert. Each function is critical to the outcome; none can be skipped. As the typesetter you need first to design your document so that a reader can understand its content. Your design should be kept simple so that the reader can focus on the text, not the design. Please thoroughly review the sections on Page Make-Up and Design Elements for assistance in creating a simple, yet professional-looking design. After the design is completed, you then need to type the content accurately, with a minimum of mistakes and typos.

As the pagemaker, you need to integrate text with art and tables so that the reader can easily reference cited material. You need to add the page numbers (folios) and identifiers (running heads), start chapters on a new page, and align facing pages (spreads). In this way, you give your text the actual appearance of a book.

As the illustrator, you need to create the artwork that helps explain to the reader the concepts in your text. In addition, all type on artwork will need to be proportionate in size, figures will need to be cited consecutively and to appear in the order of their citations, and sizing of figures needs to be consistent.

As the proofreader, you need to check that no material is missing or duplicated, that the technical information is correct, and that the text and the artwork labels are free of typos and errors. You are solely responsible for the accuracy of your text.

As the quality-control expert, you need to look at each laser-printed page to check that the camera-ready copy has printed cleanly, is sharp, and has the proper ink density.

As you read this pamphlet, you should consult the five other Wiley Author Guides available on the Wiley home page under www.wiley.com. Click on "For Authors," "Submission Guidelines," and "Author Guides for STM Books." The guides are Preparing Your Manuscript, Art Preparation, Copyrights and Permissions, Checking Copyediting and Proofs, and Index Preparation. Also worth consulting is the Chicago Manual of Style, latest edition, which will help clarify the terminology given here and provide examples of page layout, front matter sequence, style, organization, and other issues affecting book production.

QUALITY CONTROL: THE BASICS

Paper

Print on only one side of the paper. Use paper made for high-resolution electronic publishing for your final camera-ready copy. The manuscript submitted for copyediting and early drafts of your camera-ready copy may be printed on a lower-grade paper.

Appearance

The final camera-ready copy you submit for publication should be single spaced, with an extra half space above a line containing superscripts and below a line containing subscripts. Remember that a lower case "el" and the number "one" are not the same; nor are the lower case "oh" and the "zero". Use different keystrokes for different characters.

Dimensions

Make sure you know the intended dimensions (trim size) of your book. The trim size is the actual size of your printed book. Most books published by Wiley's Scientific, Technical, and Medical (STM) Division have a trim size of 6-1/8 inches wide and 9-1/4 inches deep. The image area (the area on a page that actually contains type) for a trim size of 6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches is 28 picas wide (approx. 4-5/8 inches) and 47 picas deep (approx. 7-3/4 inches). [NOTE: There are 6 picas per inch.] This area includes the running head and folio at the top of the page but excludes the page numbers at the bottom of chapter-opening pages.

Other standardized trim sizes used by Wiley are 7 x 10 inches and 8-1/2 x 11 inches. Specifications for these trim sizes can be found in the Art Preparation guide on the Wiley home page. If you are not certain of the dimensions of your book, please consult your Subject Editor.

Page Numbering

The text for your final camera-ready copy should be numbered consecutively, including blanks. These pages are to use Arabic numerals. For blanks, it is best to add a page with its actual page number (folio) and indicate that this is a blank page. Right-hand pages are never blank. Do not include the preliminary material (front matter), which appears before your first chapter, in the Arabic number sequence. Front matter is numbered with Roman numerals.

TYPESETTING AND RECOMMENDED SOFTWARE

We recommend that you acquire a page make-up program such as Pagemaker, Ventura, QuarkXPress, or LaTeX, and to become familiar with its features. Using Microsoft Word or Word Perfect to create pages individually is a time-consuming process you will eventually regret. The text itself can be typed with Word or WordPerfect, but should then be imported into a page make-up program. Illustrations are most easily created in CorelDraw or Adobe Illustrator and then imported into a page make-up program as well. For laser output, it is essential that you use at least a 600 dpi (dots per inch) output device. Anything less may result in ragged text type or broken lines in figures.

Mathematics

Your math should look like typeset math. For example, use italics for variables, bold face for vectors, and roman type for trigonometric and mathematical terms. Superscripts and subscripts should be set 2 point sizes smaller than the text. Consult Mathematics Into Type, latest edition, by E. Swanson for guidelines on setting up your equations.

Recommended Software: MathTypeTM by Design Science, Inc. is a mathematical equation editor for Apple Macintosh and IBM PC-compatible computers running Microsoft Windows. It is an application that allows you to build up complex equations using simple point-and-click techniques and then to import them into your document. TeXTM is a mathematical typesetting program developed by Donald E. Knuth; LaTeX is a special version of TeX, developed by Leslie Lamport, designed to simplify the typesetting and page make-up of TeX.

If you are using TeX, use the book document style with as many macros needed to achieve the desired result. For LaTeX, keep the space between your headings and text consistent throughout. Any extra vertical space above such elements as headings, displayed formulas, figures, or tables should be removed. Instructions for where to add space to balance pages are given later in the section on Page Make-Up.

Macros for LaTeX 2.09 and 2.09e are available to authors on Wiley's home page: http://www.wiley.com, under Author Guidelines. These style files and accompanying documentation will help you to prepare your camera-ready copy. If you need help in obtaining these macros, please consult your Subject Editor.

Chemistry

Your chemistry should look like typeset chemistry. Refer to the standards of the American Chemical Society or the IUPAC. Looking at some published books or journal articles may also help you in arranging long or complicated equations, structures, or reaction schemes.

Recommended Software: ChemDrawTM is a graphic software program designed to draw chemical structures of all types, which can then be merged into your text as art if you are using a recommended page make-up program. ChemWindows and IsisDraw can also be used if you cannot acquire ChemDraw, but you need to be certain that they are compatible with your paging program.

SUBMITTING MANUSCRIPT FOR COPYEDITING

When first submitting your manuscript to your Subject Editor, be certain it is double-spaced, with tables, illustrations, and art (including chemical formulas, schemes, computer printouts, and so on) cited and placed in the text. Also include a sample camera-ready chapter created by using the design specifications given here. Choose a chapter containing as many design elements as possible. If the chapter is very long, it may not be necessary to submit the entire chapter. Your Subject Editor will give your manuscript and sample chapter to the production department where your Associate Managing Editor (AME) will coordinate its editing, production, and manufacture Your AME will also monitor its schedule and quality.

Once your manuscript is copyedited it will be returned to you. When you first view the copyedited manuscript you may be overwhelmed by the extent of copyediting in the text. Before you make any revisions electronically to the text file, it is recommended that you first review the entire manuscript to get a better idea of what the copyeditor was trying to accomplish and to see what queries have been asked. The copyeditor's changes and queries should be given careful consideration. When you are ready to begin incorporating the copyediting changes, it is best if you first copy a chapter onto a duplicate file, to be used as a sample, before revising the entire job. You must be consistent in inputting the copyeditor's changes. When you are finished making the final corrections to your sample chapter, send it to your AME.

Your AME will check the sample camera-ready chapter to resolve any possible misunderstandings and make suggestions for improvement, if needed. The review of your sample chapter is an important production step because it is then that errors can be eliminated before they are carried throughout the entire book. Once any possible misunderstandings or errors are resolved, you can begin correcting the entire manuscript.

PAGE MAKE-UP

Part Titles and Chapter-Opening Pages

Part titles always start on a right-hand page. The chapter following a part title begins on the next right-hand page. Chapters may start on left- or right-hand pages. However, many authors prefer to begin all chapters on right-hand pages. Either method is acceptable, but once a system is chosen, it must be used throughout the entire book. It is necessary to stress that all even-numbered pages are left-hand pages (or verso pages) and that all odd-numbered pages are right-hand pages (or recto pages). It is important that you follow this standardized publishing rule.

Chapter-opening pages should have a folio at the bottom of the page (drop folio) and no running head or folio at the top of the page.

Page Alignment

Ideally, facing pages (spreads) should be the same length. In some cases facing pages cannot align; for instance, (1) if one of the pages is the last page of the chapter, (2) if one of the pages contains art or tabular material with no text, or (3) if all efforts made to align spreads fail because of design elements contained on that page (e.g., when a subhead falls near the bottom of the page; when an illustration must be accommodated; or when there is a series of displayed equations, chemical structures, or computer material).

Where page alignment is a problem, space may be added or deleted above and/or below certain elements. This space may be varied in the following order of preference:

  1. Above and/or below art and/or tabular material
  2. Above subheads
  3. Above and/or below text elements, such as lists, extracts, or equations.

Note: Avoid any single area of space within the text proper greater than one inch.

Minimum Text Requirements

At least two lines of text must appear below a heading at the bottom of a page. If a heading falls too close to the bottom of a page to carry two lines of text below it, then the heading should be carried over to the top of the next page, and the page should run short after all efforts to lengthen that page have failed. When a heading falls at the top of a page, omit the space above and align it with the first line of type on its facing page.

A widow (a line of only a few words at the end of a paragraph) should not appear as the top line of a page unless introducing an equation or chemical formula.

There should be a minimum of six lines of text on a page, including the last page in a chapter. A page with a figure, chemical structures, or tabular material should be able to accommodate at least six lines of type. If this is not possible, allow the figure, chemical structures, or table to stand alone on the page. If more than one figure or table is positioned on the page you should be able to fit six lines of text between the two figures; otherwise create a short page.

DESIGN ELEMENTS

The Text

Generally 10/12 point Times Roman is used for running text in professional books for the academic community. Left and right type margins should align or justify with the image area; do not submit camera-ready copy with ragged lines. The first line of text following headings and chapter titles aligns at the left margin with no paragraph indent. Subsequent paragraphs should be indented a consistent space throughout the text. Do not leave space between each paragraph. Italic type can be used for emphasis, for mathematical variables, or when a term is used for the first time. However, it should be used sparingly. Refrain from using bold in text except where customary in mathematics.

Running Heads and Folios

Running heads: A running head is a short phrase or headline repeated at the top of the text page. These help the reader identify where he or she is in your book. The left-hand (even-numbered) running head generally repeats the chapter title; the right-hand (odd-numbered) running head generally repeats the last main heading on that page. If the heading is too long to fit in the allotted running head space, use an abbreviated version of the heading. Set in bold, 9 point type, either all caps or cap/lowercase style.

Folios (page numbers): Set the folios in 9 point bold.

Position: The placement of the running head and the space below to text must be consistent. On left-hand pages the folio should align with the left margin and the running head with the right margin. On right-hand pages the running head should align with the left margin and the folio with the right margin. Allow 1-1/2 lines of space between the running head and the following text, table, illustration, etc. Do not allow additional space if the page begins with a heading, table, illustration, or any element that would normally have additional space above it in running text. Chapter-opening pages, part titles, and front matter opening pages do not have running heads. These pages have drop folios. Position drop folios 1 line below the bottom of the last line of type.

Chapter-Opening Pages

Chapter number: Set in bold, approx. 14 to 18 point type. Position flush left. If you allow space above the chapter number from the top of the page (for visual appearance), you must be consistent throughout the book. Allow 1 line of space below to chapter title. It is not necessary to use the word "chapter" before the number.

Chapter title: Set in bold, 16 to 22 point type. Use all capital letters (caps) or cap/lowercase style consistently throughout. Do not break (hyphenate) words at the ends of lines in chapter titles. Align flush left. Allow 2 lines of space below to chapter author or 6 lines of space below to text if you are the sole author.

Chapter author/ affiliation (for contributed volumes): Set author name in bold, 12 point type, all caps; set affiliation in bold italic, 10 point type, cap/lowercase. Allow 6 lines of space below to text.

Headings

First level heads: Set in bold caps, 10 point type. Allow 2 lines of space above (unless occurring on the first line of text) and 1 line of space below. [Double-digit identifiers for chapter and section (i.e., 1.1) are usual.]

Second level heads: Set in bold cap/lowercase, 10 point type. Allow 2 lines of space above (unless occurring on the first line of text) and 1 line of space below. [Triple-digit identifiers (i.e., 1.1.1) are usual.]

Third level heads: Set in bold italic cap/lowercase, 10 point type. Position flush left with 2 lines of space above (unless occurring on the first line of text). Follow heading with a period, space, then text. Avoid the use of identifiers if possible. Do not use numeric and alphabetic identifiers (i.e., 1.1.1.1 or 1.1.1.A, respectively).

Fourth level head: Set in italic cap/lowercase, 10 point type. Position flush left with 2 lines of space above (unless occurring on the first text line). Follow heading with a period, space, then text.

If your manuscript has more than four levels of headings, additional design specifications can be supplied.

Math Headings

Math level 1 (m1): Used for Theorem, Proposition, Lemma, Corollary, Postulate. Set headings in bold cap/lowercase, 10 point type. Position flush left with a line of space above. Follow heading with a period, space, then text. Frequently text following is set in italic type. Allow 1 line of space below m1 text to text following or space as required above next heading.

Math level 2 (m2): Used for Definition, Example, Axiom. Set heading in bold italic cap/lowercase, 10 point type. Position flush left with 1 line of space above. Follow heading with a period, space, then text in regular type. Allow 1 line of space below m2 text to text following or space as required above next heading.

Math level 3 (m3): Used for Case, Exercise. Set heading in roman caps, 10 point type. Position flush left with 1 line of space above. Follow heading with a period, space, then text in regular type. Allow 1 line of space below m3 text to text following or space as required above next heading.

Math level 4 (m4): Used for Proof. Set heading in italic, 10 point type. Paragraph indent with 1 line of space above. Follow heading with a period, space, then text in regular type. Set a 10 point filled square (or quad) at the end of m4 text with at least 1 em space after text. Allow 1 line of space below m4 text to text following or space as required above next heading.

Lists

Numbered list: Set in text type. Type numbers/letters with a paragraph indent, followed by a period. Allow for double digits, if needed, to align on the periods after the numbers/letters. Follow periods with 1 space, then start text. Identifiers in parentheses align at right. Use open and closed parentheses, not a single closing parentheses. Turnover lines should align under the first word (not the number/letter). Allow 1 line of space above and below the list to text.

Bulleted list: Set in text type. Set bullet on paragraph indent followed by a tab set at 1/2 inch. Turnover lines should align under the first word (not the bullet). Allow 1 line of space above and below the list to text.

Multicolumn lists: Set in text type. Lists with multiple columns should center as a block on the page. Align columns on left edge or on mathematical symbols (equal signs, decimals, etc.). Allow 1 line of space above and below list to text.

References

Set in 9 point type. If references are numbered, type the numbers flush left, followed by a period and a space. Clear for double digits and align the periods after the numbers. Turnover lines should align under the first word (not the reference number). Do not set extra line spaces between numbered entries. If references are not numbered, type the first line of the entry flush left; turnover lines have a paragraph indent.

The "Reference" heading should be set in the style of a first-level heading for end-of-chapter References; use the chapter title style for the word "References" if all references for the entire book occur in their own section after the last text chapter.

Equations

Center on the page and allow 1 line of space above and below to text. Equations should be the same point size as the text. Allow a half line of space between groups of equations. Enclose equation numbers in parentheses and position flush to the right margin. When a display equation runs two or more lines, the equation number appears flush right on the last line of the equation. When a long equation breaks to another line, align the second line of the equation on the operator sign. Equations are generally numbered consecutively in each chapter and are identified by double digits-chapter and equation number.

Chemistry

Center on page and allow 1 line of space above and below to text. Allow a half line of space between groups of structures or schemes. Set structure labels in 9 point type, cap/lowercase, centered below the formula. It is usual for structure numbers to set in bold and compound names to set in lightface. Labels above and below reaction arrows should set in 7 point type.

Figure Captions

Set in 9 point type. Number the figures with Arabic numerals. Illustrations are consecutively numbered in each chapter. Set the word "Figure" and the number in bold, followed by a period and space. The remaining caption should be set in regular type (not bold). Figure captions should be set to the full width of the page and positioned below the art. If the figure caption runs shorter than the full width of the page, center the caption beneath the figure. Allow a half line of space below the illustration to the caption. Figures should be positioned at the top or bottom of the page. Avoid placing figures in the middle of the text.

Footnotes

Footnotes are set in 8 point type and appear at the bottom of the page where they are cited. Place a 1/2 pt rule (1-1/2 inches long) above the footnote. There should be 1/4-inch visual space between the last line of text and the footnote rule and 1/8-inch visual space between the rule and the first line of the footnote.

TABLES

Positioning

Tables should be positioned as close as possible to their first text citations. If the citation is on an even-numbered page, then the table should appear on that page or its facing page. If it is on an odd-numbered page, then the table should appear on that page or its following page. Tables must be positioned in the order cited in text. It is not customary for a table to be positioned before its citation.

Tables are to be positioned at the top or bottom of the page. Do not place tables in the middle of a page. Leave 2 lines of space above or below a table to text. If a minimum of six lines of text will not fit on the page with the table, then allow the page to run short. Do not position tables on the opening page of a chapter. Do not position tables on the last short page of a chapter or within the reference listing.

Breaking

Avoid breaking tables if the table can fit on a single page. However, if a table runs across several pages, repeat the table number, the table title (or use "Continued", set in italic type), and the column heads on each subsequent page on which the table appears.

When tables run more than one page, set a bottom table rule at the end of the complete table only. Do not set a rule at the bottom of each page on which the table appears. Table footnotes are set underneath the bottom table rule. There should be 1/2-line visual space between the bottom table rule and the top of the first table footnote.

Turning

Tables that extend more than 4 picas over the text width should be turned 90 degrees counterclockwise on the page. These are called turned tables. Do not put text on pages containing turned tables. Delete running heads from pages with turned tables; set only a drop folio.

Single page turned tables should center both horizontally and vertically within the image area. Turned tables that set on multiple pages should have repeated table titles and column heads on left-hand pages only. Material should be aligned across facing pages.

Table Typography

Table number / Table title: Set the word "Table" in 9 point Times Roman bold caps. Follow number with period, space, and the table title in bold cap/lowercase. Flush left on table body. Set 1 point rule below by width of table. Allow 6 points of space above and below rules.

Table column head: Set column heads in regular type, cap/lowercase, 9 point type, centered above column below. Set 1 point rule below by width of table. Allow 6 points space above and below rules.

Table body: Set columns in 9 point regular type. Align columns of words at left, columns of numbers align on decimal points, equal signs, etc. Minimum space between columns is approx. 2 picas (24 points); maximum space is approx. 12 picas (144 points). Set 1 point rule below table body to width of the table.

The size of type used in the table body can be altered to accommodate material. Tables may set as small as 7 points if necessary. However, the type size for the table body should not be larger than the type size used for the text.

Table footnotes: Set 8 point type. Position flush left on table body underneath the bottom table rule. Set to table width.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Preparation

Ideally, the illustrations for your book should be prepared electronically and merged with the text portion of the manuscript. (See the Wiley Author Guide Art Preparation for more details, available on the Wiley home page.) The figures should be in their approximate final position and in their intended final size. You should avoid using shading in the figures unless absolutely necessary since shaded areas often reproduce poorly and appear blotchy in the finished product. Be aware that screen captures, photocopies taken from other sources, or computer-generated art with shading also will not reproduce satisfactorily. Original glossy copies of halftones must be supplied.

Sizing

The sizing of the art is based on the lettering size within a given piece of artwork. The average lettering in each piece of artwork should be 9 points, with some variation. Care should be taken to make the lettering consistent from figure to figure.

If you have taken illustrations from other sources or are unable to electronically prepare and merge your art, Wiley's illustration department can process the figures for your book. In order for Wiley to assist you, you will need to provide original art when you submit your manuscript. Please separate the art from the text and identify each illustration by its chapter and figure numbers. (The copyeditor will need a copy to check the illustrations against the captions and text discussion for consistency.) The illustration department can touch-up, size, and provide your AME with reproducible copy to place in your finished product. Your AME will provide you with copies of your artwork that show the final size and rendering when returning the copyedited manuscript to you. These copies are called FPOs (For Position Only) and will help you to allot the proper amount of space for the figures when preparing your camera-ready copy.

Positioning

Figures should be positioned as close as possible to their first text citations. If the citation is on an even-numbered page, then the figure should appear on that page or its facing page. If it is on an odd-numbered page, then the figure should appear on that page or its following page. Figures must be positioned in the order cited in text. It is not customary for a figure to be positioned before its citation. Figures are to be centered by the page width at the top or bottom of the page. Do not place figures in the middle of the page. Leave 2 lines of space above or below a figure. If a minimum of 6 lines of text will not fit on the page with the figure, then allow the page to run short. Do not place figures on the opening page of a chapter, on the last short page of a chapter, or within the reference list.

Figures up to 3 picas (1/2 inch) wider than the type page can be positioned vertically on the page. Figures that extend more than 3 picas over the text width should be turned 90 degrees counterclockwise on the page. The caption copy should also be turned and centered below the figure. Delete running heads from pages with turned figures; set only drop folios. Do not set any text on these pages.

FRONT MATTER

The front matter consists of all the preliminary material that precedes Chapter 1 of your book. This front matter material is paged using Roman numerals.

Front matter pages include:

    Half title page (prepared by Wiley)
    Series page (prepared by Wiley, if applicable)
    Title page (prepared by Wiley)
    Copyright page (prepared by Wiley)
    Contents
    Foreword (optional)
    Series Preface (prepared by Wiley, if applicable)
    Preface
    Acknowledgment (optional)
    Introduction (optional)

Please consult the Wiley Author Guide Preparing Your Manuscript for a description of the different front matter elements.

You should not be overly concerned with the preparation or design of the front matter. Your AME will discuss with you how you should prepare any front matter pages that will not be typeset by Wiley.

INDEX

Please consult the Wiley Author Guide Index Preparation available on the Wiley home page, for help in preparing your index.

The index is usually set in a smaller type size than the text, 8/10 point Times Roman is customary, and arranged in two columns. Match the typeface, size, and sinkage from the top of the page used for the index head to the chapter title. The running heads should match the book in type and size. Align facing columns.

Main entries are capitalized and begin flush left. Indent turnovers 2 em spaces. Subentries begin on new line indented 1 em space from the left margin. If a subject unit should be broken between pages, repeat the main entry and add the word Continued set in italic in parentheses at the top of the left column.


GLOSSARY

Associate Managing Editor (AME):
Wiley production department staff member responsible for seeing your book through the production process-from manuscript to bound book.
camera-ready pages:
copy ready for photography and subsequent printing.
drop folio:
a page number that is placed at the bottom of a book page, 1line below the last line of type.
em space:
the amount of blank space equal to that occupied by the letter "m".
en space:
the amount of blank space equal to that occupied by the letter "n" (slightly less space than an em space).
facing page spreads:
the 2 pages, that when a book is opened, face each other. The left-hand page is the even-numbered page and the right-hand page is the odd-numbered page. For example, pages 2 and 3 in every book are a facing page spread.
folio:
the page number that appears at the top of the page with the running head.
FPO:
For Position Only. A photocopy of a photograph or fine line illustration at its final size placed in text for identification purposes. A final, better quality reproduction of the original will be made and placed by the printer before printing.
front matter:
the first pages of a typeset book that are numbered separately from the text, in Roman numerals. The front matter generally contains a half title page, title page, copyright page, dedication, contents, and preface. See the Chicago Manual of Style, latest edition, for order and discussion of these front matter elements.
margins:
the blank space surrounding the type area.
page make-up:
arrangement of lines of type and illustrations into sections or pages of proper length.
pica:
a unit of measure used in typography. 6 picas equal 1 inch.
points:
a unit of measure used in typography. 72 points equal 1 inch; 12 points equal one pica.
recto pages:
right-hand pages with odd page numbers.
running head:
a short phrase or headline repeated at the top of each page.
trim size:
measured in inches, trim size refers to the whole size of the printed page, from edge to edge.
type area:
sometimes called the text page or type page, it is measured in picas and includes the space from the top of the running head to the bottom of the last line of text or footnote. It does not include the drop folio.
verso pages:
left-hand pages with even page numbers.
widow:
text of a few words in a line by itself, ending a paragraph or starting a page, frowned upon in good typography.
Author's Guide to Art Preparation Author's Guide to Copyrights and Permissions Author's Guide to Preparing Camera-Ready Copy Author's Guide to Index Preparation Author's Guide to Checking Copyediting and Proof Author's Guide to Preparing Your Manuscript