Wiley General
Catalog
WileyVCH
Science Catalog
Wiley InterScience
Online Journals


Alphabetical Listing of Article Titles
Preface
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
AalenJohansen estimator
Aalen's additive regression model
Absolute risk
Accelerated FailureTime Models
Accident proneness
Accuracy
Adaptive and dynamic methods of treatment assignment
Adaptive sampling
Additive hazard models
Additive model
Administrative Databases
Adoption studies
Aging models
Ageperiodcohort analysis
Agreement, measurement of
AIDS and HIV
Akaike's criteria
Algorithm
Allocation in stratified sampling
Allometry
Alphaspending functions
Alternative medicine
Ambulatory care services
American Public Health Association
American Statistical Association
Analysis of covariance
Analysis of variance
Analysis of variance for longitudinal data
Analytic epidemiology
Analytic Hierarchy Process
Ancillary statistics
Antedependence models
Anthropometry
Antithetic variable
ARMA and ARIMA models
Armitage sequential designs
Artificial intelligence
Ascertainment
AspinWelch test
Association
Association, measures of
Assortative mating
Asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE)
Attributable fraction in exposed
Attributable fraction in population
Attributable risk
Autocorrelation function
Average age at death
Axioms of probability
B
Backcalculation
Backward and forward shift operators
Bacterial counts
Bacterial growth, division, and mutation
Balanced incomplete block designs
BAN estimates
Bartlett's test
Baseline adjustment in longitudinal studies
Battery reduction
Bayes' Theorem
Bayes, Thomas
Bayesian decision models in health care
Bayesian methods
Bayesian monitoring of clinical trials
Bayesian probability models for assessing complex health care phenomena
Bayesian survival analysis
Begg and Iglewicz method (of treatment allocation)
BehrensFisher problem
Berkson, J.
Berkson's fallacy
Bernard, C.
Bernoulli family
Bertillon Family
Beta Distribution
Betabinomial distribution
Bias
Bias from diagnostic suspicion in casecontrol studies
Bias from exposure effects on controls
Bias from exposure suspicion in casecontrol studies
Bias from historical controls
Bias from loss to followup
Bias from nonresponse
Bias from stage migration in cancer survival
Bias from survival in prevalent casecontrol studies
Bias in casecontrol studies
Bias in cohort studies
Bias in observational studies
Bias in routine data
Bias toward the null
Bias, nondifferential
Bias, Overview
Biased coin method (of treatment allocation)
Biased sampling of cohorts
Binary data
Binomial Confidence Intervals when no Events are observed
Binomial distribution
Bioassay
Bioavailability and bioequivalence
Bioequivalence
Biological assay, overview
Biological standardization
Biomarkers
Biometrical Journal (J)
Biometrics (J)
Biometrika (J)
Biophysics
Biostatistics, an overview
Biotechnology
Birth and death processes
Birth cohort studies
Birthweight
Biserial correlation
Bivariate distributions
Bivariate normal distribution
Blinding or masking
Bliss, Chester
Block randomization
Blocking
Blood groups
Bonferroni
Bonferroni inequalities and intervals
Bonferroni, C
Bootstrap method
Bootstrapping in survival analysis
Bortkiewicz, Ladislaus, von
BradleyTerry model
Branching processes
BreslowDay test
Bross sequential designs
Brownian Motion and Diffusion Processes
Brownlee, John
BSE and nvCJD
Burden of disease
Byar, D.P.
C
Calibration
Callbacks and mailbacks in sample surveys
Candidate gene
Canner's principle for covariate adjustment
Canonical correlation
Capturerecapture
Carcinogenicity experiments
Cardiology and cardiovascular disease
Case fatality
Case mix
Case mix definition by diagnosis related groups
Case series, case reports
Casecohort study
Casecontrol study
Casecontrol study, hospitalbased
Casecontrol study, nested
Casecontrol study, population based
Casecontrol study, prevalent
Casecontrol study, sequential
Casecontrol study, survivalbased
Casecontrol study, twophase
Catchment area
Categorical agreement, modeling of
Categorical data analysis
Categorizing continuous variables
Cauchy Distribution
Causal direction, determination
Causality, Hill's criteria
Causation
Cause of death, automatic coding
Cause of death, underlying and multiple
Cell counts
Cell Cycle models
Censored data
Censuses
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Central limit theory
Centroid Method
Chain Binomial Model
Chalmers, T.C.
Changepoint problem
Chaos theory
Characteristic function
Chemometrics
Chisquare distribution
Chisquare tests
Chisquare, partition of
Chronic disease models
Chronomedicine
Circadian variation
Circular data models
Classification, overview
Classifications of medical and surgical procedures
Clinical Epidemiology
Clinical equipose
Clinical Signals, Analysis
Clinical significance versus statistical significance
Clinical trials audit and quality control
Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Agents
Clinical trials protocols
Clinical trials, early cancer and heart disease
Clinical trials, overview
Clinimetrics
Cluster Analysis of Subjects, Hierarchical Methods
Cluster Analysis of Subjects, Nonhierarchical Methods
Cluster analysis, variables
Cluster sampling
Cluster Sampling, Optimal Allocation
Cluster score
Clustering
Coarsening at random
Cochran, William Gemmell
Cochrane Collaboration
Cochrane, Archibald (Archie) Leman
Cohabitation
Coherence between time series
Cohort study
Cohort study, historical
Collapsibility
Collinearity
Commingling analysis
Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies (COPSS)
Communality
Communicable diseases
Community intervention trials
Community medicine
Comorbidity
Compartment models
Competing risks
Complete Linkage Clustering
Compliance assessment in clinical trials
Composite estimators
Computer algebra
Computer architecture
Computer languages
Computeraided diagnosis
Computerassisted Interviewing
Computerintensive methods
Computers, overview
Conception
Conception, models for
Conditional probability
Conditionality principle
Confidence Intervals and Sets
Confidentiality
Confidentiality and computers
Confidentiality in epidemiology
Confirmatory factor analysis
Confounder
Confounder summary score
Confounding
Confounding risk ratio
Consistent estimator
Contagious distributions
Contingency table
Contrasts
Controlled Clinical Trials (J)
Controls
Convergence in distribution and in probability
Cooperative cancer trials
Cooperative heart disease trials
Copula
Cornfield, J.
Cornfield's inequality
Correlated binary data
Correlation
Correlational study
Correspondence analysis
Cosine of angle between two vectors
Costs in clinical decision making
Counting process methods in survival analysis
Covariance matrix
Covariate
Covariate imbalance, adjustment for
Cox regression model
Cox, Gertrude
Cox's test of randomness
CramerRao inequality
Critical region
Cronbach's alpha
Crossover designs
Crosssectional study
Crossvalidation
Crude risk
Cumulative hazard
Cumulative incidence
Cumulative incidence rate
Cumulative incidence ratio
Cumulative risk
Cure models
Cutler, Sid
D
Data access, national and international
Data and safety monitoring
Data and safety monitoring boards
Data archives
Data management and coordination
Data quality in vital and health statistics
Database systems
De Finetti
De Moivre, Abraham
Death certification
Death indexes
Decision analysis
Decision analysis in diagnosis and treatment choice
Decision theory
Degrees of freedom
Delayed entry
Delta method
Demography
DeMoivre, A.
Dendrogram
Denominator difficulties
Density estimation
Density sampling
Dentistry
Dependence
Dermatology
Descriptive epidemiology
Design effects
Detection bias
Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs)
Diagnostic delay
Diagnostic test accuracy
Diagnostic test evaluation without a gold standard
Diagnostic tests, evaluation of
Diagnostics
Diagnostics in longitudinal data analysis
Differential error
Diffusion processes
DiggleKenward model for dropouts
Dilution method for bacterial density estimation
Direct and indirect effects
Discrete SurvivalTime models
Discriminant analysis, linear
Disease registers
Disease screening, models of
Diseasemarker association
Distance sampling
Distributionfree methods for longitudinal data
DNA sequences
Dorn, H.
Doseresponse
Doseresponse in pharmacoepidemiology
Doseresponse models in risk analysis
Double sampling
Doubleblind trials
Drug approval and regulation
Drug interactions
Drug regulation
Drug utilization patterns
Dummy variables
Duncan's multiple range test
Duration Dependence
DurbinWatson test
Dynamic allocation index
Dynamic population
E
ECG analysis
Ecologic correlation
Ecologic fallacy
Ecologic study
Econometric applications in Health Services
ED50
Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro
Effect modification
Efficacy vs. effectiveness evaluation
Efficiency and efficient estimators
Eigenvalue
Eigenvector
Eligibility and exclusion criteria
Eligibility restriction
ElstonStewart algorithm
EM algorithm
Embryo/uterus models
Embryology
Empirical Bayes
Endocrinology
Environmental epidemiology
Environmental health
Environmental risk study
Epidemic curve
Epidemic models, deterministic
Epidemic models, spatial
Epidemic models, stochastic
Epidemic thresholds
Epidemiology as legal evidence
Epilepsy
Episodes of care
Equivalence trials
Erlang process
Errors in variables
Estimating functions
Estimation
Estimation, interval
Ethics of randomized trials
Ethnic groups
Eugenics
European Federation of Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry (EFPSI)
European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)
Event history analysis
Eventrelated potential
Evidencebased medicine
Exact Inference for Categorical Data
Excess mortality
Excess relative risk
Excess risk
Exchangeability
Expectation
Expected number of deaths
Experimental Design
Experimental study
Experimentwise error rate
Explained variation measures in survival analysis
Explanatory variables
Exploratory data analysis
Exponential Distribution
Exponential family
Exposure effect
Exposure measurement
Exposure standards
Extrapolation
Extrapolation, low dose
Extrapolation, species
Extreme values
F
F distributions
Factor
Factor analysis, overview
Factor analysis, second order
Factor loading matrix
Factor scores
Factorial designs in clinical trials
Factorial experiments
False negative rate
False positive rate
Familial correlations
Farr, William
Fast Fourier transform (FFT)
Fibonacci scheme for dose escalation
Fiducial Probability
Fieller's theorem
Finite population correction
Fisher lectures
Fisher, Ronald Aylmer
Fisher's exact test
Fixed effects
Fixed effects metaanalysis
Fixed population
FixNeyman process
Floating point arithmetic
Follow up
Followup, active vs. passive
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Food frequency surveys
Force of Mortality
Forecasting
Forensic medicine
Foundations of probability
Fractional factorial designs
Fractional factorial trials
Frailty
Framingham Study
Fraud, detection of
Frequency distribution
Frequency matching
Frontiers of biostatistics
G
GailSimon test for qualitative interactions
Galton, Francis
GaltonWatson process
Gamma distribution
Gardner, Martin John
Gastroenterology
Gauss, Carl Friedrich
Gavarret, LDJ
Gehan's design for Phase II trials
Gene
Gene frequency estimation
Geneenvironment interaction
General and family practice
General linear model
General Practice
Generalized additive model
Generalized estimating equations
Generalized linear model
Generalized linear models for longitudinal data
Generalized maximum likelihood
Generating functions
Genetic correlations and covariances
Genetic counseling
Genetic distance
Genetic epidemiology
Genetic liability model
Genetic Map functions
Genetic markers
Genetic transition probabilities
Genetic transmission probabilities
Genitourinary medicine
Genotype
Geographic patterns of disease
Geographical analysis
Geometric distribution
Geometry in statistics
Gerontology and geriatric medicine
Gestational age
Ghosts
Gini, Corrado
Gold standard test
GoodmanKruskal measures of association
Goodness of fit
Goodness of Fit in Survival Analysis
Gosset, William Sealy
GraecoLatin square designs
Gramian Matrix
GramSchmidt process
Graphical displays
Graphical presentation of longitudinal data
Graunt, J.
Greenberg, B.G.
Greenwood, Major
Grenander Estimators
Group practice
Group sequential designs
Grouped data
Grouped Survival Times
Grouprandomization designs
Growth and development
Growth models
Guttman scale
Guy, William Augustus
Gynecology
H
Halfnormal distribution
Halley, E.
Halperin, M.
Haplotype analysis
HardyWeinberg equilibrium
Hawkins, F. Bisset
Hawthorne effect
HaybittlePeto boundaries
Hazard Plotting
Hazard plotting and nonparametric repeatedevents analysis
Hazard plotting: the Nelson approach
Hazard rate
Hazard ratio estimator
Health care financing
Health care personnel
Health care utilization and behavior, models of
Health care utilization, data
Health care utilization, data analysis
Health economics
Health Services Data sources in Canada
Health Services Data sources in Europe
Health services data sources in the US
Health Services Organization in the US
Health services research, overview
Health services, organization of
Health statistics and information systems
Health status and quality of life
Health status and quality of life research
Health status instruments, measurement properties of
Health status measurement
Health workforce modeling
Hepatology
Heritability
Heterozygosity
Hidden Markov models
Hierarchical methods in strategic planning
Hierarchical models
Hierarchical Models in Health Service Research
Hill, A. Bradford
Hill's criteria for causality
Historical controls
Historical controls in survival analysis
History of biostatistics
History of clinical trials
History of health statistics
History of statistics
HLA system
Hogben, Lancelot Thomas
Horizon models
HorvitzThompson estimator
Hospital and health systems
Hospital Market Area
Hotelling, Harold
Hotelling's Tsquare
Human genetics, overview
Hypergeometric distribution
Hyperplane in factor analysis
Hypothesis testing
I
Identifiability
Identity coefficients
Image Analysis and Tomography
Immunotoxicology
Inbreeding
Incidence density
Incidence density difference
Incidence density ratio
Incidence rate
Incidence ratio
Incidenceprevalence relationships
Incident case
Incomplete block designs
Incomplete followup
Incubation period of infectious diseases
Independence of a set of variables, tests of
Indian Statistical Institute
Infant and prenatal mortality
Infectious disease models
Infectivity titration
Inference
Influence function in survival analysis
Information
Information Matrix
Informed consent
Institut National de la Sante de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM)
Instrumental Variable
Integrated health systems
Intention to Treat Analysis
Interaction
Interaction in factorial experiments
Interaction model
Interim analysis of censored data
Interlaboratory study
International Agency for Research Against Cancer (IARC)
International Biometric Society
International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
International Society for Clinical Biostatistics
International Statistical Institute
International Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) trials
Internet
Interpenetrating samples
Interval censoring
Intervention analysis in time series
Interviewer bias
Interviewing techniques
Inverse Gaussian distribution
Irwin, Joseph Oscar
Isotonic inference
Isotonic regression
Iterative proportional fitting
J
Jackknife method
JamesStein estimator
Jeffreys, H.
Jobexposure matrices
Joint action
Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (J)
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology (J)
Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Journal of the American Statistical Association: Its Organization and Purpose
Journal of the American Statistical Association: Its Writings
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (J)
Jshaped distribution
K
Kalman filtering and smoothing
KaplanMeier estimator
Kappa
Kappa and its dependence on marginal rates
Kendall, Maurice George
Kolmogorov, A.N.
KolmogorovSmirnov and Cramervon Mises tests in survival analysis
KolmogorovSmirnov test
KolmogorovSmirnov test in survival analysis
KullbackLeibler information
Kurtosis
L
Laboratory quality control
Lagged dependent variables
Lambda criterion, Wilks'
Laplace, PierreSimon
Largesample theory
Latent class analysis
Latent period
Latin square designs
Lattice designs
Law of large numbers
LawleyHotelling trace
Least squares
Lehmann alternatives
Length bias
Lengthbiased sampling
Leukemia clusters
Level of a test
Lexis Diagram
Life expectancy
Life table
Likelihood
Likelihood ratio
Likelihood ratio tests
Likelihood ratio with diagnostic tests
Likert Scale
Limit theorems
Linder, Forrest E.
Lindley's paradox
Linear programming
Linear rank tests in survival analysis
Linear regression, simple
Linearization methods of variance estimation
Linkage analysis, model based
Linkage analysis, model free
Linkage disequilibrium
LISREL
Locally most powerful tests
LocationScale Family
Logistic distribution
Logistic regression
Logistic regression, conditional
Loglinear model
Lognormal distribution
Logrank test
Longitudinal data analysis, Overview
Longterm care
Loss function
Loss to follow up bias
Louis, P. C. A.
M
Magic square designs
Mahalanobis distance
Mahalanobis, P.C.
Mainland, D.
Mallows' Cp statistic
Malthus, T.R.
Managed care
MannWhitneyWilcoxon statistic
MantelHaenszel methods
Mapping disease patterns
Marginal likelihood
Marginal models
Marginal models for multivariate survival data
Marginal probability
Marker processes
Markov chain Monte Carlo
Markov chains
Markov processes
Martini, P.
Matched analysis
Matched pairs with categorical data
Matching
Maternal mortality
Mathematical biology, overview
Matrix algebra
Matrix computations
Maximum likelihood
Maximum tolerated dose
Maxwell, Albert Ernest
McKendrick, Anderson Gray
McNemar test
Mean
Mean deviation
Mean Square Error
Measurement error in epidemiologic studies
Measurement error in survival analysis
Measurement scale
Media and statistics
Median
Median effective dose
Median survival time
Medical databases for treatment evaluation
Medical ethics and statistics
Medical informatics
Medical journals and use of statistics
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Medical Research Council Streptomycin trial
Medical research, influence of statistics
Medicines Control Agency (MCA)
Medicolegal cases and statistics
Mendel's Laws
Mental health services
Merrell, Margaret
Metaanalysis of clinical trials
Metaanalysis of diagnostic tests
Metaanalysis of epidemiologic studies
Metastasis models
Method of moments
MichaelisMenten equation
Microbiology and virology
Midwifery, Obstetrics and Neonatology
Migrant studies
Migration processes
Minimax Theory
Minimization method (of treatment allocation)
Minimum therapeutically effective dose
Minimum variance unbiased (MVU) estimator
Misclassification error
Missing data estimation, "hot deck" and "cold deck"
Missing data in clinical trials
Missing data in epidemiologic studies
Missing data, estimation of
Misspecification
Mixed effects models for longitudinal data
Mixed model in segregation analysis
Mode
Model checking
Model fitting, overview
Model, choice of
Modeling strategies
Molecular epidemiology
Moment generating function
Moments
Monte Carlo methods
Moran, Patrick Alfred Pierce
Morbidity and mortality, changing patterns in the 20th century
Mortality, international comparisons
Most powerful test
Moving average
Muench, H.
Multicenter trials
Multidimensional scaling
Multilevel models
Multinomial distribution
Multiple Comparisons
Multiple diagnostic tests
Multiple endpoints, multivariate global tests
Multiple endpoints, P level procedures
Multiple imputation methods
Multiple linear regression
Multiple outcomes
Multiple time series
Multiplicative model
Multiplicity in clinical trials
Multipoint linkage analysis
Multistage carcinogenesis models
Multistage sampling
Multivariate analysis of variance
Multivariate analysis, Bayesian
Multivariate analysis, overview
Multivariate Bartlett test
Multivariate classification rules: calibration and discrimination
Multivariate distributions, overview
Multivariate failure time data
Multivariate Graphics
Multivariate median and rank sum tests
Multivariate methods for binary longitudinal data
Multivariate multiple comparison tests of means
Multivariate multiple regression
Multivariate normal distribution
Multivariate normality, tests of
Multivariate outliers
Multivariate survival analysis
Multivariate t distribution
Multivariate Weibull distribution
Mutagenicity study
N
N of 1 trials
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Natural history study of prognosis
Negative binomial distribution
NelsonAalen estimator
Nephrology
Network sampling
Neural network
Neurology
Neuropathology
Neyman, Jerzy
NeymanPearson lemma
Nightingale, Florence
Noise and white noise
Nominal data
Noncentral t distribution
Noncompliance, adjustment for
Nondifferential bias
Nondifferential error
Nondifferential error
NonFourier waveforms
Nonignorable dropout in Longitudinal studies
Nonlinear growth curve
Nonlinear regression
Nonlinear time series analysis
Nonnested models
Nonnormality, test for
Nonparametric maximum likelihood
Nonparametric methods
Nonparametric regression
Nonrandomized trials
Nonresponse
Nonresponse bias
Nonresponse in sample surveys
Nonsampling errors
Normal clinical values, design of a study
Normal clinical values, reference intervals for
Normal distribution
Normal scores
Normal values of biological characteristics
Normality, tests of
Nuisance parameter
Null hypothesis
Number needed to treat (NNT)
Numerical analysis
Numerical integration
Numerical taxonomy
Nursing
Nutritional Epidemiology
Nutritional Exposure Measures
Nyquist frequency
O
O, o notation
Oblimin rotation
Oblique rotation
O'Brien and Fleming boundaries
Observational study
Observer reliability and agreement
Obstetrics and neonatology
Occupational epidemiology
Occupational health and medicine
Occupational mortality
Odds
Odds ratio
Office for National Statistics (ONS) (formerly OPCS)
Oncology
Onesided test
Op, op notation
Operations research
Ophthalmology
Optimal allocation in cluster sampling
Optimal design
Optimization and nonlinear equations
Optres rotation
Order statistics
Ordered alternatives
Ordered categorical data
Orders of Magnitude
OrnsteinUhlenbeck process
Orthoblique rotation
Orthogonal designs
Orthogonal rotation
Orthogonality
Orthopedics
Otorhinolaryngology
Outcome measures in clinical trials
Outcomes research
Outlier
Overdispersion
Overmatching
P
P value
Pain
Paired comparisons
Paired t test
Pairwise independence
Panel Study
Parallel group designs
Parallelline assay
Parametric models in survival analysis
Pareto distribution
Parsimony
Partial factorial designs
Partial likelihood
Partially balanced incomplete block design
Particlesize distributions
Partner study
Pascal, Blaise
Paternity testing
Path analysis
Path analysis in genetics
Pathology
Pattern recognition
Pearl, R.
Pearson Distributions
Pearson, Egon Sharpe
Pearson, Karl
Pediatrics
Pedigrees, sequential sampling
Peirce, C.S.
Penalized maximum likelihood
Penetrance
Personyears at risk
Personyears of life lost
Petty, W.
Pharmaceutical industry, statisticians in
Pharmaceutical industry, statistics in
Pharmacoepidemiology, adverse and beneficial effects
Pharmacoepidemiology, overview
Pharmacoepidemiology, study designs
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacology and clinical pharmacology
Pharmacy
Phase I trials
Phase II trials
Phasetype distributions in survival analysis
Physical medicine, physical therapy and rehabilitation
Physiology
Pillai's trace test
Pinel, P.
Pitman efficiency
Placebos
Playthewinner rule (of treatment allocation)
Pocock and Simon method (of treatment allocation)
Pocock boundaries
Point Processes
Poisson distribution
Poisson process
Poisson regression
Poisson regression in epidemiology
Poisson, S.D.
Polya process
Polya's urn model
Polygenic inheritance
Polymorphism
Polymorphism information content
Polynomial approximation
Polynomial regression
Polytomous data
Popper, Karl R.
Population average model
Population genetics
Population growth models
Populationbased study
Post Stratification in Survey Sampling
Postmarketing surveillance of new drugs and assessment of risk
Poststratification in Survey Sampling
Power
Power transformations
Preclinical treatment evaluation
Prediction
Predictive modeling of prognosis
Predictive values
Prevalence
Prevalence of disease, estimation from screening data
Prevalence rate or ratio
Prevalenceincidence bias
Prevalent case
Preventable fraction
Prevention trials
Preventive medicine
Priestley's test for harmonic components
Primary axes
Primary care
Primary factors
Primary outcome
Principal components analysis
Principal coordinates Analysis
Principal coordinates analysis, Gower's method
Prior distribution
Probabilistic matching
Probability
Probability sampling
Probability Theory
Procrustes rotation
Productintegration
Professional statistical practices, principles
Profile likelihood
Profiling providers of medical care
Prognosis
Prognostic factors in survival
Program evaluation
Projection pursuit
Projections, AIDS, Cancer, Smoking
Promax rotation
Propensity score
Proportional hazards, Overview
Proportional mortality ratio (PMR)
Proportional mortality study
Proportionalodds model
Proportionalodds Regression
Proprietary biostatistical firms
Prospective study
Pseudolikelihood
Pseudorandom number generator
Psychiatry
Psychology
Psychometrics, overview
Public health and preventive services
Public understanding of statistics
Publication bias
Pulmonary medicine
Q
Q and R mode analysis
Quality of care
Quality of Life and Health Status
Quality of life and survival analysis
Qualityadjusted life years
Quantal response models
Quantile regression
Quantiles
Quartimax rotation
Quasiexperimental design
Quasiexperimental designs
Quasiindependence
Quasilikelihood
Quasisymmetry
Questionnaire design
Quetelet, A.
Queuing Processes
Quota, representative, and other methods of purposive sampling
R
R and QAnalysis
Radiation
Radioimmunoassay
Radiology
RadonNikodym theorem
Random coefficient repeated measures model
Random digit dialing sampling for casecontrol studies
Random effects
Random effects metaanalysis
Random effects models for longitudinal data
Random error
Random mixing
Random Sample
Random variable
Randomization
Randomization tests
Randomized complete blocks designs
Randomized consent
Randomized response techniques
Randomized treatment assignment
Randomness, tests of
Range
Rank correlation
Rank regression
Rank transformation
Ranks
RaoBlackwell theorem
Rasch models
Rasch, Georg
Rate
Ratio and Regression Estimates
Real time approach in survival analysis
Recall bias
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves
Record linkage
Recursive partitioning for clinical decision making
Reduced Rank Regression
ReedFrost model
Reference vectors
Regression
Regression to the mean
Regressive models
Regulation and controls in health services
Relative hazard
Relative odds
Relative risk
Relative risk modeling
Reliability study
Remington, R.
Renewal processes
Repeated events
Repeated measure design
Repeated significance testing
Reproduction
Reproduction number
Resampling procedures for sample surveys
Residual confounding
Residuals
Residuals for survival analysis
Response effects in sample surveys
Response surface methodology
Response variable
Restricted maximum likelihood
Retrospective study
Reversibility
Rheumatology
Ridge regression
Risk
Risk adjustment
Risk assessment
Risk assessment for environmental chemicals
Risk assessment in clinical decision making
Risk set
Robust methods in time series analysis
Robust regression
Robustness
Robustness of multivariate techniques
Rotation of axes
Royal Statistical Society
Roy's maximum root criteria
Rule of Threebinomial confidence intervals when no responses are observed
S
Salk vaccine
Sample size determination
Sample size determination for clinical trials
Sample size determination in survival analysis
Sample Surveys
Sampling distributions
Sampling frames
Sampling in developing countries
Sampling with and without replacement
Sampling with probability proportional to size
Savage, Leonard Jimmie
Scaling methods, overview
Scan statistics for disease surveillance
Scedasticity
Scheduling Health Service Resources
Schneiderman, Marvin Arthur
Scientific method and statistics
Scores
Scree test
Screening benefit, evaluation of
Screening overview
Screening trials
Screening, Models of
Seasonal time series
Secondary attack rate
Secondary outcomes
Segregation analysis, classical
Segregation analysis, complex
Segregation ratios
Selection bias
SemiMarkov Processes
Semiparametric regression
Sensitivity
Sensitivity analysis
Sensitivity analysis of epidemic models
Separate families of hypotheses
Sequential analysis
Serial correlation
Serial dilution assay
Serial tests of randomness
Serialsacrifice experiments
Sheppard's corrections
Shrinkage
Shrinkage Estimation
Sign tests
Signedrank statistics
Similarity, dissimilarity, and distance measure
Simple random sampling
Simple randomization
Simple structure
Simplex Models
Simpson's paradox
Simulation
Simultaneous confidence intervals
Simultaneous inference
Single linkage clustering
Singleblind trials
Skewness
Sloperatio assay
SlutzkyYule effect
Small area analysis
Small area estimation
Small area variation analysis
Smoking and health
Smoothing
Smoothing hazard rates
Snedecor, G.W.
Snowball sampling
Snyder's ratios
Social classifications
Social Sciences
Sociology
Software for analysis of sample surveys
Software for analysis of sample surveys, misuse of standard packages
Software for genetic epidemiology
Software for Sample Survey Data
Software for Sample Survey Data, misuse of standard packages
Software reliability
Software, biostatistical
Sojourn time in screening
Soper, Herbert Edward
Source population
Spearman rank correlation
Specificity
Spectral analysis
Sphericity test
Spiegelman, M.
Spline function
Split plot designs
SPLUS and S
Sports medicine
Spreadsheet
Square contingency table
Staggered entry
Standard deviation
Standard error
Standard gamble technique
Standard normal deviate
Standardization methods
Standardized coefficients
Stationarity
Statistical consulting
Statistical Dependence and Independence
Statistical forensics
Statistical independence
Statistical mapStatistical Methods in Medical Research (J)
Statistical review for medical journals
Statistical review for medical journals, guidelines for authors
Statistical review for medical journals, journal's perspective
Statistician as expert witness
Statisticians in drug regulation
Statistics in Medicine (J)
Statistics, an overview Adverse selection
Statistics, papers of influence
StatXact
Stereology
Stimulusresponse studies
Stochastic approximation
Stochastic curtailment
Stochastic Limit and Order Relations
Stochastic processes
Stocks, Percy
Stratification
Stratified randomization
Stratified sampling
Stratified Sampling, Allocation in
Stroke
Structural and sampling zeros
Structural equation models
Structural nested failure time models
Structural time series models
Studentization
Studentized range
Student's t distribution
Student's t Statistics
Study population
Subgroup analysis in clinical trials
Subjective probability
Sufficiency
Sufficient statistic
Summary measures analysis of longitudinal data
Superpopulation models in survey sampling
Surgery
Surrogate endpoints
Surveillance in longitudinal studies
Surveillance of diseases
Surveys, health, and morbidity
Survival analysis software
Survival analysis, Overview
Survival bias in prevalent casecontrol studies
Survival distributions and their characteristics
Synergy of exposure effects
Systematic error
Systematic sampling methods
T
Target population
Teaching medical statistics to statisticians
Teaching statistics to medical students
Teaching statistics to physicians
Technology assessment in health services
Telephone sampling
Teratology
Teratology studies
Threshold analysis
Tied Survival times
Time lag effect
Time origin, choice of
Time series
Time series regression
Time tradeoff technique
Timebytime analysis of longitudinal data
Timedependent covariate
Timedependent spectra
Timevarying Treatment Effect
Tolerance interval
Tolerance region
Tomography
Total time on test
Toxicology
Transfer function models
Transformations
Transition models for longitudinal data
Transplantation
Travel medicine
Treatmentcovariate interaction
Treestructured statistical methods
Trend test for counts and proportions
Trigonometric regression
Trimming and Winsorization
Tripleblind trials
Tropical medicineAxes in multivariate analysis
Truncated survival times
Tumor Growth
Tumor Incidence Experiments
Turnbull estimator
Twin analysis
Twin concordance
Twin registers
Twobytwo table
Twomutation carcinogenesis model
Twophase casecontrol study
Twostage least squares regression
Twostage monitoring designs
Typespecific covariates in survival analysis
U
Unbiasedness
Uncertainty principleUniform distribution
Uniform random numbers
Unimodality
Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC)
Unionintersection principle
Unit of analysis Admixture in human populations
Univariate response
University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP)
Upanddown method Alert threshold construction
Ushaped distribution
Ustatistics
Utility
Utility in health studies
V
Vaccine studies
Validation study
Validity and generalizability in epidemiologic studiesVariable selection
Variance
Variance components Alternative hypothesis
Variance estimation in sample surveys
Varimax rotation
Variogram
Viral population growth models
Vital statistics, overview
W
Wald, A.
Wald's identity
Wavelet Analysis
Weibull Distribution Actuarial methods
Weighted distributions
Wilcoxon signedrank test
Wilcoxon, Frank
WilcoxonMannWhitney Test
Wilcoxontype scale tests
Willingness to pay in costbenefit analysis Window estimate
Wishart distribution
Worcester, J.
World Health Organization (WHO): biostatistics and epidemiology
World Health Organization (WHO): global health situation
Y
Yates, F.
Yates's algorithm
Yates's continuity correction
Youden squares and rowcolumn designs
Yule process
Yule, George Udny Animal screening systems
YuleWalker equations Accident and emergency medicine
Z
Zygosity determination
Preface
The first duty of the EditorsinChief of a work as ambitious as the Encyclopedia of Biostatistics is to define its scope and to explain its purpose. What is it about, and why is it needed?
The scope is easily defined. We use the term "Biostatistics" to denote statistical methods in medicine and the health sciences. This usage is standard in many, if not most, parts of the world, but of course it is etymologically curious: we make no attempt to cover systematically the more general use of the statistics in biology, for which the term "Biometry" is perhaps now more widely used. Our scope might have been defined as "Medical Statistics", a term which we avoided as it is sometimes taken to imply a more restricted field than that represented here. The field of biostatisitcs is indeed wide. We have needed to cover applications in clinical medicine, public health, epidemiology, health services research, demography, genetics, and laboratory studies. We have attempted to provide a very broad coverage of general statistical theory and methodology, which has developed enormously during the last halfcentury, building on the foundations laid down during the interwar period. Some branches of statistics have been especially stimulated by their applications in medical research, notably the analysis of survival data, which receives especially full treatment in these pages.
Many of the 1208 articles concern topics that might be relevant in investigations in almost any branch of medicine: the design of experiments and observational studies, the problems associated with data collection, the technical aspects of statistical inference, and so on. We have also included many articles concerning specific fields of medicine, such as Communicable Diseases, Neurology, and Ophthalmology. Many articles describe institutions of particular interest to biostatisticians, such as research organizations, professional societies, and journals. Finally, we include biographical memoirs of many statisticians and others, now deceased, who have contributed notably to the theory and practice of biostatisitcs.
Why, then, is all this information needed? During the last few decades, the use of statistical methods in medical research has grown more rapidly than in any other field of application. Parallel growth has naturally taken place in the numbers of practitioners, in medical schools, hospitals and medical centers, research establishments, government agencies, pharmaceutical firms, and elsewhere. The technical literature also has grown, so that medical applications assume a prominent role in general statistics journals, specialist journals have been founded, and statistical methods are commonly described in research articles in the medical literature. Books have appeared in large numbers, but these necessarily deal broadly with the simper aspects of the subject, or narrowly with only a part of it. The publishers of this Encyclopedia, and the editorial team, took the view that a comprehensive work was overdue, and that it would fulfill a widely recognized need.
There are, of course, other relevant largescale reference works, notably the Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, edited by S. Kotz & N.L. Johnson (Executive Editor C.B. Read), published in 9 Volumes by John Wiley & Sons (19821988, with a Supplement Volume in 1989 and Update Volumes currently in the course of publication). This highly important work has served as an inspiration to us, and we have followed many of the design features adopted by its publisher and editors. However, the present Encyclopedia is not intended as in any way a competitor to its forerunner, but should rather be regarded as complementary to it. The Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences (E0SS) provides coverage in considerable depth for virtually the whole theory of statistics and probability, with much detail concerning the methodology of statistical analysis. The Encyclopedia of Biostatistics (E0B) also aims at a wide coverage of general statistical theory, but usually in less depth than the EoSS, and with some emphasis on topics of practical application. Secondly, the EoSS covers applications in virtually every direction, in the physical, biological, and social sciences, so that medical applications form merely one category amongst many. In the EoB we concentrate on the technical and practical aspects of biostatistics in what we believe is a comprehensive way. Thus, the two works overlap in their coverage, but each contains material extending far beyond the scope of the other. For instance, readers of the present work who wish to learn more about some of the more theoretical topics are likely to find the EoSS particularly helpful.
An earlier predecessor is the International Encyclopedia of Statistics (1978, W.H. Kruskal & J. Tanur, eds, Free Press, New York) based on the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968, D.L. Sill, ed., Macmillan and Free Press, New York). We have made use of various other biographical and lexicographic works, and have found the Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics in the Medical Sciences (1995, B.S. Everitt, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) and the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1981, C.C. Gillispie, Scribner New York) particularly useful.
When we were approached by the publishers in 1995 we realized that a work of the magnitude that we believed to be required must necessarily be a highly cooperative enterprise. We defined 17 (later increased to 18) sections of the subject, and sought the appointment of one or more Section Editor for each section. The titles of the sections, and the names of the Section Editors, are listed under Editorial Board (pp. vvii). The sections covered broad types of biostatistical work (clinical trials, epidemiological studies, clinical epidemiology, vital and health statistics, health services research, laboratory studies, biological models, health surveys and biomedical experiments); medical specialities with statistical applications; human genetics (a discipline with an important role in medicine and a long history of statistical input); particular branches of statistical methodology of special biostatistical interest (statistical models, longitudinal data analysis, multivariate analysis, survival analysis); statistical computing (an essential feature of modern statistical analysis); the general range of statistical theory and methodology, including probability theory; and the institutional and historical topics referred to earlier.
We have ourselves commissioned a number of articles on topics that were not easily assigned to a particular section. These include articles from leaders in the field, giving an overview, invariably from a personal perspective, of a broad range of scholarly work, such as "Biostatistics, Overview" (B.W. Brown, Jr), "Frontiers of Biostatistics" (L.E. Moses & F. Mosteller), and "Statistics, Overview" (D.R. Cox). Likewise, among the articles commissioned by the Section Editors, there are a number that provide a broad perspective of a particular field, many of them being designated with the word "Overview" in the title. Most of these articles contain crossreferences to more specialized articles on related topics, and thus may serve the reader as a guide and introduction to the overall coverage of the Encyclopedia. A list of these review articles appears on pp. xvxvi.
The Section Editors were responsible for drafting the list of entries, subject of course to later amendment, for the recruitment of contributors, and for the editing and (with others) proofreading of the contributions. Articles were graded according to intended length and level of mathematical detail, again subject to revision as time went on. Whatever success the Encyclopedia has is largely due to the sustained efforts and enthusiasm of the Section Editors. In addition to the listed Section Editors, initial planning for the section on Vital and Health Statistics, with recruitment of contributors, was undertaken by K.H. Dunnell, M.P. Coleman and A.J. Fox, of the Office of National Statistics, London, UK; and initial planning of the section on Statistical Models was done by Annette J. Dobson, of the University of Newcastle, New South Wales. We are grateful for their help.
The sections referred to above are ignored in the final presentation of the articles, which is strictly alphabetic. The variety of length and style is obvious. Some of the more theoretical and specialized topics are directed towards the practicing biostatistician, interested in extending his or her command of statistical theory. Other articles deal more directly with practical issues, and have little or not mathematical content. We have aimed to interfere as little as possible with a contributor's individual style, although articles have been reviewed by editors, and occasionally by external referees. Contributors have been encouraged, even in the more mathematical articles, to introduce their topic verbally so that the less mathematical reader can gain some general understanding of it. A few short, unsigned articles have been written by the EditorsinChief.
Most of the articles include a list of citations to the scientific literature. Occasionally the contributors have added also a Bibliography of books or articles not directly cited in the text of the article, but useful for additional reading.
We have used various forms of crossreference. Terms leading directly to other articles appear in bold type on their first occurrence in an article; however, very common terms such as "mean" are not always emboldened in this way. Frequently, the wording in the current article may be slightly different from the title of the article referred to, but the intention will normally be quite clear. Thus, "...a crossover trial..." will refer to the article entitled "Crossover Designs". When a direct reference of this sort is not possible, we refer explicitly in parentheses to the intended article; e.g. "...a changeover design (see Crossover Designs)". Sometimes the first word of emboldened terms in the text will not lead directly to the article's location, but this will be indicated clearly by subsequent terms; for example, "... a nested casecontrol study..." refers to the article entitled "CaseControl Study, Nested". Occasionally, useful additional sources of information, in articles not conveniently referenced in the text, are listed at the end of an article, as "(See also...)".
Additionally, and importantly, we include in the alphabetic list of entries 1477 terms, crossreferenced to specific articles.
No work of this sort can be wholly errorfree. We and our production colleagues have tried to eliminate as many errors as possible. We should greatly appreciate notification of any remaining errors  technical, factual, or typographic  which we may be able to remove in future versions of this project.
Our predominant impression, on coming to the end of this collaborative effort, is of the unfailing enthusiasm and good nature of everyone involved. We have mentioned our debt to the Section Editors. Contributors also have responded to our cajoling with good humor, and have been willing, when asked, to modify their original intentions to comply with the overall plan. The project was initiated by Helen Ramsey, of John Wiley & Sons, and that she has been able to see her vision made manifest within a little over three years is in very large measure due to her assiduity, tact, and clear sense of direction. We are grateful to her, and to many of her colleagues at Chichester, notably Juliet Booker and Sharon Clutton, for helping to guide our progress throughout the various stages of the project, and tactfully keeping us up to schedule. We should like to acknowledge the generous support from John Wiley & Sons throughout our work on this project. From the outset, our publishers have supported technical computer and communication activities, and clerical administrative needs, and have also provided funding for several of our meetings as EditorsinChief as well as our meetings with the Section Editors.
Our thanks are given to Suzanne Thompson, of Boston University, who assisted most ably with filemanagement throughout the project. We thank also David Gagnon, of Boston University, who was extremely helpful in developing the computerization of entries, which proved invaluable in the management of the project and in providing a basis for the system of crossreferencing. John and Celia Hall joined the project as Managing Editors and have played a major part also in distributing, correcting, and collating proofs. The Section Editors received valuable help from many individuals; in particular they would like to thank Diane Ames, LeiLane D'Agostino, Leslie Powers, Heidy Kwan Russell, Denise Tanner, and Liza Thong.
For our part, we have greatly enjoyed our role in this remarkable enterprise. We have learnt much from the articles that we have read and edited, and our knowledge of the field has greatly increased over these past three years. Clearly, the amount of material we have read is far beyond our powers of retention, so we can make no claim to have achieved an encyclopedic knowledge of biostatistics. We have, however, obtained a good grasp of where to find information on virtually any aspect of our field in the Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. We hope that readers who become familiar with these volumes will similarly attain this ability. That we have been able to devote so much time to the Encyclopedia is a tribute most of all to the patience and understanding cooperation of our wives, Phyllis Armitage and Carolyn Colton, and, indirectly, that of our families. To them, as to our technical colleagues, we offer our deep thanks.
Peter Armitage
Wallingford, UK
Theodore Colton
Boston, USA
EditorsinChief
1997
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