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Handbooks of Monochromatic XPS Spectra

B. Vincent Crist, Ph.D
XPS International, Ames, Iowa, USA

 

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The Elements and Native Oxides
    546 pages

Semiconductors
    565 pages

Polymers and Polymer Damage
    454 pages

Description

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an analytical technique that has been developed over the last thirty years to analyse a variety of materials. These three handbooks contain an invaluable collection of research grade XPS Spectra with each one concentrating on a specific family of materials (the elements and their native oxides, semiconductors and polymers).

Each handbook is complete, self contained, and includes comprehensive notes on the instruments and instrumental conditions used in recording the spectra as well as details of experimental procedures. Transmission functions, resolution settings and characteristics, energy reference considerations, traceability and calibration details are all covered. The spectra contain many peak fits and fully annotated wide scans with tabulated numerical quantitative summaries. The spectra are presented one spectrum per page in landscape format.

Energy resolution settings, instrument characteristics, energy referencing methods, traceability, energy scale calibration details, and transmission function are all reported. The XPS signals in the wide scan survey spectra are fully annotated and are accompanied by detailed atom % tables that report BEs for each of the labeled peaks. The XPS signals in the high-energy resolution spectra are peak-fitted. Binding Energies (BEs), FWHMs, and relative signal percentages are printed on each high energy resolution spectrum.

Each handbook includes a 20 page introductory section about the XPS instrument used and discusses

    Instrument Details
    Experimental Details
    Data Processing Details
    Sample Details
    Source of Elements and Chemical Compounds
    Source of Polymer Materials
    Source of Alloys
    Source of Semi-Conductor Materials
    Source of Commercially Pure Binary Oxides
    Powdered Samples Pressed into 3 mm Diameter Pellets
    Benefits of Pressing Powders into Pellets
    Problems Caused by Pressing Samples into Pellets
    Solution to Pressure Induced Contamination of Pellets
    Source of Pellet Press Equipment
    Energy Resolution Details
    Energy Scale Reference Energies and Calibration Details
    Reference Energies of Adventitious Hydrocarbon Contaminants
    Instrument Stability and Long Term Energy Scale Calibration
    Electron Counting and Instrument Response Function Details
    Instrument Response Function
    Signal / Background Ratios for Ion Etched Silver (Ag)
    Effects of Poorly Focusing the Distance between the Sample and the Electron Lens
    Quantitation Details and Choice of "Sensitivity Exponent"
    Crude Tests of the Reliability of Relative Sensitivity Factors
    Traceability Details
    Traceability of Reference Binding Energies (Calibration)
    Traceability Transfer from Pure Metals to Non-Conductive Binary Oxides
    Traceability of Relative Sensitivity Factors used for Quantitation
    Traceability of Sample Purity
    Reference Papers Describing the X-Probe, M-Probe, and S-Probe XPS Systems


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