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Handbooks of Monochromatic XPS Spectra

B. Vincent Crist, Ph.D
XPS International, Ames, Iowa, USA


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The Elements and Native Oxides
    546 pages

    565 pages

Polymers and Polymer Damage
    454 pages

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The Elements & Native Oxides

The Elements:

Includes wide scan spectra and high energy resolution spectra for the elements Ag, Al, Ar(+), As, Au, B, Ba(+), Be, Bi, Br (-), C, Ca (2+), Cd, Ce (4+), Cl (-), Co, Cr, Cs (+), Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F (-), Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, I (-), In, Ir, K (+), La (3+), Li (+), Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, N (3-), Na (+), Nb, Nd, Ni, O (2-), P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb (+), Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr (2+), Ta, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm. V, W, Xe (+), Y, Yb, Zn, and Zr. All surfaces were cleaned by using practical methods. All high energy resolution spectra are peak-fitted to reveal FWHM, and peak separation for spin-orbit pairs. The strong signals observed in the wide scan spectra are labeled and tabulated together with rough BE values of those strong signals. The BEs of the high energy resolution spectra in this handbook were used as part of a recent NIST study to determine "reliable" binding energies of the principal XPS signals of each element (C.J.Powell, Applied Surface Science, Vol. 89, pp 141-149, 1995.)

The Native Oxides:

Includes wide scan spectra, and principal signal high energy resolution spectra, carbon (1s) high energy resolution spectra, and oxygen (1s) high energy resolution spectra found, as received, in/on the naturally formed, native oxides of the elements Ag, Al, As, B, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hf, In, Ir, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Ta, Te, Ti, Tl, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. Atomic percentage tables of surface composition are provided. These spectra reveal the natural oxidative tendencies of the elements and the tendencies of these elements to capture various gases from the air and/or various contaminants introduced to the surface from handling by the original chemical producers. No attempt was made to clean these samples.


Includes wide scan spectra, principal metal signal high energy resolution spectra, some secondary metal signal high energy resolution spectra, carbon (1s) high energy resolution spectra, oxygen (1s) high energy resolution spectra, valence band spectra, Auger signal spectra,a dn atom % data obtained from the following semiconductors that were analyzed "as received" and "after freshly exposing the bulk" by fracturing in air. Some materials were analyzed "after ion etching" or "chemical cleaning". Semiconductors analyzed include: AlGaAs, AlN, BeO, BN, C, CdO, CdSe, Cu2O, CuCl, Diamond, GaAs, GaInAs, GaP (100), GaP (111), GaSb, GeSe, GeSe2, HgS, HgTe, HOPG, InP, InSb, InSnOx (ITO), n-Si, p-Si, un-doped Si, NBS p-Si, NiO, Pb2O3, PbO2, PbO, PbS, SbTe, Se, Si3N4, SnO2, Te, WO3, ZnO.

Polymers and Polymer Damage


Includes wide scan spectra, high energy resolution carbon (1s) spectra, high energy resolution oxygen (1s) spectra, other principal signal high energy resolution spectra, and atom % data tables from polymers known as: poly-ethylene (PE), poly-vinyl chloride (PVC), poly-vinylidene di-fluoride (PVDF), poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly-styrene (PS), poly-a-methyl styrene (AMPS), poly-4-methyl styrene (4MPS), poly-4-octylstyrene (POS), poly-4-hydroxystyrene (PHS), poly-4-hydroxystyrene-derviatized with trifluoro acetic anhydride, poly-4-ethoxystyrene (PES), poly-4,4'-dimethoxy benzophenone (4DBP), poly-ether ether ketone (PEEK), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET), poly-ethyl acrylate (PEA), poly-methyl acrylate (PMA), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) on copper, poly-ethyl methacrylate (EMA), poly-2-hydroxyl methacrylate (HEMA), poly-trimethyl silane hydroxyethyl methacrylate (CLMA), poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), poly-propylene glycol (PPG), poly-tetramethylene glycol (PTMG), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), Biomer™, poly-methylene di-isocynate/propane-diamine copolymer (MDPD), poly-methylene diisocynate/butane-diol copolymer (MDBD), poly-methylene diisocynate/propane-diamine/butane-diol terpolymer (MDBP), poly-dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and Whatman™ filter paper (cellulose). This data set was obtained by the ESCA research group at the National ECSA Center for Surface Analysis of Bio-Materials located at the University of Washington, Washington, USA.

Polymers Degraded by Long Term Exposure to Monochromatic X-rays:

Includes wide scan spectra, and >15 repetitive cycles of high energy resolution carbon (1s) spectra, high energy resolution oxygen (1s) spectra, other principal signal high energy resolution spectra, and atom % data tables from polymers known as: poly-acetal, poly-acrylonitrile (PAN), poly-amide, poly-1-butene, poly-caprolactam (nylon 6), poly-carbonate bis-phenol A (PC), poly-ethylene (HDPE), poly-ethylene oxide (PEO), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET), poly-imide (Kapton), poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), poly-4-methyl-1-pentene, poly-phenylene sulfide (PPS), poly-propylene (PP), poly-styrene (PS), poly-sulfone resin, poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly-vinyl acetate (PVA), poly-vinyl chloride (PVC), poly-vinylidene fluoride, and nitrocellulose. Each sample was analyzed overnight for >12 hours to observe the X-ray induced changes that occur from extended exposure to X-rays. Overlays of the initial and final state spectra, which reveal the degree and nature of the degradation caused by the long term exposure, are included.

A collection of other polymers, which have not been studied for damage, is also included in this section.

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