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Wiley Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology
Second Edition
(4-Volume Set)

Editor: Frederick J. Francis


  • Main Page for this Work
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Sample Chapter



  • ISBN: 0-471-19285-6
    Hardcover
    Pages: 3000
    Articles: 400
    Published: October 1999

    List of Contributors:

    APV Crepaco, Inc.
    Lake Mills, Wisconsin
    Corrosion and Food Processing; Distillation: Technology and Engineering; Dryers: Technology and Engineering; Evaporators: Technology and Engineering; Heat Exchangers: Fouling; Heat Exchangers: Paraflow; Heat Exchangers: Plate versus Tubular; Heat Exchangers: Scraped Surface

    Judith A. Abbott
    USDA / ARS, Beltsville, Maryland
    Food Crops: Nondestructive Quality Evaluation

    G. Abraham
    USDA, Southern Regional Research Center
    Oil seeds and Vegetable Oils

    Raija Ahvenainen
    VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, VTT, Finland
    International Development: Finland

    Robert E. Altomare
    General Foods USA, Tarrytown, New York
    Snack Food Technology

    S. M. Alzamora
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Water Activity: Microbiology

    Burton A. Amernick
    Pollock, Vande Sande, and Amernick, RLLP, Washington, D.C.
    Patents

    Elizabeth Andress
    University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
    Canning: Regulatory and Safety Considerations

    Cathy Y. W. Ang
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
    Poultry Flavors

    Frank H. Arthur
    USDA / ARS, Manhattan, Kansas
    Grains and Protectants

    Bonnie Atwood
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Alex A. Avery
    Hudson Institute, Churchville, Virginia
    Food Regulations: International, Codex Alimentarius

    Dennis T. Avery
    Hudson Institute, Churchville, Virginia
    Food Regulations: International, Codex Alimentarius

    Jerry K. Babbitt
    National Marine Fisheries Service, Kodiak, Alaska
    Crabs and Crab Processing

    T. Sudhakar Babu
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Photosynthesis

    Robert J. Baer
    South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota
    Milk and Milk Products

    M. O. Balaban
    State University of Campinas
    UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil

    Supercritical Fluid Technology

    G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Water Activity: Microbiology

    Shai Barbut
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Poultry Meat Processing and Product Technology

    Steven A. Barker
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
    Antibiotics in Foods of Animal Origin

    Harold J. Barnett
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington
    Seafood: Flavors and Quality

    Roger G. Bates
    University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
    Hydrogen-Ion Activity (pH)

    J. N. BeMiller
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
    Carbohydrates: Classification, Chemistry, and Labeling; Gums; Lactose; Sweeteners: Nutritive; Starch; Sugar: Sucrose

    Richard C. Berberet
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma
    Postharvest Integrated Pest Management

    Carolyn Berdanier
    University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
    Minerals: Micronutrients

    R. G. Berger
    Institut für Lebensmittelchemie der Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    Genetic Engineering: Food Flavors

    Daniel Berkowitz
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Mrinal Bhattacharva
    University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota
    Extrusion Processing: Texture and Rheology

    Darlena K. Blucher
    Humboldt State University, Arcata, California
    History of Foods

    Michael M. Blumenthal
    Libra Technologies, Inc., Metuchen, New Jersey
    Frying Technology

    Joseph Borsa
    MDS Nordion, Inc., Kanata, Ontario, Canada
    Irradiation of Foods

    J. R. Botta
    Moncton Food Quality Investigations, Inc., Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada
    Lobster: Biology and Technology; Seafood: Sensory Evaluation and Freshness

    Malcolm C. Bourne
    Cornell University, Geneva, New York
    Water Activity: Food Texture

    Elizabeth A. E. Boyle
    Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
    Meat Products

    Francine Bradley
    University of California, Davis, California
    Poultry: Meat From Avian Species

    J. W. Brady
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
    Molecular Modeling: Computer Modeling of Functional Properties

    D. E. Briggs
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
    Malts and Malting

    Aaron L. Brody
    Rubbright Brody, Inc., Duluth, Georgia
    Packaging: Part II—Labeling; Packaging: Part IV—Controlled Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Food Packaging

    B. Brückner
    Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Grossbeeren/Erfurt, Germany
    International Development: Germany

    Christine M. Bruhn
    University of California, Davis, California
    Food Safety Education: Consumer

    John Bumbalough
    Land O'Lakes, Inc., Arden Hills, Minnesota
    Margarine

    David Burdick
    Hoffman-La Roche, Inc.
    Vitamins: Pyridoxine (B6); Vitamins: Thiamine (B1)

    Charles J. Cante
    General Foods USA, White Plains, New York
    Breakfast Cereals; Snack Food Technology

    Armand Cardello
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Marijana Caric
    Novi Sad University, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia
    Processed Cheese

    Robert Casani
    Hoffman-La Roche, Inc.
    Vitamins: Vitamin E

    Robert G. Cassens
    University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
    Muscle as Food

    Domenico R. Cassone
    Nabisco, Inc., East Hanover, New Jersey
    Biscuit and Cracker Technology

    S. Cenkowski
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Cleaning-in-Place (CIP); Energy Usage in Food Processing Plants

    Tuu-jyi Chai
    University of Maryland, Cambridge, Maryland
    Fish and Shellfish Microbiology

    James V. Chambers
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
    Waste Management: Animal Processing

    Roberto S. Chamul
    Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi
    Machine Vision Systems: Process and Quality Control

    D. Chandarana
    National Food Processors Association, Dublin, California
    Aseptic Processing and Packaging Systems

    Ping Yang Chang
    Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    Sulfites and Food

    Muhammad Munir Chaudry
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
    Muslim Dietary Laws: Food Processing and Marketing

    Chee-Jen Chen
    Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    Mushrooms: Cultivation

    T. C. Chen
    University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
    Poultry Meat Microbiology

    Wen-Lian Chen
    Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    Soy Foods, Fermented

    Munir Cheryan
    University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
    Membrane Processing

    Young-Meng Chiang
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Seaweed Aquaculture: Taiwan

    H. Chiba
    Kobe Women's University, Kobe, Japan
    Peptides

    Yoon Hin Chong
    Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
    Palm Oil

    B. B. Chrystall
    Massey University Albany, Auckland, New Zealand
    International Development: New Zealand; Meat and Electrical Stimulation; Meat Science

    J. Peter Clark
    Oak Park, Illinois
    Food Plant Design and Construction

    Warren S. Clark, Jr.
    American Dairy Products Institute, Chicago, Illinois
    Dry Milk; Evaporated Milk

    J. T. Clayton
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Food Engineering

    John Clemmings
    Häagen-Dazs Research and Development, Edina, Minnesota
    Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert

    Dean Cliver
    University of California, Davis, California
    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

    G. Coccodrilli
    General Foods USA, White Plains, New York
    Breakfast Cereals

    Bernard Cole
    Leiner Davis Gelatin, West Krugersdorp, South Africa
    Gelatin

    David Collins-Thompson
    Nestlé Research and Development Center, Inc., New Milford, Connecticut
    Chilled Foods

    Chris Combs
    Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan
    Foams and Silicones in Food Processing

    Richard Cotter
    Whitehall-Robins, Madison, New Jersey
    Osteoporosis

    Roger A. Coulombe, Jr.
    Utah State University, Logan, Utah
    Toxicants, Natural

    Thomas Crosby
    Bunge Foods Corporation, Bradley, Illinois
    Fats and Oils: Properties, Processing Technology, and Commercial Shortenings

    Gerrit W. Cuperus
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma
    Postharvest Integrated Pest Management

    Ashim K. Datta
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
    Thermal Sterilization of Canned Liquid Foods

    P. Michael Davidson
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee
    Antimicrobial Compounds

    Robert V. Decareau
    Microwave Consulting Services, Amherst, New Hampshire
    Microwave Science and Technology

    Eric A. Decker
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Antioxidants; Phytochemicals: Antioxidants

    Marnie L. DeGregorio
    Kraft Foods USA, Tarrytown, New York
    Fruit Preserves and Jellies

    David Deis
    Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio
    Enteral Formulas and Feeding Systems

    J. M. de Man
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Fats and Oils: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications

    C. E. Devine
    Technology Development Group, HortResearch, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Meat and Electrical Stimulation; Meat Science

    D. E. Dixon-Holland
    Neogen Corporation, Lansing, Michigan
    Immunological Methodology

    Cindy Dominguez
    Whitehall-Robins, Madison, New Jersey
    Osteoporosis

    Mark L. Dreher
    Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Evansville, Indiana
    Carbohydrates: Functionality and Physiological Significance

    Grant E. DuBois
    The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, Georgia
    Sweeteners: Nonnutritive

    Muri Dueppen
    AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Gaithersburg, Maryland
    AOAC INTERNATIONAL

    C. Patrick Dunne
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Richard A. Durst
    University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
    Hydrogen-Ion Activity (pH)

    Phyllis Entis
    QA Life Sciences, San Diego, California
    Membrane Filtration Systems

    Marilyn Erickson
    University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia
    Food Spoilage

    Ralph Ernst
    University of California, Davis, California
    Poultry: Meat From Avian Species

    Felix E. Escher
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland
    International Development: Switzerland

    N. A. M. Eskin
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Canola Oil

    Terry D. Etherton
    Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
    Lipids: Nutrition

    David A. Evans
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Disinfectants

    James Faller
    University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
    Food Processing

    Daniel F. Farkas
    Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
    High-Pressure Processing

    Paul Fazio
    Häagen-Dazs Research and Development, Edina, Minnesota
    Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert

    P. J. Fellers
    State of Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred, Florida
    Limonin

    P. Fellows
    Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby, United Kingdom
    Dehydration

    Robin M. Fenwick
    New Zealand Dairy Board, Wellington, New Zealand
    Dairy Ingredients for Foods

    Mario P. de Figueiredo
    Consultant, Chesterfield, Missouri
    Quality Assurance

    Marshall Fishman
    USDA / ARS, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania
    Pectic Substances

    Dick Fizzell
    General Foods USA, White Plains, New York
    Breakfast Cereals

    Henry Fleming
    USDA / ARS, Raleigh, North Carolina
    Vegetables, Pickling

    John D. Floros
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
    Mass Transfer and Diffusion in Foods; Optimization Methods in Food Processing and Engineering

    F. J. Francis
    Editor-in-Chief, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Aromatherapy; Biologically Stable Intermediates; Color and Food; Colorants Section; Fruits, Semi-Tropical; Fruits, Temperate; Fruits, Tropical

    Daniel Y. C. Fung
    Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
    Food Fermentation; Foodborne Diseases; Microbiology of Foods; Rapid Methods of Microbiological Analysis

    Carol A. Gallagher
    Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Food Marketing

    Elisabeth L. Garcia
    University of California, Davis, California
    Food Safety and Risk Communication; Food Safety and Risk Management; Pesticide Residues in Food; Toxicology and Risk Assessment

    David R. Gard
    Solutia, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri
    Phosphates and Food Processing

    Marianne H. Gellette
    McCormick Co., Inc., Hunt Valley, Maryland
    Vanilla Extract

    Aristippos Gennadios
    Banner Pharmacaps, Inc., High Point, North Carolina
    Edible Films and Coatings

    Richard J. George
    Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Food Marketing

    Shibani A. Ghosh
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Affluence, Food Excess, and Nutritional Disorders; Hunger, Food Deprivation, and Nutritional Disorders

    Linda Gilbert
    HealthFocus, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa
    Vegetarian and Vegetarian-Aware Eating Trends

    H. Douglas Goff
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Food Preservation

    M. M. Góngora-Nieto
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Water Activity: Microbiology

    J. Richard Gorham
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland
    Filth and Extraneous Matter in Food

    Harold N. Graham
    New York City, New York
    Caffeine; Tannins; Tea

    Bob Graves
    Balchem Corporation, Slate Hill, New York
    Encapsulation Techniques

    Bruce Greenberg
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Photosynthesis

    Scott M. Griffith
    Admix, Inc., Manchester, New Hampshire
    Beverages: Carbonated; Beverages: Noncarbonated

    James A. Guzinski
    Kalsec, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan
    Spices and Herbs: Natural Extractives

    Norman F. Haard
    University of California, Davis, California
    Marine Enzymes

    Leigh Hadden White
    Häagen-Dazs Research and Development, Edina, Minnesota
    Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert

    R. L. Hall
    Baltimore, Maryland
    International Union of Food Science and Technology

    Yong D. Hang
    Cornell University, Geneva, New York
    Waste Management: Fruits and Vegetables

    Milford A. Hanna
    University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
    Edible Films and Coatings

    Robert Harkins
    North Brunswick, New Jersey
    Sugar: Substitutes, Bulk, Reduced Calorie

    Ronald D. Harris
    Kraft General Foods, Inc., Glenview, Illinois
    Cheese

    Robert C. Hastert
    Hastech Corporation, Omaha, Nebraska
    Hydrogenation

    James G. Hawkes
    Continental Colloids, Inc., Chicago, Illinois
    Food Processing: Effect on Nutritional Quality

    Jim Heber
    Helsingborg, Sweden
    Freezing Systems for the Food Industry

    Susan L. Hefle
    University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
    Food Allergy

    Barbara B. Heidolph
    Solutia, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri
    Phosphates and Food Processing

    C. P. Herman
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Appetite

    David Hettinga
    Land O' Lakes, Arden Hills, Minnesota
    Butter and Butter Products

    S. Hill
    International Food Information Service, Reading, United Kingdom
    International Food Information Service (IFIS)

    John T. Hines
    Kraft General Foods, Inc., Glenview, Illinois
    Cheese

    Alan R. Hirsch
    Smell and Taste Treatment and Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois
    Aphrodisiacs and Stimulants

    Arnold L. Hirsch
    Alpharma, Inc.
    Vitamins: Vitamin D

    Edward Hirsch
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Y. C. Ho
    Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
    Packaging: Part I—General Considerations; Packaging: Part III—Materials

    Patrick G. Hoffman
    McCormick Co., Inc., Hunt Valley, Maryland
    Vanilla Extract

    Stefan Hogekamp
    Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Agglomeration and Agglomerator Systems

    David N. Holcomb
    Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Rheology

    Stanley Holgate
    U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts
    United States: Armed Forces Food Research and Development

    D. E. Hood
    Baltimore, Maryland
    International Union of Food Science and Technology

    R. Carl Hoseney
    R R Research Services, Manhattan, Kansas
    Cereals Science and Technology

    R. J. Hron
    USDA, Southern Regional Research Center
    Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils

    Fu-hung Hsieh
    University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
    Extrusion; Extrusion Cooking; Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis

    Victor Huang
    Research and Development, Edina, Minnesota
    Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert

    Y. H. Hui
    American Food and Nutrition Center, Cutten, California
    Alkaloids; Cultural Nutrition; Food Processing: Standard Industrial Classification; Food Utilization; Shellfish; Soybeans and Soybean Processing

    W. Jeffrey Hurst
    Hershey Foods Technical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania
    Laboratory Robotics and Automation

    Robert L. Jackman
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Proteins: Denaturation and Food Processing

    Lauren Jackson
    FDA-NCFST, Argo, Illinois
    Mycotoxin Analysis

    Claude Janelle
    Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    International Development: Canada

    D. S. Jayas
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Cleaning-in-Place (CIP); Energy Usage in Food Processing Plants

    P. Jelen
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Whey: Composition, Properties, Processing, and Uses

    B. Jessen
    Danish Meat Research Institute, Roskilde, Denmark
    Meat Starter Cultures and Meat Product Manufacturing

    Mark Kantor
    University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
    Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    George Katsushi Iwama
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Fishes: Anatomy and Physiology; Fishes: Species of Economic Importance

    Frances Katz
    Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, Illinois
    Institute of Food Technologists (IFT)

    Tetsuya Kawakita
    Ajinomoto Company, Inc., Kawasaki, Japan
    Nucleotides; Proteins: Amino Acids

    Michael Keane
    University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    International Development: Ireland

    Patricia Kearney
    PMK Associates, Arlington, Virginia
    Nuts

    J. F. Kefford
    North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia
    International Development: Australia

    D. Mark Kettunen
    General Foods USA, Tarrytown, New York
    Snack Food Technology

    George G. Khachatourians
    University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    Genetic Engineering: Principles and Applications

    J. W. Kiceniuk
    Fernleigh House, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Lobster: Biology and Technology

    Seok Joong Kim
    The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas
    Phytochemicals: Melatonin

    K. J. Kirkpatrick
    New Zealand Dairy Board, Wellington, New Zealand
    Dairy Ingredients for Foods

    Donald Klingborg
    University of California, Davis, California
    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

    William H. Knightly
    Emulsion Technology, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware
    Emulsifier Technology in Foods

    Hannu Korkeala
    VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, VTT, Finland
    International Development: Finland

    Penny M. Kris-Etherton
    Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
    Lipids: Nutrition

    David Kritchevsky
    The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Cancer Risk and Diet

    Donald H. Kropf
    Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
    Meat, Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Volker Kuellmer
    Hoffman-La Roche, Inc.
    Vitamins: Ascorbic Acid

    Rauno Lampi
    Westboro, Massachusetts
    Retort Pouch

    Duane K. Larick
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
    Poultry Flavors

    A. K. Lau
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Evaporation

    Chang Y. Lee
    Cornell University, Geneva, New York
    Browning Reaction, Enzymatic; Phenolic Compounds

    Chong M. Lee
    University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island
    Surimi: Science and Technology

    Lothar Leistner
    Federal Centre for Meat Research, Kulmbach, Germany
    Hurdle Technology

    D. Paul Leitch
    U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts
    United States: Armed Forces Food Research and Development

    Eunice C. Y. Li-Chan
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Hydrophobicity in Food Protein Systems

    Hanhua Liang
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
    Mass Transfer and Diffusion in Foods

    I Chiu Liao
    Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute, Keelung, Taiwan
    Eel

    Rong C. Lin
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.
    Water Activity: Good Manufacturing Practice

    Rudy R. Lin
    Swift-Eckrich, Inc., Downers Grove, Illinois
    Elastins and Meat Ligaments

    Miia Lindström
    VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, VTT, Finland
    International Development: Finland

    Ming-Sai Liu
    Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    Bamboo Shoots

    John K. Lodge
    University of California, Berkeley, California
    Phytochemicals: Lipoic Acid

    Goran Löndahl
    Helsingborg, Sweden
    Freezing Systems for the Food Industry

    Austin R. Long
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
    Antibiotics in Foods of Animal Origin

    G. R. Longdill
    Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Meat Slaughtering and Processing Equipment

    A. López-Malo
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Water Activity: Microbiology

    B. S. Luh
    University of California, Davis, California
    Vegetable Processing

    Ted M. Lupina
    Kalsec, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan
    Spices and Herbs: Natural Extractives

    Bernadene Magnuson
    University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho
    Food Toxicology

    Raymond R. Mahoney
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Enzymology; Immobilized Enzymes

    Charles H. Manley
    Takasago International Corporation, USA, Inc., Teterboro, New Jersey
    Dairy Flavors

    Robert A. Martin
    Hershey Foods Technical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania
    Laboratory Robotics and Automation

    Paul R. Mathewson
    Food Technology Resource Group, Park City, Utah
    Enzymes in Food Production

    Donald N. Maynard
    University of Florida, Bradenton, Florida
    Vegetable Production

    G. Mazza
    Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada
    Functional Foods

    Terry L. McAninch
    Birko Corporation, Westminster, Colorado
    Detergents

    Julian McClements
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Food Analysis

    B. E. McDonald
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Canola Oil

    Richard R. McFeaters
    Nabisco, Inc., East Hanover, New Jersey
    Biscuit and Cracker Technology

    Martina McGloughlin
    University of California, Davis, California
    Genetic Engineering: Animals

    John U. McGregor
    Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
    Cultured Milk Products

    Kristen McNutt
    Consumer Choices, Inc., Winfield, Illinois
    Food and Nutrition Science Alliance Organizations

    M. Medina
    National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA), Madrid, Spain
    International Development: Spain

    M. A. A. Meireles
    State University of Campinas
    UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil

    Supercritical Fluid Technology

    H. H. Meissner
    ARCAnimal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute, Irene, South Africa
    International Development: South Africa

    Alice Meyer
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Suzette Middleton
    Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio
    Fats and Oils: Substitutes

    A. J. Miller
    United States Department of Agriculture, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Sausages

    J. David Miller
    Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Mycotoxins

    David B. Min
    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
    Fats and Oils: Flavors

    Enrico Miniati
    Perugia University, Perugia, Italy
    Phytochemicals: Vaccinium

    Vikram V. Mistry
    South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota
    Milk and Milk Products

    Peter L. Montagne
    Sharples, Inc., Warminster, Pennsylvania
    Centrifuges: Principles and Applications

    Alanna J. Moshfegh
    USDA / ARS, Beltsville, Maryland
    Food Consumption Surveys in the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Howard R. Moskowitz
    Moskowitz Jacobs Inc., White Plains, New York
    Sensory Science: Principles and Applications

    K. Darwin Murrell
    USDA / ARS / NRRC, Peoria, Illinois
    Parasitic Organisms

    Eric C. Mussen
    University of California Entomology Extension, Davis, California
    Beekeeping

    S. Nakai
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Proteins: Structure and Functionality

    Ananth Narayan
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Jennifer Near
    University of California, Davis, California
    Poultry: Meat From Avian Species

    A. C. Noble
    University of California, Davis, California
    Wine

    John Norback
    University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
    Food Processing: Technology, Engineering, and Management

    M. Nuñez
    National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA), Madrid, Spain
    International Development: Spain

    K. Rajinder Nuath
    Kraft, General Foods, Inc., Glenview, Illinois
    Cheese

    John O'Brien
    University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom
    International Development: United Kingdom

    Robert Olsen
    Schreiber Foods, Inc., Tempe, Arizona
    Artificial Intelligence; Computer Applications in the Food Industry

    B. Dave Oomah
    Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada
    Functional Foods

    Jose M. Ordovas
    Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts
    Olives and Olive Oil

    Thomas M. Ott
    Purepulse Technologies, Westwood, New Jersey
    Pulsed Light Processing

    Robert A. Outten
    Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.
    Vitamins: Biotin

    Joseph L. Owades
    Consultant, Sonoma, California
    Alcoholic Beverages and Human Responses; Beer; Distilled Beverage Spirits

    Lester Packer
    University of California, Berkeley, California
    Phytochemicals: Lipoic Acid

    Mahesh Padmanabhan
    University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota
    Extrusion Processing: Texture and Rheology

    Patti Pagliuco
    Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, Illinois
    Institute of Food Technologists: Awards

    William D. Pandolfe
    APV Americas-Homogenizers, Wilmington, Massachusetts
    Colloid Mills; Homogenizers

    Robert Parker
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
    Phytochemicals: Carotenoids

    John G. Parsons
    South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota
    Milk and Milk Products

    Kenneth G. Payie
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Proteins: Denaturation and Food Processing

    Peter L. Pellett
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Affluence, Food Excess, and Nutritional Disorders; Hunger, Food Deprivation, and Nutritional Disorders

    Per Oskar Persson
    Helsingborg, Sweden
    Freezing Systems for the Food Industry

    J. F. Pfeiffer
    University of California, Davis, California
    Wine

    Thomas W. Phillips
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma
    Postharvest Integrated Pest Management

    Raul H. Piedrahita
    University of California, Davis, California
    Aquaculture: Engineering and Construction

    George M. Pigott
    Sea Resources Engineering, Inc., Kirkland, Washington
    Extraction; Fish and Shellfish Products; Heat; Heat Exchangers; Heat Transfer; Thermodynamics

    J. Terry Pitts
    USDA / ARS, Manhattan, Kansas
    Grains and Protectants

    Y. Pomeranz
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Wheat Science and Technology

    Dorothy Pond-Smith
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Foodservice Systems

    William Porter
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    John J. Powers
    University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
    Food Science and Technology: Definition and Development; Food Science and Technology: The Profession; Institute of Food Technologists: History and Perspectives; Sensory Science: Standardization and Instrumentation

    J. H. Prentice
    Axminster, Devon, United Kingdom
    Cheese Rheology

    R. L. Preston
    Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
    Livestock Feeds

    George Purvis
    Purvis Consulting, Inc., Fremont, Michigan
    Infant Foods

    Jeff Rattray
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
    Mass Transfer and Diffusion in Foods; Optimization Methods in Food Processing and Engineering

    Thimma R. Rawalpally
    Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.
    Vitamins: Folic Acid; Vitamins: Pantothenic Acid

    Carrie E. Regenstein
    University of Rochester, Rochester, New York
    Kosher Foods and Food Processing

    Joe M. Regenstein
    Cornell Information Technologies, Ithaca, New York
    Kosher Foods and Food Processing; Muslim Dietary Laws: Food Processing and Marketing

    D. S. Reid
    University of California, Davis, California
    Food Freezing

    Russel J. Reiter
    The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas
    Phytochemicals: Melatonin

    Mikelle Roeder
    University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho
    Animal Science and Livestock Production

    Richard A. Roeder
    University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho
    Animal Science and Livestock Production

    Debra Rooney
    Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio
    Enteral Formulas and Feeding Systems

    Diane Rosenwald
    Häagen-Dazs Research and Development, Edina, Minnesota
    Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert

    Leif Rynnel
    Helsingborg, Sweden
    Freezing Systems for the Food Industry

    Raymond G. Saba
    Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
    Packaging: Part I—General Considerations; Packaging: Part III—Materials

    Fred W. Schenck
    Sun City, Arizona
    Syrups (Starch Sweeteners and Other Syrups)

    Donald Schlimme
    University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
    Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Glenn R. Schmidt
    Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
    Meat Products

    Helmar Schubert
    Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Agglomeration and Agglomerator Systems

    Gerald L. Schulz
    U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food; United States: Armed Forces Food Research and Development

    Henry G. Schwartzberg
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Coffee; Freeze Concentration; Freeze Drying

    John W. Scott
    Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.
    Vitamins: Survey; Vitamins: Vitamin B12

    V. N. Scott
    National Food Processors Association, Washington, D.C.
    Low-Acid and Acidified Foods

    Jeremy D. Selman
    Campden Food Drink Research Association, Campden, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom
    Blanching

    Amaral Sequeira-Munoz
    University of California, Davis, California
    Marine Enzymes

    P. Shatadal
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Cleaning-in-Place (CIP)

    Kalidas Shetty
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Phytochemicals: Biotechnology of Phenolic Phytochemicals for Food Preservatives and Functional Food Applications; Solid-State Fermentation and ValueAdded Utilization of Fruit and Vegetable Processing By-Products

    Robert L. Shewfelt
    University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
    Food Crops: Postharvest Deterioration; Food Crops: Varietal Differences, Maturation, Ripening, and Senescence

    John M. Siddle
    Nestlé Research and Development Center, Inc., New Milford, Connecticut
    Chilled Foods

    Joseph B. Sieczka
    Cornell University, Riverhead, New York
    Potatoes and Potato Processing

    Juan L. Silva
    Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi
    Machine Vision Systems: Process and Quality Control

    Gerald Silverman
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Benjamin K. Simpson
    University of California, Davis, California
    Marine Enzymes

    Kenneth L. Simpson
    University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island
    Carotenoid Pigments

    Durand Smith
    Cyclopss Corporation, Salt Lake City, Utah
    Ozone and Food Processing

    Jeff L. Smith
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Proteins: Denaturation and Food Processing

    J. F. Smullen
    Hershey Foods Corporation, Hershey Park, Pennsylvania
    Chocolate and Cocoa; Licorice Confectionery

    Laszlo P. Somogyi
    Consulting Food Scientist, Kensington, California
    Food Additives; Fruit Dehydration; Vegetable Dehydration

    Peter Sporns
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Food Chemistry and Biochemistry

    William J. Stadelman
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
    Eggs and Egg Products

    John L. Stanton
    Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Food Marketing

    Aliza Stark
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
    Fiber, Dietary

    Clyde E. Stauffer
    Technical Food Consultants, Cincinnati, Ohio
    Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, and Thickeners; Enzyme Assays for Food Scientists; Bakery Leavening Agents; Bakery Specialty Products

    Donald F. Steenson
    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
    Fats and Oils: Flavors

    Keith H. Steinkraus
    Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    Soy Foods, Fermented

    K. Stevenson
    National Food Processors Association, Dublin, California
    Aseptic Processing and Packaging Systems

    Robert R. Stickney
    Texas Sea Grant College Program, Bryan, Texas
    Aquaculture

    William Stoddard
    Cyclopss Corporation, Salt Lake City, Utah
    Ozone and Food Processing

    G. S. Stoewsand
    Cornell University, Geneva, New York
    Phytochemicals: Wine

    Jean Storlie
    Nutritional Labeling Solutions, Maple Grove, Minnesota
    Packaging: Part II—Labeling

    Jong-Ching Su
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    International Development: Taiwan

    Ellen J. Sullivan
    Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, Illinois
    Food and Nutrition Science Alliance: FANSA

    Taneko Suzuki
    Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan
    Krill Protein Processing

    J. E. Swan
    University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Animal By-Product Processing

    Hugh Symons
    Kingston Upon Thames, England
    Refrigerated Foods: Food Freezing and Processing; Refrigerated Foods: Food Freezing and World Food Supply; Refrigerated Foods: Handling and Inventory

    Bernard F. Szuhal
    Central Soya Company, Inc., Fort Wayne, Indiana
    Lecithins

    Donna R. Tainter
    Tone Brothers, Inc., Ankeny, Iowa
    Spices and Seasonings

    Takuji Tanaka
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Proteins: Denaturation and Food Processing

    M. S. Tapia
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Water Activity: Microbiology

    Irwin Taub
    U.S. Army Natick, Natick, Massachusetts
    Military Food

    Steve L. Taylor
    University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
    Food Allergy

    A. A. Teixeira
    University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
    Thermal Processing of Food

    A. R. Thicker
    Institute for Toxicology and Chemotherapy, Heidelberg, Germany
    Nitrosamines

    Gordon Timbers
    Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    International Development: Canada

    Katherine S. Tippett
    USDA / ARS, Beltsville, Maryland
    Food Consumption Surveys in the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Ross Tomaino
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Phytochemicals: Antioxidants

    Cindy B. S. Tong
    USDA / ARS, Beltsville, Maryland
    Food Crops: Storage

    Susan Trimbo
    Whitehall-Robins, Madison, New Jersey
    Osteoporosis

    M. Tsoubeli
    Campbell Soup Co., Camden, New Jersey
    Food Microstructure

    Marvin A. Tung
    Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Rheology

    F. J. Vaccarino
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Appetite

    Susan D. Van Arnum
    Westfield, New Jersey
    Vitamins: Niacin, Nicotinamide, and Nicotinic Acid; Vitamins: Vitamin A; Vitamins: Vitamin K

    Martien van den Hoven
    Creamy Creations, Rijkevoort, The Netherlands
    Dairy Ingredients: Applications in Meat, Poultry, and Seafoods

    Y. Vodovotz
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas
    Food Microstructure

    A. L. Waldroup
    University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
    Poultry Meat Microbiology

    Michael Sanderson Walker
    PO Nedlloyd, London, United Kingdom
    Refrigerated Foods: Transportation

    Chien Yi Wang
    USDA / ARS, Beltsville, Maryland
    Controlled Atmospheres for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Pie Yi Wang
    Armour Swift-Eckrich, Downers Grove, Illinois
    Meat Processing: Technology and Engineering

    Shaw Wang
    Rutgers University, Piscatawav, New Jersey
    Kinetics; Surface (Interfacial) Tension

    Alley E. Watada
    USDA / ARS, Beltsville, Maryland
    Controlled Atmospheres for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; Food Crops: Storage

    L. M. Weddig
    National Food Processors Association, Washington, D.C.
    Low-Acid and Acidified Foods

    Herb Weiss
    Balchem Corporation, Slate Hill, New York
    Encapsulation Techniques

    John C. Wekell
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington
    Seafood: Flavors and Quality

    Curtis L. Weller
    University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
    Edible Films and Coatings

    Phillip Wells
    Bestfoods North America, Somerset, New Jersey
    Nutritional Labeling

    J. Welti-Chanes
    Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    Water Activity: Microbiology

    R. C. Whiting
    United States Department of Agriculture, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Sausages

    W. W. Widmer
    State of Florida Department of Citrus, Lake Alfred, Florida
    Limonin

    Cecilia Wilkinson Enns
    USDA / ARS, Beltsville, Maryland
    Food Consumption Surveys in the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Carl K. Winter
    University of California, Davis, California
    Food Safety and Risk Communication; Food Safety and Risk Management; Pesticide Residues in Food; Toxicology and Risk Assessment

    Dominic W. S. Wong
    United States Department of Agriculture, Albany, California
    Food Chemistry: Mechanism and Theory; Oxidation

    Adrienne E. Woytowich
    University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    Genetic Engineering: Principles and Applications

    Bih Keng Wu
    Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    Mushrooms: Processing

    Y. Victor Wu
    USDA / ARS, Peoria, Illinois
    Cereals, Nutrients, and Agricultural Practices

    Rickey Y. Yada
    University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Proteins: Denaturation and Food Processing

    Kit L. Yam
    Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
    Packaging: Part I—General Considerations; Packaging: Part III—Materials

    T. C. S. Yang
    U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, Natick, Massachusetts
    Aseptic Processing: Ohmic Heating

    V. A. Yaylayan
    McGill University, St. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
    Flavor Chemistry

    Fumio Yoneda
    Fujimoto Pharmaceutical Corporation
    Vitamins: Riboflavin (B2)

    M. Yoshikawa
    Kobe Women's University, Kobe, Japan
    Peptides

    Gideon Zeidler
    University of California, Davis, California
    Poultry: Meat From Avian Species

    Zuoxing Zheng
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Solid-State Fermentation and Value Added Utilization of Fruit and Vegetable Processing By-Products

    B. L. Zoumas
    Hershey Foods Corporation, Hershey, Pennsylvania
    Chocolate and Cocoa


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