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Wiley Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology
Second Edition
(4-Volume Set)

Editor: Frederick J. Francis

  • Main Page for this Work
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  • ISBN: 0-471-19285-6
    Pages: 3000
    Articles: 400
    Published: October 1999

    Alphabetical Listing of Article Titles


    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


    Affluence, Food Excess and Nutritional Disorders
    Agglomeration and Agglomerator Systems
    Alcoholic Beverages and Human Response
    Animal By-product Processing
    Animal Science and Livestock Production
    Antibiotics in Foods of Animal Origin
    Antimicrobial Compounds
    AOAC International
    Aphrodisiacs and Stimulants
    Aquaculture: Engineering and Construction
    Artificial Intelligence
    Aseptic Processing and Packaging Systems
    Aseptic Processing: Ohmic Heating


    Bakery Leavening Agents
    Bakery Specialty Products
    Bamboo Shoots
    Beverages: Carbonated
    Beverages: Non-carbonated
    Biologically Stable Intermediates
    Biscuit and Cracker Technology
    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
    Breakfast Cereals
    Browning Reaction, Enzymatic
    Butter and Butter Products


    Cancer Risk and Diet
    Canning: Regulatory and Safety Considerations
    Canola Oil
    Carbohydrates. Functionality and Physiological Significance
    Carbohydrates: Classification, Chemistry, Labeling
    Carotenoids Pigments
    Centrifuges: Principles and Applications
    Cereal Science and Technology
    Cereals, Nutrients, and Agricultural Practices
    Cheese Rheology
    Chilled Foods
    Chocolate and Cocoa
    Colloid Mills
    Color and Food
    Computer Applications in the Food Industry
    Controlled Atmospheres for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
    Corrosion and Food Processing
    Crabs and Crab Processing
    Cultural Nutrition
    Cultured Milk Products


    Dairy Flavors
    Dairy Ingredients for Foods
    Dairy Ingredients: Applications in Meat, Poultry and Seafood
    Distillation: Technology and Engineering
    Distilled Beverage Spirits
    Dry Milk
    Dryers: Technology and Engineering


    Edible Films and Coatings
    Eggs and Egg Products
    Elastins and Meat Ligaments
    Emulsifier Technology in Foods
    Emulsifiers, Stabilizers and Thickeners
    Encapsulation Techniques
    Energy Usage in Food Processing Plants
    Enteral Formulas and Feeding Systems
    Enzyme Assays for Food Scientists
    Enzymes in Food Production
    Evaporated Milk
    Evaporators: Technology and Engineering
    Extrusion and Extrusion Cooking
    Extrusion Processing: Texture and Rheology


    FANSA organizations
    Fats and Oils: Chemistry, Physics and Applications
    Fats and Oils: Flavors
    Fats and Oils: Properties, Processing Technology, and Commercial Shortenings
    Fats and Oils: Substitutes
    Fiber, Dietary
    Filth and Extraneous Matter in Food
    Fish and Shellfish Microbiology
    Fish and Shellfish Products
    Fishes: Anatomy and Physiology
    Fishes: Species of Economic Importance
    Flavor Chemistry
    Foams and Silicone in Food Processing
    Food Additives
    Food Allergy
    Food Analysis
    Food and Nutrition Science Alliance. FANSA
    Food Chemistry and Biochemistry
    Food Chemistry: Mechanism and Theory
    Food Consumption Surveys in the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
    Food Crops Storage
    Food Crops: Nondestructive Quality Evaluation
    Food Crops: Postharvest Deterioration
    Food Crops: Varietal Differences, Maturation, Ripe
    Food Engineering
    Food Fermentation
    Food Freezing
    Food Marketing
    Food Microstructure
    Food Plant Design and Construction
    Food Preservation
    Food Processing
    Food Processing: Effect on Nutritional Quality
    Food Processing: Standard Industrial Classification
    Food Processing: Technology, Engineering and Management
    Food Regulations: International, Codex Alimentarius
    Food Safety and Risk Communication
    Food Safety and Risk Management
    Food Safety Education:Consumer
    Food Science and Technology: Definition and Development
    Food Science and Technology: The Profession
    Food Spoilage
    Food Surface Sanitation
    Food Toxicology
    Food Utilization
    Foodborne Diseases
    Foodborne Microorganisms: Detection and Identification
    Foodservice Systems
    Freeze Concentration
    Freeze Drying
    Freezing Systems for the Food Industry
    Fresh Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Modified Atmosphere Packaging
    Fruit Dehydration
    Fruit Preserves and Jellies
    Fruits, Semi-tropical
    Fruits, Temperate
    Fruits, Tropical
    Frying Technology
    Functional Foods


    Genetic Engineering Principles and Applications
    Genetic Engineering: Food Flavors
    Genetic Engineering: Animals
    Grains and Protectants


    Heat Exchangers
    Heat Exchangers: Fouling
    Heat Exchangers: Paraflow
    Heat Exchangers: Plate vs Tabular
    Heat Exchangers: Scraped Surface
    Heat Transfers
    High Pressure Processing
    History of Foods
    Hunger, Food Deprivation and Nutritional Disorders
    Hurdle Technology
    Hydrogen Ion Activity (pH)
    Hydrophobicity in Food Protein Systems


    Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts
    Immobilized Enzymes
    Immunological Methodology
    Infant Foods
    Institute of Food Technologists, Awards
    Institute of Food Technologists. (IFT)
    Institute of Food Technologists: History and Perspectives
    International Development : Finland
    International Development: Australia
    International Development: Canada
    International Development: Germany
    International Development: Ireland
    International Development: New Zealand
    International Development: South Africa
    International Development: Spain
    International Development: Switzerland
    International Development: Taiwan
    International Development: United Kingdom
    International Food Information Service (IFIS)
    International Union of Food Science and Technology
    Irradiation of Foods


    Kosher Foods and Food Processing
    Krill Protein Processing


    Laboratory Robotics and Automation
    Licorice Confectionery
    Lipids: Nutrition
    Livestock Feeds
    Lobster: Biology and Technology
    Low-Acid and Acidified Foods


    Machine Vision Systems: Process and Quality Control
    Malts and Malting
    Marine Enzymes
    Marine Toxins
    Mass Transfer and Diffusion in Foods
    Meat and Electrical Stimulation
    Meat Processing: Technology and Engineering
    Meat Products
    Meat Science
    Meat Slaughtering and Processing Equipment
    Meat Starter Cultures and Meat Product Manufacturing
    Meat, Modified Atmosphere Packaging
    Membrane Filtration Systems
    Membrane Processing
    Microbiology of Foods
    Microwave Science and Technology
    Military Food
    Milk and Milk Products
    Minerals: Micronutrients
    Molecular Modeling: Computer Modeling of Function
    Muscle as Food
    Mushrooms: Cultivation
    Mushrooms: Processing
    Muslim Dietary Laws: Food Processing and Marketing
    Mycotoxin Analysis


    Nutritional Labeling


    Oil Seeds and Their Oils
    Olives and Olive Oil
    Optimization Methods in Food Processing
    Ozone and Food Processing


    Packaging: Part I - General Considerations
    Packaging: Part II - Labeling
    Packaging: Part III - Materials
    Packaging: Part IV - Controlled/Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Food Packaging
    Palm Oil
    Parasitic Organisms
    Pectic Substances
    Pesticide Residues in Foods
    Phenolic Compounds
    Phosphates and Food Processing
    Phytochemicals: Antioxidants
    Phytochemicals: Carotenoids
    Phytochemicals: Lipoic Acid
    Phytochemicals: Melatonin
    Phytochemicals: Vaccinium
    Phytochemicals: Wine
    Phytochemicals:Biotechnology of Phenolic Phytochemicals for Food Preservative and Functional Food Applications
    Post-Harvest Integrated Pest Management
    Potatoes and Potatoes Processing
    Poultry Flavors
    Poultry Meat Microbiology
    Poultry Meat Processing and Product Technology
    Poultry: Meat from Avian Species
    Processed Cheese
    Proteins: Amino Acids
    Proteins: Denaturation and Food Processing
    Proteins: Structure and Functionality
    Pulsed Light Processing


    Quality Assurance


    Rapid Methods of Microbiological Analysis
    Refrigerated Foods: Food Freezing and Processing
    Refrigerated Foods: Food Freezing and World Food Supply
    Refrigerated Foods: Handling and Inventory
    Refrigerated Foods: Transportation
    Retort Pouch


    Seafood: Flavors and Quality
    Seafood: Sensory Evaluation and Freshness
    Seaweed Aquaculture: Taiwan
    Sensors and Food Processing Operations
    Sensory Science: Principles and Applications
    Sensory Science: Standardization and Instrumentation
    Snack Food Technology
    Solid-State Fermentation and Value-Added Utilization of Fruit and Vegetable Processing By-Products
    Soy Foods, Fermented
    Soybeans and Soybeans Processing
    Spices and Herbs: Natural Extractives
    Spices and Seasonings
    Substitutes: Sugar. Bulk Reduced Calorie
    Sugar: Sucrose
    Sulfites and Food
    Supercritical Fluid Technology
    Surface (Interfacial) Tension
    Surimi: Science and Technology
    Sweeteners, Nutritive
    Sweeteners: Nonnutritive
    Syrups (Starch Sweetners and Other Syrups)


    Thermal Processing of Food
    Thermal Sterilization of Liquid Foods
    Toxicants, Natural
    Toxicology and Risk Assessment


    Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis
    United States Food Marketing System
    United States: Armed Forces Food Research and Development
    United States: Department of Agriculture


    Vanilla Extract
    Vegetable Dehydration
    Vegetable Processing
    Vegetable Production
    Vegetables, Pickling
    Vegetarian and Vegetarian-Aware Eating Trends
    Vitamins - Ascorbic acid
    Vitamins - Biotin
    Vitamins - Folic acid
    Vitamins - Niacin, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid
    Vitamins - Pantothenic acid
    Vitamins - Pyrodoxine
    Vitamins - Riboflavin
    Vitamins - Survey
    Vitamins - Thiamine
    Vitamins - Vitamin A
    Vitamins - Vitamin B12
    Vitamins - Vitamin D
    Vitamins - Vitamin E
    Vitamins - Vitamin K


    Waste Management: Animal Processing
    Waste Management: Fruits and Vegetables
    Water Activity: Food Texture
    Water Activity: Good Manufacturing Practice
    Water Activity: Microbiology
    Wheat Science and Technology
    Whey: Composition, Properties, Processing & Uses


    The preface to the First Edition of the encyclopedia provided a detailed account of its breadth and aims. This breadth is maintained in the Second Edition and enlarged to include more of the associated areas of food science. A number of these areas are of current prime importance, including food safety, functional foods, and neutraceuticals. Seventy years ago, when the discipline of food science and technology was first introduced, the accepted definition was the science concerned with food "from the farm gate to the consumer." It later became obvious that many of the conditions associated with conventional agricultural production practices had a definite impact on the quality and quantity of the resultant food, so the lines between agricultural production and food science and technology became blurred.

    The above definition of food science and technology was appropriate for food production techniques in the early part of the twentieth century. We were primarily dependent on fresh fruits and vegetables in season and meats, augmented by commodities which could be easily stored such as grains, root crops, dried fruits and fermented foods, and beverages. The "New England boiled dinner," composed of corned beef, potatoes, carrots, cabbage,turnips, onions, and parsnips, was a good example. A major change from a seasonal concept of food supply to a processed system occurred in the 1920s with the development of food preservation techniques such as conning, freezing, dehydration, and chemical preservation. When this was combined with developments in packaging, storage, transportation, and consumer marketing, the rate of change to a processed-food society was speeded up. Today we have the advantages of a stable processed food supply combined with fresh fruits and vegetables produced locally and also shipped in from other countries. This has produced the best of both systems, but it has some problems. The concentration of production, packaging, storage, and transportation into large units has increased the possibility of contamination with chemicals and microorganisms, a major concern of regulatory official; it may also be a source of concern for readers of this encyclopedia. Hopefully, the sections on food safety, estimation of risk, interpretation of risk, and management of risk will allay the fears for the safety of the global food supply.

    Another change in the concept of food science and technology occurred in the 1950s with increased concern over adequate nutrition in food and the nutrition delivery system. The science of nutrition at that point had developed to the point where meaningful predictions could be made on the effect of components in the food supply on the health and well-being of the populace. This led to increased emphasis on food processors to maintain the nutritive value of their products in order to supply the "Acceptable Daily Intake" recommended by governmental and other agencies. However, maintenance of nutrients already present in food was not enough, and the science of fortification was developed primarily to prevent the development of conditions which could lead to a deterioration in the overall health of the individual. This concept was enlarged to encompass components of the diet which were not necessarily related to deficiencies and disease but were related to overall well-being. This led to the concept of "Neutraceuticals," components which combine nutritive and pharmaceutical properties. The term "functional foods" was also introduces to describe components which have a technological function in foods as well as a nutritive or health benefit. Both areas are rapidly expanding and may be of interest to readers of this encyclopedia.


    There are three groups of people who make possible the completion of a work of this size: the Editorial Board, the contributors, and the production personnel. The members of the Editorial Board were chosen for their understanding of particular areas of food science and technology that I thought should be given more consideration in the Second Edition. I believed that the First Edition had an excellent set of papers, primarily in technology, and I wanted to build on that base. All of the editors enjoy a superb reputation in their respective fields and I am grateful to them for their willingness to share opinions and expertise. The contributors supplied the real foundation for the encyclopedia and I am most grateful for their willingness to contribute their time and energy to write the papers. This expression of professionalism is reassuring for the future of the discipline. Finally, I would like to thank the group of professionals at Wiley for their administrative support in what otherwise would be an overwhelming assignment.

    Frederick J. Francis
    Amherst, Massachusetts

    Preface to the First Edition

    Although this encyclopedia is designed for food scientists and technologists, it also contains information useful to food engineers, chemists, biologists, ingredient suppliers, and other professionals involved in the food chain.

    The topics selected are based on the following frame of reference:

    A. Basic and Applied Sciences

    1. Biology: botany, bacteriology, microbiology, mycology, eg, photosynthesis, food microbiology, mycotoxins.
    2. Chemistry: Biochemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, radiochemistry, forensic chemistry, eg, food chemistry, food analysis, interesterification, emulsification.
    3. Physics: rheology, thermodynamics, cryogenics, radiophysics, ultrasonics, eg, food rheology, thermodynamics, microwave, irradiation.
    4. Nutrition: basic, applied, and clinical nutrition, eg, nutrition, protein, energy, dietetics, nutritional quality and food processing.
    5. Psychology: sensory behaviors, eg, food and color, sensory sciences, taste and odor.
    6. Medicine: metabolisms, toxicology, heart diseases, eg, food utilization, cholesterol, foodborne diseases.
    7. Economics: marketing, development, eg, food marketing, food industry economic development.
    8. Integrated sciences: history of foods, food structure.

    B. Processing Technology, Engineering, and the Twenty-three Unit Operations

    1. Raw material preparation, eg, apricots and apricot processing, milk and milk product.
    2. Size reduction, eg, potato and potato processing, crabs and crab processing.
    3. Mixing and forming , eg, confectionery, biscuits and cracker technology.
    4. Mechanical separations, eg, meat processing technology, cheeses, poultry product and technology.
    5. Membrane concentration, eg, milk and membrane technology.
    6. Biotechnology, eg, genetic engineering
    7. Irradiation, eg, irradiation
    8. Blanching, eg, blanching, vegetables processing,
    9. Pasteurization, eg, yogurt
    10. Heat sterilization, eg, aseptic processing,
    11. Evaporation, eg, evaporation, distillation, heat transfer, heat exchangers
    12. Extrusion, eg, extrusion and extrusion cooking, snack foods
    13. Dehydration, eg, fruit dehydration, vegetable dehydration, drier technology and engineering
    14. Baking and roasting, eg, baking science and technology, breakfast cereals
    15. Frying, eg, frying technology, fats and oils
    16. Microwave and infrared radiation, eg, microwave science and technology
    17. Chilling and controlled-(modified-)atmosphere storage, eg, chilled foods, controlled atmospheres for fresh fruits and vegetables, packaging and modified atmospheres.
    18. Freezing, eg, food freezing, freezing systems, refrigerated foods
    19. Freeze drying and freeze concentration, eg, freeze drying, driers technology and engineering.
    20. Coating or enrobing, eg, fish and shellfish products, poultry processing technology
    21. Packaging, eg, packaging materials, packaging and labeling
    22. Filling and sealing of containers, eg, aseptic processing and packaging
    23. Materials handling and process control, eg, computer food processing, artificial intelligence, expert systems

    C. Food Laws and Regulations

      Basic principles, eg, food laws and regulation
    1. Food identity, eg, standards and grades
    2. Food chemicals, eg, food additives
    3. Health and safety, eg, sanitation
    4. Food processing plants, eg, food plant design and construction, food processing: standard industrial classifications.
    5. Food plant inspection, eg, food laws and regulations.

    Apart from members of the editorial advisory board, hundreds of professionals in the academic, industry, and government have personally counseled me on many aspects of the work. Their combined effort is reflected in the articles in this encyclopedia: appropriateness of the selection of topics; diverse expertise and background of each contributor; the excellent treatment of each article. The users are the best judge of these claims.

    A small portion of the text is devoted to cover nontechnical data:

    1. Descriptions of selected scientific institutions, eg, Institute of Food Technologists.
    2. Food science and technology in selected countries in the world, eg, International Development: South Africa.
    3. Research and development in major U.S. government agencies, eg, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


    Basically, there are three groups of people who make the completion of this large work possible: the advisors, the contributors, and the production personnel.

    The advisors include the members of the editorial board, my friends, colleagues, and other experts. They helped me to formulate the subject matters, select contributors and reviewers, and solve scientific, technical, and engineering matters. ALthough it is not possible to name them all here, they are the foundation of the project. And I am grateful to them.

    The contributors are the components and parts and give substance to the encyclopedia. Their contribution is most appreciated.

    The production team puts the parts together and you are the best judge of their professionalism. Personally, I am specially grateful to Michalina Bickford, the managing editor for he encyclopedia.

    The support of my family will always be appreciated.

    Y.H. Hui
    Cutten, California

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