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Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology
Fourth Edition
(27-Volume Set)

Executive Editor: Jacqueline I. Kroschwitz
Editor: Mary Howe-Grant

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  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors



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    Kirk-Othmer Online

    Table of Contents

    Preface

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    A

    Ablative Materials
    Abrasives
    Absorption
    Acetaldehyde
    Acetal Resins
    Acetic Acid and Derivatives
    Acetone
    Acetylene-Derived Chemicals
    Acrolein and Derivatives
    Acrylamide
    Acrylamide Polymers
    Acrylic Acid and Derivatives
    Acrylic Ester Polymers
    Acrylonitrile
    Acrylonitrile Polymers
    Actinides and Transactinides
    Adhesives
    Adipic Acid
    Adsorption
    Adsorption, Gas Separation
    Adsorption, Liquid Separation
    Advanced Ceramics
    Aeration
    Aerogels
    Aerosols
    Air Conditioning
    Air Pollution
    Air Pollution Control Methods
    Alcohol Fuels
    Alcohols, Higher Aliphatic
    Alcohols, Polyhydric
    Aldehydes
    Alkali and Chlorine Products
    Alkaloids
    Alkanolamines
    Alkoxides, Metals
    Alkyd Resins
    Alkylation
    Alkylphenols
    Allyl Alcohol and Derivatives
    Allyl Monomers and Polymers
    Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
    Aluminum and Aluminum Compounds
    Amides, Fatty Acid
    Amine Oxides
    Amines
    Amines by Reduction
    Amino Acids
    Aminophenols
    Amino Resins and Plastics
    Ammonia
    Ammonium Compounds
    Amyl Alcohols
    Analgesics, Antipyretics, and Antiinflammatory Agents
    Analytical Methods
    Anesthetics
    Anthraquinone
    Antiaging Agents
    Antiasthmatic Agents
    Antibacterial Agents
    Antibiotics
    Antifreezes and Deicing Fluids
    Antimony and Antimony Alloys
    Antimony Compounds
    Antiobesity Drugs
    Antioxidants
    Antiozonants
    Antiparasitic Agents
    Antistatic Agents
    Antiviral Agents
    Aquaculture
    Aquaculture Chemicals
    Arsenic and Arsenic Alloys
    Arsenic Compounds
    Asbestos
    Asphalt
    Atmospheric Modeling
    Automated Instrumentation
    Aviation and Other Gas Turbine Fuels
    Azine Dyes
    Azo Dyes

    B

    Bakery Processes and Leavening Agents
    Barium
    Barium Compounds
    Barrier Polymers
    Batteries
    Bearing Materials
    Beer
    Benzaldehyde
    Benzene
    Benzoic Acid
    Benzyl Alcohol and ß-Phenethyl Alcohol
    Beryllium and Beryllium Alloys
    Beryllium Compounds
    Beverage Spirits, Distilled
    Biopolymers
    Bioremediation
    Biosensors
    Bioseparations
    Biotechnology
    Biphenyl and Terphenyls
    Bismuth and Bismuth Alloys
    Bismuth Compounds
    Bleaching Agents
    Blood, Artificial
    Blood, Coagulants and Anticoagulants
    Boron, Elemental
    Boron Compounds
    Brake Linings and Clutch Facings
    Bromine
    Bromine Compounds
    BTX Processing
    Building Materials
    Butadiene
    Butyl Alcohols
    Butylenes
    Butyraldehydes

    C

    Cadmium and Cadmium Alloys
    Cadmium Compounds
    Calcium and Calcium Alloys
    Calcium Compounds
    Caprolactam
    Carbamic Acid
    Carbides
    Carbohydrates
    Carbon
    Carbon and Graphite Fibers
    Carbonated Beverages
    Carbon Dioxide
    Carbon Disulfide
    Carbonic and Carbonochloridic Esters
    Carbon Monoxide
    Carbonyls
    Carboxylic Acids
    Cardiovascular Agents
    Castor Oil
    Catalysis
    Catalysis, Phase-transfer
    Catalysts
    Cell Culture Technology
    Cellulose
    Cellulose Esters
    Cellulose Ethers
    Cement
    Ceramics
    Ceramics as Electrical Materials
    Cerium and Cerium Compounds
    Cesium and Cesium Compounds
    Chelating Agents
    Chemicals in War
    Chemicals from Brine
    Chemometrics
    Chemotherapeutics, Anticancer
    Chemurgy
    Chloramines and Bromamines
    Chlorine Oxygen Acids and Salts
    Chlorocarbons and Chlorohydrocarbons
    Chorohydrins
    Chlorophenols
    Chlorosulfuric Acid
    Chocolate and Cocoa
    Choline
    Chromatography
    Chromium and Chromium Alloys
    Chromium Compounds
    Chromogenic Materials
    Cinnamic Acid, Cinnamaldehyde, and Cinnamyl Alcohol
    Citric Acid
    Clays
    Coal
    Coal Conversion Processes
    Coated Fabrics
    Coating Processes
    Coatings
    Coatings, Marine
    Cobalt and Cobalt Alloys
    Cobalt Compounds
    Coffee
    Colloids
    Color
    Colorants for Ceramics
    Colorants for Food, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices
    Colorants for Plastics
    Color Photography
    Color Photography, Instant
    Combustion Science and Technology
    Composite Materials
    Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM)
    Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)
    Computer Technology
    Contact Lenses
    Contraceptives
    Controlled Release Technology
    Conveying
    Coordination Compounds
    Copolymers
    Copper
    Cooper Alloys
    Copper Compounds
    Copyrights and Trademarks
    Corrosion and Corrosion Control
    Cosmetics
    Cotton
    Coumarin
    Cryogenics
    Crystallization
    Cumene
    Cyanamides
    Cyanides
    Cyanine Dyes
    Cyanocarbons
    Cyanohydrins
    Cyanuric and Isocyanuric Acids
    Cylcohexanol and Cyclohexanone
    Cyclopentadiene and Dicyclopentadiene

    D

    Dairy Substitutes
    Databases
    Defoamers
    Dental Materials
    Dentifrices
    Desiccants
    Design of Experiments
    Detergency
    Deuterium and Tritium
    Dewatering
    Dialysis
    Diamines and Higher Amines, Aliphatic
    Diatomite
    Dicarboxylic Acids
    Dietary Fiber
    Diffusion Separation Methods
    Dimensional Analysis
    Dimer Acids
    Disinfectants and Antiseptics
    Dispersants
    Distillation
    Distillation, Azeotropic and Extractive
    Diuretic Agents
    Driers and Metallic Soaps
    Drug Delivery Systems
    Drying
    Drying Oils
    Dye Carriers
    Dyes and Dye Intermediates
    Dyes, Anthraquinone
    Dyes, Application and Evaluation
    Dyes, Environmental Chemistry
    Dyes, Natural
    Dyes, Reactive
    Dyes, Sensitizing

    E

    Economic Evaluation
    Eggs
    Elastomers, Synthetic
    Electrical Connectors
    Electrically Conductive Polymers
    Electroanalytical Techniques
    Electrochemical Processing
    Electroless Plating
    Electronic Materials
    Electronics, Coatings
    Electrophotography
    Electroplating
    Electroseparations
    Embedding
    Emulsions
    Enamels, Porcelain or Vitreous
    Energy Management
    Engineering, Chemical Data Correlation
    Engineering Plastics
    Environmental Impact
    Enzyme Applications
    Enzyme Inhibitors
    Enzymes in Organic Synthesis
    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
    Epoxy Resins
    Esterification
    Esters, Organic
    Ethanol
    Ethers
    Ethylene
    Ethylene Oxide
    Evaporation
    Exhaust Control, Automotive
    Exhaust Control, Industrial
    Expectorants, Antitussives, and Related Agents
    Expert Systems
    Explosives and Propellants
    Extraction
    Extraterrestrial Materials

    F

    Fans and Blowers
    Fat Replacers
    Fats and Fatty Oils
    Feeds and Feed Additives
    Feedstocks
    Fermentation
    Ferrites
    Ferroelectrics
    Fertilizers
    Fiber Optics
    Fibers
    Fillers
    Film and Sheeting Materials
    Filtration
    Fine Art Examination and Conservation
    Fine Chemicals
    Flame Retardants
    Flame Retardants for Textiles
    Flavor Characterization
    Flavors and Spices
    Flocculating Agents
    Flotation
    Flow Measurement
    Fluidization
    Fluid Mechanics
    Fluorescent Whitening Agents
    Fluorine
    Fluorine Compounds, Inorganic
    Fluorine Compounds, Organic
    Foamed Plastics
    Foams
    Food Additives
    Food Packaging
    Food Processing
    Foods, Nonconventional
    Food Toxicants, Naturally Occurring
    Forensic Chemistry
    Formaldehyde
    Formic Acid and Derivatives
    Fractionation, Blood
    Fracture Mechanics
    Friedel-Crafts Reactions
    Fruit Juices
    Fuel Cells
    Fuel Resources
    Fuels from Biomass
    Fuels from Waste
    Fuels, Synthetic
    Fungicides, Agricultural
    Furan Derivatives
    Furnaces, Electric
    Furnaces, Fuel-Fired
    Fusion Energy

    G

    Gallium and Gallium Compounds
    Gas, Natural
    Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels
    Gastrointestinal Agents
    Gelatin
    Gemstones
    Genetic Engineering
    Geotextiles
    Geothermal Energy
    Germanium and Germanium Compounds
    Glass
    Glass-Ceramics
    Glasses, Organic-Inorganic Hybrids
    Glassy Metals
    Glycerol
    Glycols
    Gold and Gold Compounds
    Grignard Reactions
    Groundwater Monitoring
    Growth Regulators
    Gums

    H

    Hafnium and Hafnium Compounds
    Hair Preparations
    Hardness
    Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment
    Heat-Exchange Technology
    Heat-Resistant Polymers
    Heat Stabilizers
    Helium Group
    Hemicellulose
    Herbicides
    High Performance Fibers
    High Pressure Technology
    High Purity Gases
    High Temperature Alloys
    Histamine and Histamine Antagonists
    Hollow-Fiber Membranes
    Holography
    Hormones
    Hormones, Adrenal-Cortical
    Hydantoin and Its Derivatives
    Hydraulic Fluids
    Hydrazine and Its Derivatives
    Hydrides
    Hydroboration
    Hydrocarbon Oxidation
    Hydrocarbon Resins
    Hydrocarbons
    Hydrogen
    Hydrogen Chloride
    Hydrogen Energy
    Hydrogen-Ion Activity
    Hydrogen Peroxide
    Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, and Catechol
    Hydrothermal Processing
    Hydroxybenzaldehydes
    Hydroxycarboxylic Acids
    Hydroxy Dicarboxylic Acids
    Hypnotics, Sedatives, Anticonvulsants, and Anxiolytics

    I

    Imaging Technology
    Imines, Cyclic
    Immunoassay
    Immunotherapeutic Agents
    Incinerators
    Inclusion Compounds
    Indium and Indium Compounds
    Indole
    Industrial Antimicrobial Agents
    Industrial Hygiene
    Information Retrieval
    Information Storage Materials
    Infrared Technology and Raman Spectroscopy
    Initiators
    Inks
    Inorganic High Polymers
    Insect Control Technology
    Insulation, Acoustic
    Insulation, Electric
    Insulation, Thermal
    Insulin and Other Antidiabetic Agents
    Integrated Circuits
    Iodine and Iodine Compounds
    Ion Exchange
    Ion Implantation
    Ionomers
    Iron
    Iron by Direct Reduction
    Iron Compounds
    Isocyanates, Organic
    Isoprene
    Itaconic Acid

    K

    Ketenes, Ketene Dimers, and Other Related Substances
    Ketones
    Kinetic Measurements

    L

    Laboratory Information Management Systems
    Laminated Materials, Glass
    Laminated Materials, Plastic
    Lanthanides
    Lasers
    Latex Technology
    Lead
    Lead Alloys
    Lead Compounds
    Leather
    Leather-Like Materials
    Lecithin
    Licensing
    Light Generation
    Lignin
    Lignite and Brown Coal
    Lime and Limestone
    Liquefied Petroleum Gas
    Liquid Crystalline Materials
    Liquid Level Measurement
    Lithium and Lithium Compounds
    Lithographic Resists
    Lubrication and Lubricants
    Luminescent Materials

    M

    Machining Methods, Electrochemical
    Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
    Magnesium Compounds
    Magnetic Materials
    Magnetic Spin Resonance
    Magnetohydrodynamics
    Maintenance
    Maleic Anhydride, Maleic Acid, and Fumaric Acid
    Malonic Acid and Derivatives
    Malts and Malting
    Manganese and Manganese Alloys
    Manganese Compounds
    Market and Marketing Research
    Mass Spectrometry
    Matches
    Materials Reliability
    Materials Standards and Specifications
    Meat Products
    Medical Diagnostic Reagents
    Medical Imaging Technology
    Membrane Technology
    Memory-Enchancing Drugs
    Mercury
    Mercury Compounds
    Metal Anodes
    Metallic Coatings
    Metallurgy
    Metal-Matrix Composites
    Metal Surface Treatments
    Metal Treatments
    Methacrylic Acid and Derivatives
    Methacrylic Polymers
    Methanol
    Mica
    Microbial and Viral Filtration
    Microbial Polysaccharides
    Microbial Transformations
    Microemulsions
    Microencapsulation
    Microscopy
    Microwave Technology
    Milk and Milk Products
    Mineral Nutrients
    Minerals Recovery and Processing
    Mixing and Blending
    Molecular Modeling
    Molecular Recognition
    Molecular Sieves
    Molybdenum and Molybdenum Alloys
    Molybdenum Compounds

    N

    Nanotechnology
    Naphthalene
    Naphthalene Derivatives
    Naphthenic Acids
    Neuroregulators
    Nickel and Nickel Alloys
    Nickel Compounds
    Niobium and Niobium Compounds
    Nitration
    Nitric Acid
    Nitrides
    Nitriles
    Nitro Alcohols
    Nitrobenzene and Nitrotoluenes
    Nitrogen
    Nitrogen Fixation
    Nitroparaffins
    N-Nitrosamines
    Nomenclature
    Nondestructive Evaluation
    Nonlinear Optical Materials
    Nonwoven Fabrics
    Nuclear Reactors
    Nucleic Acids
    Nuts

    O

    Ocean Raw Materials
    Odor Modification
    Oils, Essential
    Oil Shale
    Olefin Polymers
    Olefins, Higher
    Opioids, Endogenous
    Oxalic Acid
    Oxo Process
    Oxygen
    Oxygen-Generation Systems
    Ozone

    P

    Packaging
    Paint
    Paper
    Papermaking Additives
    Patents and Trade Secrets
    Patents, Literature
    Perchloric Acid and Perchlorates
    Perfumes
    Peroxides and Peroxide Compounds
    Pesticides
    Petroleum
    Pharmaceuticals
    Pharmaceuticals, Chiral
    Pharmacodynamics
    Phenol
    Phenolic Resins
    Phosgene
    Phosphine and Its Derivatives
    Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates
    Phosphorus
    Phosphorus Compounds
    Photochemical Technology
    Photoconductive Polymers
    Photodetectors
    Photography
    Photovoltaic Cells
    Phthalic Acids and Other Benzenepolycarboxylic Acids
    Phthalocyanine Compounds
    Pigment Dispersions
    Pigments
    Pilot Plants
    Pipelines
    Piping Systems
    Plant Layout
    Plant Location
    Plant Safety
    Plasma Technology
    Plasticizers
    Plastics Processing
    Plastics Testing
    Platinum-Group Metals
    Platinum-Group Metals, Compounds
    Plutonium and Plutonium Compounds
    Polishes
    Polyamides
    Polycarbonates
    Polyesters, Thermoplastic
    Polyesters, Unsaturated
    Polyethers
    (Polyhydroxy)benzenes
    Polyimides
    Polymer Blends
    Polymers
    Polymers Containing Sulfur
    Polymers, Environmentally Degradable
    Polymethine Dyes
    Polymethylbenzenes
    Potassium
    Potassium Compounds
    Powders, Handling
    Power Generation
    Pressure Measurement
    Printing Processes
    Process Control
    Process Energy Conservation
    Product Liability
    Propyl Alcohols
    Propylene
    Propylene Oxide
    Prostaglandins
    Prosthetic and Biomedical Devices
    Protein Engineering
    Proteins
    Psychopharmacological Agents
    Pulp
    Pumps
    Pyrazoles, Pyrazolines, and Pyrazolones
    Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives
    Pyrotechnics
    Pyrrole and Pyrrole Derivatives

    Q

    Quality Assurance
    Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
    Quinolines and Isoquinolines
    Quinones

    R

    Radiation Curing
    Radioactive Tracers
    Radioisotopes
    Radiopaques
    Radiopharmaceuticals
    Radioprotective Agents
    Reactor Technology
    Recreational Surfaces
    Recycling
    Recycling, Plastics
    Refractories
    Refractory Coatings
    Refractory Fibers
    Refrigeration
    Regulatory Agencies
    Reinforced Plastics
    Release Agents
    Renewable Energy Resources
    Repellents
    Research/Technology Management
    Resins, Natural
    Reverse Osmosis
    Rhenium and Rhenium Compounds
    Rheological Measurements
    Roofing Materials
    Rubber Chemicals
    Rubber Compounding
    Rubber, Natural
    Rubidium and Rubidium Compounds

    S

    Salicylic Acid and Related Compounds
    Sampling
    Sealants
    Sedimentation
    Selenium and Selenium Compounds
    Semiconductors
    Semiconductors, Organic
    Sensors
    Separation
    Separations Process Synthesis
    Shape-Memory Alloys
    Silica
    Silicon and Silicon Alloys
    Silicon Compounds
    Silk
    Silver and Silver Alloys
    Silver Compounds
    Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer
    Size Enlargement
    Size Measurement of Particles
    Size Reduction
    Smart Materials
    Soap
    Sodium and Sodium Alloys
    Sodium Compounds
    Soil Chemistry of Pesticides
    Soil Stabilization
    Solar Energy
    Solders and Brazing Filler Metals
    Sol-Gel Technology
    Solvent Recovery, Condensation
    Solvents, Industrial
    Sonochemistry
    Sorbic Acid
    Soybeans and Other Oilseeds
    Space Processing
    Spectroscopy, Optical
    Sprays
    Stains, Industrial
    Starch
    Steam
    Steel
    Sterilization Techniques
    Steroids
    Stilbene Dyes
    Stimulants
    Strontium and Strontium Compounds
    Styrene
    Styrene-Butadiene Rubber
    Styrene Plastics
    Succinic Acid and Succinic Anhydride
    Sugar
    Sugar Alcohols
    Sulfamic Acid and Sulfamates
    Sulfolane and Sulfones
    Sulfonation and Sulfation
    Sulfonic Acids
    Sulfoxides
    Sulfur
    Sulfur Compounds
    Sulfur Dyes
    Sulfuric Acid and Sulfur Trioxide
    Sulfuric and Sulfurous Esters
    Sulfurization and Sulfurchlorination
    Sulfur Removal and Recovery
    Supercritical Fluids
    Surfactants
    Surface and Interface Analysis
    Sutures
    Sweeteners
    Syrups

    T

    Talc
    Tall Oil
    Tanks and Pressure Vessels
    Tantalum and Tantalum Compounds
    Tar and Pitch
    Tar Sands
    Tea
    Technical Service
    Tellurium and Tellurium Compounds
    Temperature Measurement
    Terpenoids
    Textiles
    Thallium and Thallium Compounds
    Thermal Pollution
    Thermodynamics
    Thermoelectric Energy Conversion
    Thermography
    Thin Films
    Thioglycolic Acid
    Thiols
    Thiophene and Thiophene Derivatives
    Thiosulfates
    Thorium and Thorium Compounds
    Thyroid and Antithyroid Preparations
    Tin and Tin Alloys
    Tin Compounds
    Tire Cord
    Titanium and Titanium Alloys
    Titanium Compounds
    Toluene
    Tool Materials
    Toxicology
    Trace and Residue Analysis
    Transportation
    Triphenylmethane and Related Dyes
    Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys
    Tungsten Compounds

    U

    Ultrafiltration
    Units and Conversion Factors
    Uranium and Uranium Compounds
    Urea
    Urethane Polymers

    V

    Vaccine Technology
    Vacuum Technology
    Vanadium and Vanadium Alloys
    Vanadium Compounds
    Vanillin
    Veterinary Drugs
    Vinegar
    Vinyl Chloride
    Vinylidene Chloride Monomer and Polymers
    Vinyl Polymers
    Vitamins

    W

    Waste Treatment, Hazardous Waste
    Wastes, Industrial
    Water
    Water-Soluble Polymers
    Waxes
    Weighing and Proportioning
    Welding
    Wheat and other Cereal Grains
    Wine
    Wood
    Wood-Based Composites and Laminates
    Wool

    X

    Xanthates
    Xanthene Dyes
    X-Ray Technology
    Xylenes and Ethylbenzene
    Xylylene Polymers

    Y

    Yeasts

    Z

    Zinc and Zinc Alloys
    Zinc Compounds
    Zirconium and Zirconium Compounds
    Zone Refining


    Preface

    The Fourth Edition of the Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology is built on the solid foundation of the previous editions and also looks forward into the 21st century. The First Edition, published between 1949 and 1956, demonstrated the enormous progress the American chemical industry made during World War II and the postwar period. The Second Edition, published between 1963 and 1972, reflected the chemical industry as an international enterprise with the interchange of experience and know-how on a global scale. The Third Edition, published between 1978 and 1984, continued the presentation of the best worldwide practices in the process technologies and emphasized topics of great concern to all scientists and engineers, ie, energy, safety, and the environment.

    The Fourth Edition is in many ways an entirely new encyclopedia in a format familiar to those acquainted with the earlier editions. All of the articles in this new edition have been rewritten and updated and many new subjects have been added, reflecting changes in chemical technology since the Third Edition. The results, however, will be familiar to the users of the earlier editions: comprehensive, authoritative, accessible, lucid.

    The use of SI units as well as common units, Chemical Abstracts Services Registry Numbers, and complete indexing based on automated retrieval from a machine-readable composition system continue. The Encyclopedia is an indispensable information source for all producers and users of chemical products and materials.

    New subjects have been added, especially in biotechnology, computer topics, analytical techniques and instrumentation, environmental concerns, fuels and energy, inorganic and solid state chemistry, composite materials and materials science in general, and pharmaceuticals.

    The Fourth Edition could not be published without the assistance of the many advisors, reviewers, chemists, and engineers who have given their advice and guidance. To all of them our thanks is due.


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