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Science Catalog

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The Wiley
Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

(24-Volume Set)

Editor-in-Chief: John G. Webster, Ph.D.


  • Main Page for this Work
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors



  • Available Online
    EEEE Online

    ISBN: 0-471-13946-7
    Hardcover
    Pages: 17,616
    Published: March 1999

    Below is an alphabetical listing of the core topics covered, followed by a complete list of these topics and articles publishing under them in the Encyclopedia

    Preface

    Aerospace and Electronic Systems
    Antennas and Propagation
    Applied Superconductivity
    Automatic Control
    Biomedical Engineering
    Broadcasting
    Circuits and Systems: Analog and Digital Signal Processing
    Circuits and Systems: Fundamental Theory and Applications
    Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
    Communications
    Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology
    Computational Science and Engineering
    Computers-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits
    Computers
    Consumer Electronics
    Control Systems Technology
    Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
    Education
    Electromagnetic Compatibility
    Electron Devices
    Electronic Materials
    Energy Conversion
    Engineering Management
    Fuzzy Systems
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing
    Image Processing
    Industrial Electronics
    Industry Applications
    Information Theory
    Instrumentation and Measurement
    Knowledge and Data Engineering
    Lightwave Technology
    Magnetics
    Medical Imaging
    Microelectromechanical Systems
    Microwave Theory and Techniques
    Multimedia
    Networking
    Neural Networks
    Nuclear Science
    Oceanic Engineering
    Parallel and Distributed Systems
    Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
    Photonics Technology
    Plasma Science
    Power Delivery
    Power Electronics
    Power Systems
    Professional Communication
    Quantum Electronics
    Rehabilitation Engineering
    Reliability
    Robotics and Automation
    Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Signal Processing
    Software Engineering
    Solid State Circuits
    Speech and Audio Processing Systems
    Technology and Society
    Ultrasonics
    Vehicular Technology
    Visualization and Computer Graphics
    VLSI Systems


    Preface

    Complete List of Topics and Articles:

    Aerospace and Electronic Systems
    Aerospace Expert Systems
    Aerospace Simulation
    Aircraft Navigation
    Air Traffic
    Air traffic Control
    Attitude Control
    Electronic Warfare
    Helicopter Night Pilotage
    Jet Transport Maintenance
    Missile Control
    Missile Guidance
    Radar Altimetry
    Radar Applications
    Radar Remote Sensing of Irregular Stratified Media
    Radar Signal Detection
    Radar Target Recognition
    Radar Tracking
    Radio Direction Finding
    Radio Navigation
    Search Radar
    Target Tracking
    Antennas and Propagation
    Active Antennas
    Antenna Accessories
    Antenna Arrays
    Antennas
    Antenna Theory
    Aperture Antennas
    Backscatter
    Conformal Antennas
    Conical Antennas
    Dielectric-Loaded Antennas
    Dipole Antennas
    Directive Antennas
    Diversity Reception
    Electromagnetic Wave Scattering
    Electromagnetic Waves in the Ionosphere
    FRIIS Free-Space Transmission Formula
    Helical Antennas
    Horn Antennas
    Linear Antennas
    Loop Antennas
    Meteor Burst Communication
    Modeling Wire Antennas
    Monopole Antennas
    Multibeam Antennas
    Radar Antennas
    Radar Cross-Section
    Radio Noise
    Radio System Performance
    Radiowave Propagation Concepts
    Radiowave Propagation Ground Effects
    Radiowave Propagation in Multipath Channels
    Receiving Antennas
    Reflector Antennas
    Refraction and Attenuation in the Troposphere
    Satellite Antennas
    Scanning Antennas
    Sky Wave Propagation at Low Frequencies
    Sky Wave Propagation at Medium and High Frequencies
    Smith Chart
    Spectral-Domain Analysis
    Spiral Antennas
    Television Antennas
    Waveguide Antennas
    Applied Superconductivity
    High-Energy Physics Particle Detector Magnets
    HTS Film Growth
    HTS Josephson Junction Development
    Magnets for Magnetic Resonance Analysis and Imaging
    Power Quality
    SQUIDs
    Superconducting Cavity Resonators
    Superconducting Critical Current
    Superconducting Cyclotrons and Compact Synchrotron Light Sources
    Superconducting Fault Current Limiters
    Superconducting Filters and Passive Components
    Superconducting Levitation
    Superconducting Magnets for Fusion Reactors
    Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators and Storage Rings
    Superconducting Magnets, Quench Protection
    Superconducting Transformers
    Superconductors, Cryogenic Stabilization
    Superconductors, Metallurgy of Beta Tungsten
    Superconductors, Metallurgy of Ductile Alloys
    Superconductors, Stability in Forced Flow
    Superconductors, Stabilization Against Flux Jumps
    Superconductors, Type I and II
    Automatic Control
    Absolute Stability
    Adaptive Control
    Bilinear Systems
    Chaos, Bifurcations, and Their Control
    Controllability and Observability
    Control System Design, Continuous-Time
    Convex Optimization
    Delay Systems
    Digital Control
    Discrete Event Dynamical Systems
    Discrete Time Systems Design Methods
    Distributed Parameter Systems
    Filtering and Estimation, Nonlinear
    Gain Scheduling
    H Infinity Control
    Intelligent Control
    Jet Engine Control, Implementations
    Kalman Filters and Observers
    Large-Scale and Decentralized Systems
    Linear Dynamical Systems, Approximation
    Model Reference Adaptive Control
    Multivariable Systems
    Nonlinear Control Systems, Analytical Methods
    Nonlinear Control Systems, Design Methods
    Nyquist Criterion, Diagrams, and Stability
    Open-Loop Oscillatory Control
    Optimal Control
    Periodic Control
    PID Control
    Process Control
    Robust Control
    Robust Control Analysis
    Self-Tuning Regulators
    Singularly Perturbed Systems
    Software for Control System Analysis and Design, Singular Value Decomposition
    Stability Theory, Asymptotic
    Stability Theory, Including Saturation Effects
    Stability Theory, Nonlinear
    Stochastic Optimization, Stochastic Approximation and Simulated Annealing
    Stochastic Systems
    System Identification
    Biomedical Engineering
    Bioelectric Phenomena
    Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
    Biomagnetism
    Biomedical Engineering
    Biomedical Sensors
    Biomedical Telemetry
    Clinical Engineering
    Defibrillators
    Electric Impedance Imaging
    Electrocardiography
    Electroencephalography
    Electromyography
    Hyperthermia Therapy
    Laser Applications in Medicine
    Medical Computing
    Medical Expert Systems
    Medical Information Systems
    Medical Signal Processing
    Microelectrodes
    Neural Prostheses
    Neurotechnology
    Pacemakers
    Patient Monitoring
    Physiological Models, Development
    Broadcasting
    Antennas for High-Frequency Broadcasting
    Antennas for Medium-Frequency Broadcasting
    Broadcasting via Internet
    Cable Television Systems
    Digital Audio Broadcasting
    Direct Satellite Television Broadcasting
    High-Frequency Broadcasting
    Low-Power Broadcasting
    Propagation of Broadcast Transmissions
    Radio Broadcast Studio Equipment
    Television and FM Broadcasting Antennas
    Television Broadcast Transmission Standards
    Transmitters for Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting
    Transmitters for Analog Television
    Transmitters for Digital Television
    Transmitters for FM Broadcasting
    Circuits and Systems: Analog and Digital Signal Processing
    Active Filters
    Adaptive Filters
    All-Pass Filters
    Analog Computer Circuits
    Analog Processing Circuits
    Analog-to-Digital Conversion
    Asynchronous Circuits
    Asynchronous Sequential Logic
    Attenuators
    Bandpass Filters
    Band-Stop Filters
    Bipolar and MOS Logic Circuits
    Bootstrap Circuits
    Bridge Circuits
    Butterworth Filters
    Cascade Networks
    Chebyshev Filters
    Circuit Noise
    Circuit Stability
    Circuit Tuning
    Combinational Circuits
    Comparator Circuits
    Counting Circuits
    Current Conveyors
    Data Acquisition and Conversion
    Dc Amplifiers
    Delay Circuits
    Differential Amplifiers
    Differentiating Circuits
    Digital Filters
    Digital Filter Synthesis
    Digital-to-Analog Conversion
    Diode-Transistor Logic
    Discrete Event Systems
    Discrete Time Filters
    Distributed Amplifiers
    Elliptic Filters
    Feedback Amplifiers
    Filtering Theory
    FIR Filters, Design
    Frequency Synthesizers
    Harmonic Oscillators, Circuits
    Hysteresis in Circuits
    IIR Filters
    Integrated Circuits
    Integrating Circuits
    Intermediate-Frequency Amplifiers
    Ladder Filters
    Lattice Filters
    Logarithmic Amplifiers
    Logic Design
    Low-Pass Filters
    Majority Logic
    Matched Filters
    Mixer Circuits
    Multipliers, Analog
    Multipliers, Analog CMOS
    Multivibrators
    Network Parameters
    Noise Generators
    Nonlinear Filters
    Overvoltage Protection
    Phase Shifters
    Preamplifiers
    Programmable Filters
    Ramp Generator
    Rectifying Circuits
    Relaxation Oscillators and Networks
    Sample-and-Hold Circuits
    Sequential Circuits
    Smoothing Circuits
    Summing Circuits
    Switched Capacitor Networks
    Threshold Logic
    Time-Varying Filters
    Translinear Circuits
    UHF Receivers
    Variable-Frequency Oscillators
    Voltage References
    Wideband Amplifiers
    Wiener Filters
    Circuits and Systems: Fundamental Theory and Applications
    Analog Filters
    Broadband Networks
    Chaotic Circuit Behavior
    Chaotic Systems Control
    Circuit Analysis Computing
    Circuit Analysis Computing by Waveform Relaxation
    Circuit Stability of Dc Operating Points
    Filter Approximation Methods
    Filter Synthesis
    Frequency-Domain Circuit Analysis
    Homotopy Methods for Computing Dc Operating Points
    Interval Analysis for Circuits
    Linear Network Elements
    Multipole and Multiport Analysis
    Network Analysis Using Linearization
    Network Analysis, Sinusoidal Steady State
    Network Equations
    Network Theorems
    Nonlinear Circuit Synthesis Using Integrated Circuits
    Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Circuits
    Nonlinear Network Elements
    Operational Amplifiers
    Periodic Nonlinear Circuits
    Phase Locked Loops
    Piecewise-Linear Techniques
    Qualitative Analysis of Dynamic Circuits
    Sensitivity Analysis
    Signal Amplifiers
    Symbolic Circuit Analysis
    Synchronous Converter to Boost Battery Voltage
    Time-Domain Network Analysis
    Transient Analysis
    Transmission Using Chaotic Systems
    Volterra Series
    Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
    Cathode-Ray Tube Displays
    Digital CATV Services
    Digital Television
    Flat Panel Displays
    High Definition Television
    Image Sequences
    Interactive Video
    Telemedicine
    Video Compression Methods
    Video Compression Standards
    Video on ATM Networks
    Video Recording
    Video Signal Processing
    Communications
    Channel Capacity
    Chirp Modulation
    Cochannel Interference
    Compandors
    Data Communication
    Demodulators
    Demultiplexing equipment
    Digital Amplitude Modulation
    Digital Radio
    Frequency Modulation
    History of Wireless Communication
    Military Communication
    Minimum Shift Keying
    Mobile Communication
    Modulation Analysis Formula
    Multipath Channels
    Phase Shift Keying
    Power Line Communication
    Pulse Compression
    Radar Equipment
    Radar Polarimetry
    Sigma-Delta Modulation
    Spaceborne Radar
    Spread Spectrum Communication
    Statistical Multiplexing
    Symbol Interference
    Telecommunication Cables
    Telecommunication Exchanges
    Telecommunication Signaling
    Telecommunication Terminals
    Telecommunication Traffic
    Telegraphy, Submarine
    Telemetry
    Teletext
    Transceivers
    Viewdata
    Voice Mail
    VSAT Networks
    Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology
    Circuit Analysis Computing of Semiconductor Packages and Systems
    Encapsulation Materials and Processes
    Environmentally Sound Assembly Processes
    Known Good Die Technology
    Packaging of Optical Components and Systems
    Packaging Reliability, Chip-Scale Semiconductor
    Packaging RF Devices and Modules
    Printed Wiring Board Technology
    Surface Mount Technology
    System Interconnects
    Thermal Analysis and Design of Electronic Systems
    Computational Science and Engineering
    Automatic Differentiation
    Bessel Functions
    Boundary-Value Problems
    Calculus
    Chaos Time Series Analysis
    Convolution
    Correlation Theory
    Duality, Mathematics
    Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions
    Elliptic Equations, Parallel Over Successive Relaxation Algorithm
    Fourier Analysis
    Function Approximation
    Gaussian Filtered Representations of Images
    Geometry
    Graph theory
    Green's Function Methods
    Hadamard Transforms
    Hankel Transforms
    Hartley Transforms
    Hilbert Spaces
    Hilbert Transforms
    Homotopy Algorithm for Riccati Equations
    Horn Clauses
    Integral Equations
    Integro-Differential Equations
    Laplace Transforms
    Linear Algebra
    Lyapunov Methods
    Minimization
    Nomograms
    Nonlinear Equations
    Number Theory
    Ordinary Differential Equations
    Polynomials
    Probabilistic Logic
    Probability
    Process Algebra
    Roundoff Errors
    Switching Functions
    Temporal Logic
    Theory of Difference Sets
    Transfer Functions
    Traveling Salesperson Problems
    Vectors
    Walsh Functions
    Wavelet Methods for Solving Integral and Differential Equations
    Wavelet Transforms
    Z transforms
    Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits
    Automatic Testing
    CAD for Field Programmable Gate Arrays
    CAD for Manufacturability of Integrated Circuits
    Design Verification and Fault Diagnosis in Manufacturing
    Electrical and Timing Simulation
    High Level Synthesis
    Logic Synthesis
    Power Estimation and Optimization
    VLSI Circuit Layout
    Computers
    Abstract Data Types
    Add-On Boards
    Algorithm Theory
    Analog Computers
    Automata Theory
    Behavioral Sciences and Computing
    Biology Computing
    Boolean Functions
    Buffer Storage
    Cache Memory Protocols
    CAMAC
    Carry Logic
    CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs, and Computer Systems
    Cellular Automata
    Computability
    Computational Complexity Theory
    Computer Evaluation
    Computer Installation
    Computer Networks
    Computer Selection
    Configurable Computing
    Content-Addressable Storage
    Databases
    Digital Arithmetic
    Digital Storage
    Dynamic Programming
    Emulators
    Engineering Workstations
    Environmental Science Computing
    Fault Tolerant Computing
    Fifth Generation Systems
    Formal Logic
    Idea Processors
    Information Technology Industry
    Instruction Sets
    Interleaved Storage
    Internet Browsers
    Internet Companies
    Internet Technology
    Interrupts
    Java, Javascript, Hot Java
    Keyboards
    Laptop Computers
    List Processing
    Logic Testing
    Macros
    Memory Architecture
    Microcomputer Applications
    Microcomputers
    Molecular Electronics and Hybrid Computers
    Network Computing
    Nonconventional Computers
    Office Automation
    Online Operation
    Physics Computing
    Program Assemblers
    Program Interpreters
    Programming Theory
    Real-Time Systems
    Recursion
    Reduced Instruction Set Computing
    Set-Top Boxes
    Smart Cards
    Software Bugs
    Software Selection
    Spreadsheet Programs
    Stack Simulation
    Stock Markets
    Time-Sharing Systems
    Transaction Processing
    Universal Resource Locator
    UNIX
    Visual Languages
    Visual Programming
    Von Neumann Computers
    Consumer Electronics
    Computer Games
    Designing Consumer Products for Ease of Use
    Domestic appliances
    Electronic Calculators
    Facsimile Equipment
    Home Automation
    Home Computing Services
    Musical Instruments
    Optical CD-ROMs for Consumer Electronics
    Personal Computing
    Personal Information Management Systems
    Video Telephony
    Control Systems Technology
    Automated Highways
    Automatic Guided Vehicles
    Computer Vision
    Electronic Components
    Fault Diagnosis
    Fuzzy Logic
    Fuzzy Logic Control
    Industrial Control
    Neural Net Applications
    Neural Nets for Feedback Control
    Relay Control
    Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
    Capacitor Insulation
    Conduction and Breakdown in Dielectric Liquids
    Conduction and Breakdown in Gases
    Dielectric Measurement
    Dielectric Polarization
    Electrets
    Electrical Trees, Physical Mechanisms and Experimental Techniques
    Gaseous Insulation
    Insulation Aging Models
    Insulation Aging Testing
    Insulation Testing
    Liquid Insulation
    Machine Insulation
    Outdoor Insulation
    Partial Discharges
    Space Charge
    Transformer Insulation
    Vacuum Insulation
    Water Treeing
    Education
    Computer-Aided Instruction
    Computer Engineering Education
    Continuing Education
    Educational Trends
    Electrical Engineering Curricula
    Electrical Engineering Education
    Intelligent Tutoring Systems
    Management Education
    Professional Preparation
    Electromagnetic Compatibility
    Electromagnetic Shielding
    Lightning, Lightning Protection and Test Standards
    Noise and Interference Modeling
    Telephone Interference
    Whistlers
    Electron Devices
    Acoustic Charge Transport Devices
    Activation Energy
    Avalanche Diodes
    Bipolar Permeable Transistor
    Bipolar Transistors
    Cathode-Ray Tubes
    Cathodes
    Charge Injection Devices
    Crossed-Field Amplifier
    C-V Profiles
    Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy
    Diamond-Based Semiconducting Devices
    Diffusion
    Diodes
    Electric Breakdown in Semiconductors
    Electroluminescence
    Electromigration
    Electron and Hole Mobility in Semiconductor Devices
    Electro-Optical Devices
    Electrons
    Epitaxial Growth
    Field Emission
    Gas-Discharge Display
    Gate Dielectrics
    Gunn or Transferred-Electron Devices
    Gyrotron
    Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
    Heterostructure Devices
    High-Field Effects
    Hot Carriers
    Image Sensors
    Infrared Detector Arrays, Uncooled
    Isolation
    Junction Gate Field Effect Transistors
    Klystron
    Light-Emitting Diodes, Devices
    Liquid Crystal Display
    Lithography
    Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors
    Metal Semiconductor Metal Photodetectors
    Micromachined Devices and Fabrication Technologies
    Modulation Doped FETS
    Monte Carlo Analysis
    Narrow Band Gap Semiconductors
    Negative Resistance
    Noise, High-Frequency
    Noise, Hot Carrier Effects
    Noise, Low-Frequency
    Ohmic Contacts
    Organic Semiconductor Devices
    Photodetectors Quantum Well
    Power Devices
    Radiation Effects
    Resonant Tunneling Diodes
    Schottky Barriers
    Schottky Oxide Ramp Diodes
    Silicon-on-Insulator Devices
    Solar Cells
    Static Induction Transistors
    Superconducting Electronics
    Surface States
    Thin Film Devices
    Thyristor Types
    Transit Time Devices
    Traps
    Traveling Wave Tubes
    Tunnel Devices
    Electronic Materials
    Accumulation Layers
    Band Gap Tuning
    Bimetals
    Conducting Materials
    Eddy Currents
    Electrical Trees in Solids
    Electrolytes
    Electrostatic Discharge
    Gettering in Silicon
    Hopping Conduction
    Organic Semiconductors
    Peltier Effect
    Photorefractive Properties of Gallium Arsenide and Superlattices
    Piezoelectric Actuators
    Piezoelectric Devices
    Piezoelectricity
    Pyroelectricity
    Resistance Heating
    III-VI Semiconductors
    IV-VI Semiconductors
    Semiconductor Boltzmann Transport Equation
    Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces
    Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers
    Semiconductor-Insulator Interfaces
    Semiconductor-Insulator-Semiconductor Structures
    Semiconductor Ultrasound Treatment
    Static Electrification
    Ternary Semiconductors
    Transport in Semiconductors, Dynamics of Carriers
    Triboelectricity
    Zener Effect
    Energy Conversion
    Air Pollution Control
    Dc Machines
    Diesel-Electric Generators
    Diesel-Electric Power Stations
    Electric machine analysis and simulation
    Electrochemical Electrodes
    Electrostatic Precipitators
    Electrothermal Launchers
    Fuel Cell Power Plants
    Gas Turbine Power Stations
    Geothermal Power
    Homopolar and Inductor Machines
    HVDC Power Converters
    Hydraulic Turbines
    Hydroelectric generators
    Hydrogen Energy Systems
    Hydrothermal Power Systems
    Magnetohydrodynamic Power Plants
    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    Solar Energy Conversion
    Solar heating
    Steam Turbines
    Synchronous Motor Drives
    Thermal energy storage
    Thermionic conversion
    Thermoelectric Conversion
    Turbogenerators
    Waste-to-Energy Power Plants
    Wind Power
    Wind Power Plants
    Wind Turbines

    Engineering Management

    Accounting
    Aircraft Maintenance
    Branch Automation
    Business Data Processing
    Business Process Reengineering
    Computer-Aided Production Planning
    Concurrent Engineering
    Contracts
    Corporate Modeling
    Cost Analysis
    Cost-Benefit Analysis
    Critical Path Analysis
    Datawarehousing
    Dispatching
    Economics of Telecommunications Systems
    Educational Technology
    Entrepreneuring
    Expert Decision System for Robot Selection
    Forecasting Theory
    High Technology Marketing
    Human Resource Management
    Information Retrieval and Access
    Insurance
    Intellectual Property
    International Trade
    Investment
    Law Administration
    Life Cycle Optimization
    Management Information Systems
    Management of Change
    Manufacturing Resources Planning
    Operations Research Decision Making
    Outsourcing
    PERT
    Project Management
    Research Initiatives
    Risk Management
    Sales and Marketing Management
    Scheduling
    Value Engineering
    Fuzzy Systems
    Fuzzy Control
    Fuzzy Image Processing and Recognition
    Fuzzy Information Retrieval and Databases
    Fuzzy Model Fundamentals
    Fuzzy Neural Nets
    Fuzzy Pattern Recognition
    Fuzzy Statistics
    Fuzzy Systems
    Possibility Theory
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing
    Electromagnetic Subsurface Remote Sensing
    Geographic Information Systems
    Geophysical Signal Processing
    Information Processing for Remote Sensing
    Meteorological Radar
    Microwave Propagation and Scattering for Remote Sensing
    Microwave Remote Sensing Theory
    Oceanic Remote Sensing
    Remote Sensing by Radar
    Remote Sensing Geometric Corrections
    Visible and Infrared Remote Sensing
    Image Processing
    Camera Calibration for Image Processing
    Holographic Storage
    Image and Video Coding
    Image Color Analysis
    Image Enhancement
    Image Processing
    Image Processing Equipment
    Image Texture
    Infrared Imaging
    Microscope Image Processing and Analysis
    Industrial Electronics
    Alarm Systems
    Boundary-Scan Testing
    Computer Integrated Manufacturing
    Computerized monitoring
    Fault Location
    Filament Lamps
    ISDN
    Laser Desktop Machining
    Lighting Control
    Manufacturing Processes
    Postal Services
    Safety Systems
    Industry Applications
    Ac Motor Protection
    Automation and Control Equipment
    Cement Industry
    Electrolytic Cell Safety
    Electrophotography
    Electrostatic Processes
    Grounding
    Industrial Heating
    Industrial Lighting
    Mechatronics
    Metals Industry
    Mining
    Paper Industry, System Identification and Modeling
    Petroleum Industry
    Variable Speed Drives
    Information Theory
    Algebraic Coding Theory
    Cryptography
    Data Compression Codes, Lossy
    Estimation Theory
    Image Codes
    Information Theory
    Information Theory of Data Transmission Codes
    Information Theory of Modulation Codes and Waveforms
    Information Theory of Multiaccess Communications
    Information Theory of Radar and Sonar Waveforms
    Information Theory of Spread-Spectrum Communication
    Maximum Likelihood Imaging
    Queueing Theory
    Signal Detection Theory
    Trellis-Coded Modulation
    Instrumentation and Measurement
    Acceleration Measurement
    Accelerometers
    Acoustic Variables Measurement
    Acoustic Wave Interferometers
    Ammeters
    Attenuation Measurement
    Automatic Test Equipment
    Balances
    Bridge Instruments
    Capacitance Measurement
    Charge Measurement
    Chemical Sensors
    Clocks in Telecommunications
    Compasses
    Current Shunts
    Current Transformers
    Data Recording
    Density Measurement
    Digital Multimeters
    Displacement Measurement
    Dynamometers
    Eddy Current Nondestructive Evaluation
    Eddy Current Testing
    Electric Current Measurement
    Electric Distortion Measurement
    Electric Noise Measurement
    Electric Sensing Devices
    Electric Strength
    Electromagnetic Field Measurement
    Electrometers
    Electron Microscopes
    Energy Measurement
    Fiberoptic Sensors
    Flowmeters
    Frequency and Time Interval Meters
    Frequency Stability
    Frequency Standards, Characterization
    Goniometers
    Gravimeters
    Gyroscopes
    Hall Effect Transducers
    Hygrometers
    Impulse Testing
    Inductance Measurement
    Instrumentation Amplifiers
    Instruments
    Instrument Transformers
    Intelligent Biosensors
    Interferometers
    Intermodulation measurement
    Level Meters
    Loss-Angle Measurement
    Magnetic Field Measurement
    Magnetic Sensors
    Mass Spectrometers
    Measurement Errors
    Measurement of Frequency, Phase Noise and Amplitude Noise
    Millimeter-Wave Measurement
    Multimeters
    Ohmmeters
    Oscilloscopes
    Phase Meters
    pH Measurement and Control
    Photometers
    Photometric Light Sources
    Piezoresistive Devices
    Power Factor Measurement
    Power Measurement
    Power Meters
    Pressure Sensors
    Pulse Height Analyzers
    Pyrometers
    Q-Factor Measurement
    Q-Meters
    Radiometry
    Radiotelemetry
    Recorders
    Reflectometers, Time-Domain
    Scintillation Counters
    Standing Wave Meters and Network Analyzers
    Strain Sensors
    Tachometers
    Temperature Sensors
    Thermistors
    Thermocouples
    Thermopiles
    Thin Film Analyzers
    Time Measurement
    Torquemeters
    Ultraviolet Detectors
    Velocimeters
    Viscometers
    Volt-Ampere Meters
    Watthour Meters
    Wattmeters
    Wavelength Meter
    Weighing
    X-Ray Microscopy
    Knowledge and Data Engineering
    AI Languages and Processing
    Artificial Intelligence, Generalization
    Belief Maintenance
    Cognitive Systems
    Cooperative Database Systems
    Data Analysis
    Database Architectures
    Database Design
    Database Languages
    Database Mining
    Database Models
    Database Processing
    Data Reduction
    Data Security
    Data Structures and Algorithms
    Deductive Databases
    Distributed Databases
    Expert Systems
    Information Science
    Knowledge Acquisition
    Knowledge Engineering
    Knowledge Management
    Knowledge Verification
    Machine Learning
    Object-Oriented Database for Radar Signature Analysis
    Object-Oriented Databases
    Parallel Database Management Systems
    Planning
    Relational Databases
    Spatial Databases
    Statistical Databases
    Temporal Databases
    Theorem Proving
    Very Large Databases
    Lightwave Technology
    Electro-Optical Filters
    Electro-Optical Switches
    Integrated Optic Waveguides
    Nonlinear Optics
    Optical Communication
    Optical Materials
    Optical Properties
    Optical Waveguide Transitions
    Photonic Crystals
    Magnetics
    Eddy Current Losses
    Electromagnetic Ferrite Tile Absorber
    Ferroresonance
    Magnetic Bubble Memory
    Magnetic Circuits
    Magnetic Epitaxial Layers
    Magnetic Flux
    Magnetic Levitation
    Magnetic Logic
    Magnetic Materials
    Magnetic Media, Imaging
    Magnetic Media, Magnetization Reversal
    Magnetic Methods of Nondestructive evaluation
    Magnetic Modeling
    Magnetic Noise, Barkhausen Effect
    Magnetic Particles
    Magnetic Recording Heads
    Magnetic Refrigeration
    Magnetic Resonance
    Magnetic Semiconductors
    Magnetic Shielding
    Magnetic Storage Media
    Magnetic Structure
    Magnetic switching
    Magnetic Tape Equipment
    Magnetic Tape Recording
    Magnetic Tapes
    Magnetic Variables Control
    Magnetoresistance
    Magnetostrictive Devices
    Permanent Magnets
    Saturable Core Reactors
    Soft Magnetic Materials
    Superconducting Electromagnets
    Thermal Magnetoresistance
    Medical Imaging
    Biomedical NMR
    Computerized Tomography
    Diagnostic Imaging
    Magnetic Source Imaging
    Radionuclide Imaging
    Tomography
    X-Ray Apparatus
    Microelectromechanical Systems
    Laser Beam Machining
    Micromechanical Resonators
    Microwave Theory and Techniques
    Acoustic Microwave Devices
    Cavity Resonators
    Chirality
    Dielectric Resonator Filters
    Dielectric Resonator Oscillators
    Directional Couplers
    Electromagnetic Modeling
    Ferrite-Loaded Waveguides
    Ferrite Phase Shifters
    Finline Components
    Finlines
    High-Frequency Transmission Lines
    IMPATT Diodes and Circuits
    Magnetic Microwave Devices
    Microstrip Lines
    Microwave Amplifiers
    Microwave Circuits
    Microwave Detectors
    Microwave Ferrite Materials
    Microwave Heating
    Microwave Isolators
    Microwave Limiters
    Microwave Oscillators
    Microwave Parametric Amplifiers
    Microwave Phase Shifters
    Microwave Receivers
    Microwave Switches
    Microwave Tubes
    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits
    Numerical Modeling of Circulators
    Power Combiners and Dividers
    Quasi-Optical Circuits
    Radio-Frequency Multipliers
    Skin Effect
    Slot Line Components
    Slot Lines
    Slow Wave Structures
    Stripline Components
    Striplines
    Superconducting Microwave Technology
    Waveguides
    Multimedia
    Authoring Systems
    Distributed Multimedia Systems
    Document Interchange Standards
    Hypermedia
    Multimedia Audio
    Multimedia Information Systems
    Multimedia Video
    Networking
    Asynchronous Transfer Mode Networks
    Channel Coding
    Client-Server Systems
    Code Division Multiple Access
    Data Compression for Networking
    Ethernet
    Group Communication
    High-Speed Protocols
    Intelligent Networks
    Internetworking
    ISO OSI Layered Protocol Model
    Local Area Networks
    Metropolitan Area Networks
    Mobile Network Objects
    Multicast Algorithms
    Multiple Access Schemes
    Network Design
    Network Flow and Congestion Control
    Network Management
    Network Operating Systems
    Network Performance and Queueing Models
    Network Reliability and Fault-Tolerance
    Network Routing Algorithms
    Remote Procedure Calls
    Signaling
    Telephone Networks
    Token Ring Networks
    Neural Networks
    ART Neural Nets
    Boltzmann Machines
    Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computers
    Constructive Learning and Structural Learning
    Divide and Conquer Methods
    Feedforward Neural Nets
    Neural Architecture in 3-D
    Neural Chips
    Neural Net Architecture
    Neural Nets Based on Biology
    Neural Nets, Hopfield
    Neurocontrollers
    Optical Neural Nets
    Perceptrons
    Self-Organizing Feature Maps
    Nuclear Science
    Dosimetry
    Fission Chambers
    Fusion Reactor Instrumentation
    Fusion Reactors
    Ionization Chambers
    Light Water Reactor Control Systems
    Nuclear Engineering
    Nuclear Power Station Design
    Particle Spectrometers
    Photomultipliers
    Radiation Detection
    Radiation Monitoring
    Oceanic Engineering
    Hydrophones
    Oceanographic Equipment
    Sonar Signal Processing
    Sonar Target Recognition
    Sonar Tracking
    Underwater Acoustic Communication
    Underwater Sound Projectors
    Underwater Vehicles
    Parallel and Distributed Systems
    Array and Pipelined Processors
    Data-Flow and Multithreaded Architectures
    Distributed Memory Parallel Systems
    Heterogeneous Distributed Computing
    Interconnection Networks for Parallel Computers
    Multiprogramming and Multiprocessing
    Parallel and Vector Programming Languages
    Parallel Database Systems
    Parallel Numerical Algorithms and Software
    Parallel Processing, Superscalar and VLIW Processors
    Parallel Programming Tools
    Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
    Active Perception
    Artificial Intelligence
    Document Image Processing
    Face Recognition
    Feature Extraction
    Fingerprint Identification
    Image Classification
    Image Processing Contrast Enhancement
    Image Scanners
    Image Segmentation
    Inspection in Semicondutor Manufacturing
    Maximum Likelihood Detection
    Motion Analysis by Computer
    Online Handwriting Recognition
    Optical and Electrooptical Image Converters
    Optical Character Recognition
    Pattern Recognition
    Range Images
    Stereo Image Processing
    Photonics Technology
    Acousto-optical Devices
    Chemical Lasers
    Coherence
    Electroabsorption
    Faraday Effect
    Focal Planes
    Integrated Optoelectronics
    Light-Emitting Diodes
    Mark Scanning Equipment
    Optical Amplifiers
    Optical Filters
    Optical Harmonic Generation Parametric Devices
    Optical Radar
    Optical Waveguide Components
    Optoelectronics in VLSI Technology
    Photoconducting Switches
    Photoconductivity
    Photoelectrets
    Photoemission
    Photorefractive Effect
    Photoresistors
    Photothyristors
    Photovoltaic Effects
    Spontaneous Emission
    Submillimeter Wave Lasers
    Plasma Science
    Electron Impact Ionization
    Electrorheology
    Field ionization
    Fusion Plasmas
    Plasma Chemistry
    Plasma Deposition
    Plasma Implantation
    Plasma Turbulence
    Thermal Spray Coatings
    Power Delivery
    Ac Power Transmission
    Busbars
    Circuit Breakers
    Conductors, Electric
    Contactors
    Dc Transformers
    Dc Transmission Networks
    Electric Shocks
    Emergency Power Supply
    Excitation Control in Power Systems
    HVDC Power Transmission
    Interrupters
    Load Management
    Load Regulation of Power Plants
    Overhead Line Conductors
    Potential Transformers
    Power Dividers
    Power Factor Correction
    Power Flow
    Power Substation Modeling
    Power System Protection, Relays
    Power Transmission Lines
    Reactive Power
    Relay Protection
    Shielded Power Cable
    Short-Term Load Forecasting
    Substation Insulation
    Switchgear Protection
    Transformer Protection
    Transformers, Dry Type
    Transformer Substations
    Underground Distribution Systems
    Vacuum Switches
    Power Electronics
    Ac-ac Power Converters
    Ac-dc Power Converters
    Battery Storage Plants
    Dc-ac Power Converters
    Dc-dc Power Converters
    Diodes for Power Electronics
    Electric Fuses
    High-Frequency Lighting Supplies
    Induction Motor Drives
    Inverter Thyristors
    Motor Drives, Dc
    Power System Harmonic Control
    Resonant Power Converters
    Surge Protection
    Switched Reluctance Motor Drives
    Thyristor Phase Control
    Thyristors for Power Electronics
    Power Systems
    Capacitor Storage
    Electricity Supply Industry
    Hydroelectric Power Stations
    Industrial Power Systems
    Power Station Load
    Power System Control
    Power System Harmonics
    Power System Measurement
    Power System Relaying
    Power System Restoration
    Power System Security
    Power System Stability
    Power System State Estimation
    Power System Transients
    Power Transmission Networks
    Pumped-Storage Power Stations
    Rectifier Substations
    Professional Communications
    Corporate and Organizational Communication
    Data Presentation
    Document and Information Design
    Electronic Document Production
    Engineering Notebooks
    Information Retrieval and Publishing
    Intellectual Property in Engineering
    International Communication
    Management of Documentation Projects
    Oral Presentations
    Telecommunication Methods
    Video Production
    Quantum Electronics
    Distributed Feedback Lasers
    Dye Lasers
    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
    Excimer Lasers
    Free Electron Lasers
    Rehabilitation Engineering
    Artificial Hearts And Organs
    Artificial Limbs
    Assistive Devices For Motor Disabilities
    Hearing Aids
    Human Motion Analysis
    Prosthetic Power Supplies
    Reliability
    Bayesian Inference in Reliability
    Burn-In and Screening
    Design for Microelectronics Reliability
    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    Handbooks and Standards
    Life Testing
    Monte Carlo Simulation
    Power Device Reliability
    Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Reliability Growth Concepts and Testing
    Reliability Indices
    Reliability of Redundant and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Reliability Theory
    Reliability via Designed Experiments
    Repairable Systems
    Statistical Analysis of Reliability Data
    Stress-Strength Relations
    Testing for Acceptance-Rejection
    Robotics and Automation
    Automation
    Industrial Robots
    Machine Vision for Robotics and Inspection
    Manipulators
    Mobile Robots
    Robot Dynamics
    Robot Kinematics
    Robot Path Planning
    Robots
    Servomechanisms
    Tactile Sensors
    Telecontrol
    Telerobotics
    Warehouse Automation
    Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Diagnosis of Semiconductor Processes
    Electron Beam Lithography
    Electron Beam Processing
    Epitaxial Liftoff
    Flexible Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Fuzzy Logic for Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Gate and Tunnel Dielectrics, Manufacturing Aspects
    Ion Implantation
    Isolation Technology
    Neural Nets for Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Passivation
    Photolithography
    Semiconductor Doping
    Semiconductor Factory Control and Optimization
    Semiconductor Manufacturing Scheduling
    Semiconductor Manufacturing Test Structures
    Semiconductor Process Representation
    Sputter Deposition
    Statistical Methods for Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Wafer-Scale Integration
    X-Ray Lithography
    Signal Processing
    Acousto-Optical Signal Processing
    Adaptive Radar
    FIR Filters, Windows
    Fourier Transform
    Kalman Filters
    Multidimensional Signal Processing
    Multirate Filterbanks
    Nonlinear Systems
    Recursive Filters
    Seismic Signal Processing
    Spectral Analysis
    Spectral Analysis Windowing
    Statistical Signal Processing, Higher Order Tools
    VLSI Signal Processing
    Wavelets
    Software Engineering
    Application Program Interfaces
    Automatic Test Software
    Backtracking
    Batch Processing in Computers
    Computational Linguistics
    Computer Communications Software
    Conformance Testing
    Context-Sensitive Languages
    Electronic Data Interchange
    Formal Specification of Software
    Functional Programming
    Genetic Algorithms
    Geometric Programming
    Groupware
    Input-Output Programs
    Integrated Software
    Logic Programming
    Logic Programming and Languages
    Mathematical Programming
    Microprogramming
    Object-Oriented Programming
    Object-Oriented Programming Transition
    Program Control Structures
    Program Diagnostics
    Program Testing
    Report Generator
    Software Cost Estimation
    Software Houses
    Software Maintenance
    Software Maintenance, Reverse Engineering and Reengineering
    Software Management via Law-Governed Regularities
    Software Metrics
    Software Performance Evaluation
    Software Project Management
    Software Prototyping
    Software Quality
    Software Reliability
    Software Reusability
    Software Reviews
    Software Standards
    Software Validation for Reliability
    Subroutines
    System Monitoring
    User Interface Management Systems
    Vienna Development Method
    Solid State Circuits
    Analog Integrated Circuits
    BiCMOS Logic Circuits
    Bicmos Memory Circuits
    Bipolar Memory Circuits
    Current-Mode Logic
    Emitter-Coupled Logic
    Field Effect Transistor Memory Circuits
    Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistor Logic Circuits
    Gyrators
    Integrated Injection Logic
    Junction Field Effect Transistors Circuits
    Logic Arrays
    Microwave Integrated Circuits
    NAND Circuits
    NOR Circuits
    Power Integrated Circuits
    Programmable Logic Arrays
    Programmable Logic Devices
    Quantum Storage Devices
    Semiconductor Process Modeling
    SRAM Chips
    Thin Film Capacitors
    Thin Film Resistors
    Thin Film Transistors
    Transistor-Transistor Logic
    Speech and Audio Processing
    Architectural Acoustics
    Automatic Language Identification
    Cepstral Analysis of Speech
    Echo Cancellation for Speech Signals
    Neural Nets for Speech Processing
    Psychoacoustics
    Speaker Recognition
    Speech Analysis
    Speech Coding
    Speech Enhancement
    Speech Perception
    Speech Processing
    Speech Production
    Speech Recognition
    Speech Synthesis
    Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
    Computational Intelligence
    Cybernetics
    Data Fusion
    Decision Theory
    Human Centered Design
    Human Machine Systems
    Information Technology
    Interface Design
    Modeling and Simulation
    Petri Nets
    Quality Control
    System Requirements and Specifications
    Systems Analysis
    Systems Architecture
    Systems Engineering Trends
    Systems Reengineering
    Technology and Society
    Cultural Impacts of Technology
    Ethics and Professional Responsibility
    Perceptions of Technology
    Public Policy Towards Science and Technology
    Social and Ethical Aspects of Information Technology
    Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
    Acoustic Microscopy
    Biological Effects of Ultrasound
    Flow Techniques, Industrial
    Flow Techniques, Medical
    Functional and Smart Materials
    Geophysical Prospecting using Sonics and Ultrasonics
    High Power Ultrasound
    Microwave Ferroelectric Devices
    Physical Acoustics
    Surface Acoustic Wave Applications
    Surface Acoustic Wave Devices
    Thin Films
    Ultrasonic and Acoustic Micromechanical Devices
    Ultrasonic Exposimetry
    Ultrasonic Physical Mechanisms and Chemical Effects
    Ultrasonic Sensors
    Ultrasonic Transducers, Imaging
    Underwater Ultrasound
    Vehicular Technology
    Antenna Arrays for Mobile Communications
    Cellular Radio
    Intelligent Transportation Systems
    Mobile Satellite Communication
    Mobile Telecommunications Standards
    Multiple Access Mobile Communications
    Paging Communication for Locating Mobile Users
    Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems
    Visualization and Computer Graphics
    Business Graphics
    Color Graphics
    Computer Animation
    Data Visualization
    Flow Visualization
    Global Illumination
    Graphical User Interfaces
    Graphics Transformations in 2-D
    Halftoning
    Hidden Feature Removal
    Image Manipulation
    Input Devices
    Lighting
    Raster Graphics Architectures
    Shape Representation
    Solid Modeling
    Three-Dimensional Displays
    Three-Dimensional Graphics
    Visual Realism
    Volume Visualization
    Windows Systems
    VLSI Systems
    Asynchronous Logic Design
    Clock Distribution in Synchronous Systems
    DRAM Chips
    Integrated Circuit Signal Delay
    Microprocessors
    Rapid Prototyping Systems


    Preface

    This encyclopedia is an alphabetically organized compilation of more than 1400 articles that describe every aspect of electrical and electronics engineering. It is the first and only large multivolume encyclopedia that encompasses this fast-growing, important field. It defines the discipline by bringing together the core knowledge from all subject areas encompassed by electrical and electronics engineering. It also details the latest advances in semiconductors, photonics, computers, communications, networks, and power that contribute to our improved standard of living. It provides essential knowledge to a broad group of engineers, designers, managers, and research personnel from industry; students and research personnel from universities; and others with a need to understand the growing field of electrical and electronics engineering.

    The Encyclopedia is comprehensive. The articles included emphasize the contributions from experts in each of the key areas of electrical and electronics engineering. These areas are listed in Table 1. The index volume includes a complete list of the articles, both alphabetically and grouped in these subject areas. Important information is readily accessible to the user as each article is a condensation of what could easily have been a book-length work. The articles will serve as a review for peers, but will also be very helpful for readers from related areas who wish to take a first look at what is important in the subject area.

    The articles do not presume a detailed background in the subject. The content of each article is designed to serve readers from diverse backgrounds and training. Investigators in the field will find both reference and new information. Science students and nonengineers can skip over some of the more technical areas and still gain much from the descriptive presentations and figures. Each article can serve as the starting point for further study on the subject because its comprehensive bibliography lists useful references directing readers to up-to-date, specialized literature.

    The encyclopedia is excellent for browsing—searching for those new divergent associations that may provide fresh insights in an emerging or peripheral field. While they can be used as a reference for facts, the articles are long enough so that they can serve as an educational instrument and provide genuine understanding of a subject. One can use this work just as one would use a dictionary since the articles are arranged alphabetically by title. Skimming the article lists in the index volume can facilitate searching. Cross references assist the reader looking for subjects listed under alternative or synonymous names. The index leads the reader to all articles containing pertinent information on any subject.

    The print version is complemented by an online version that will be enhanced by hyperlinks, programs, animation, and color illustrations. It also offers the convenience of a powerful keyword search engine linked to all articles. It will be continually updated with new articles and revisions of existing articles so users can always find the latest information.

    Use of computers, databases, and E-mail greatly eased the development of the Encyclopedia. Online scientific databases provided suggestions for article topics. Electrical engineers Ron Leder, Jeff Schowalter, and I searched terms in current usage, reviewed each title, and compiled the final list of articles. We divided the titles into areas suggested by the different IEEE Transactions and invited the assistance of an International Editorial Board composed of the IEEE Transaction editors or alternates. They modified their area title list, supplied 10 keywords for each article, and suggested authors and reviewers. Searching online scientific databases yielded additional authors. Search engines on the Web facilitated finding authors' current addresses.

    I owe a great debt to the many people who have contributed to the creation of this work. At John Wiley & Sons, electrical engineering acquisitions editor George Telecki provided the idea and guiding influence to launch the project. Members of the International Editorial Board helped to shape the selection of articles and to suggest authors. The authors and reviewers were the critical key to the project, taking many hours from their busy schedules to write and review articles. A list of contributors can be found in the index volume.

    Ron Leder was of major assistance: he modified our tracking database to collect all this information and posted the important details on the Encyclopedia's Web page (http://www.wiley.com/ee/engineering). He also developed our invaluable database for generating all correspondence by post, fax, and E-mail.

    Others who kept the office running smoothly are Hans Bilger, Benjamin Fox, Kathy Flake, Peter Jung, John Marmet, Michael Matschull, Jeff Schowalter, Kyle Webster, Linda Webster, and Paul Webster.

    Then there is Nancy, my wife of 44 years. That precious commodity of a couple—time for togetherness—has been eroded by this project for a few years and thus I dedicated the Encyclopedia to her. Our future evenings will have a bit more time for each other, our vacations will be a bit longer, and the Encyclopedia will be there to help people learn and advance knowledge.

    Please send any suggestions and corrections to George Telecki at gtelecki@wiley.com.

    John G. Webster
    University of Wisconsin-Madison


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