Kai Siegbahn

Studied physics, mathematics and chemistry at the University of Uppsala from 1936 until 1942. Graduated in Stockholm in 1944 with the PhD thesis: "Studies in ▀ Spectroscopy". Docent in physics that year. Research associate at the Nobel Institute for Physics 1942-1951. Professor of physics at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm from 1951 to 1954. Professor and head of the Physics Department at the University of Uppsala 1954-1984. Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, Royal Society of Science, Royal Academy of Arts and Science of Uppsala, Royal Physiographical Society of Lund, Norwegian Academy of Science, Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters, National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Russian Academy of Sciences, Honorary Member of the Japan Academy, Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Honorary Member of Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Member of the Italian Physical Society, Membre de ComitÚ International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), Paris, vice president of the Inter-national Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) 1978-1981, president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) 1981-1984, member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, European Academy of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, Academia Europaea.

Awards: The Lindblom Prize 1945, Bj÷rkÚn Prize 1955, Celsius Medal 1962, Sixten Heyman Award, University of Gothenburg 1971, Harrison Howe Award Rochester 1973, Maurice F. Hasler Award, Cleveland 1975, Charles Frederick Chandler Medal, Columbia University New York 1976, Bj÷rkÚn Prize 1977, Torbern Bergman Medal 1979, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981, Pittsburgh Award of Spectroscopy 1982, R÷ntgen Medal 1985, Fiuggi Award 1986, Humboldt Award 1986, Premio Castiglione Di Sicilia 1990, Science for Peace Prize for 1991. Doctor of Science, honoris causa: University of Durham 1972, University of Basel 1980, University of LiŔge 1980, Upsala college, East Orange, New Jersey 1982, University of Sussex 1983, University of Marseille 1998. Honorary Professor at the University of Hefei, China 1991.

Founded the International Centre for Physics at the University of Uppsala for Countries under Development in 1961, founded the University for Science in Nairobi in 1966. Member of the Scientific Advisory Board and cofounder of the World Laboratory, 1986. Founder of the international Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research and its editor since 1957.

Research in atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics, surface physics, plasma physics and electron optics. Main research activity in the field of electron spectroscopy for materials, ESCA. Publications: Some 450 scientific papers. Books: Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, 1955; Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, 1965; ESCA Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy, 1967; ESCA Applied to Free Molecules, 1971.

Surveys on ESCA:

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A, 33-57, 1970.
Electron Spectroscopy, Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill, 1971.
Perspectives and Problems in Electron Spectroscopy, Proc. Asilomar Conference 1971, Ed. D.A. Shirley, North Holland, 1972.
Electron Spectroscopy - A New Way of Looking into Matter, Endeavor 32, 1973.
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, Proc. of Conf. on Atomic Physics 3, Boulder, 1972, Ed. S.J. Smith and G.K. Walters, Plenum, 1973.
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (together with C.J. Allan), MTP Int. Rev. of Science, Vol. 12, Analytical Chemistry, Part 1, Butterworths, 1973.
Electron Spectroscopy - An Outlook, Proc. Namur Conference 1974, Elsevier 1974.
Electron Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure, Pure and Appl. Chem. 48, Pergamon, 1976.
Electron Spectroscopy for Solids, Surfaces, Liquids and Free Molecules, in Mole-cular Spectroscopy, Ch. 15, Heyden 1977.
Electron Spectroscopy for Atoms, Molecules and Condensed Matter, Les Prix Nobel en 1981, The Nobel Foundation 1982.
Some Current Problems in Electron Spectrosocpy, Plenum 1983.
Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Retrospects and Prospects, UUIP-1136, April 1985.
Electron Spectroscopy for Atoms, Molecules and Condensed Matter - An Over-view, Journ. Electron Spectrosc. 36, 113 , 1985.
From X-Ray to Electron Spectroscopy, Nishina Memorial Foundation, Publ. No. 30, 1988.
From X-Ray to Electrons Spectroscopy and New Trends, Journ. Electron Spectrosc. 51, 11, 1990.
Spectrometers, Electron and Ion, Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Vol 19, 1997.

© 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.