ARTICLES

Refined and refocused statistical methods....
The principal aim of the Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science is to present accessible, high quality articles that are lively and provide a rich mixture of the technical and practical that will appeal to a wide readership. Entries have been chosen to provide broad coverage of methods and applications in the behavioral sciences. Complete coverage of current statistical methods is provided ranging through confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, random effect/multilevel modeling, generalised linear models, computationally intensive methods such as the bootstrap, and many more.

Clinical Psychology (PDF) Clinical Trials and Intervention Studies (PDF) Cohen, Jacob (PDF)
Generalized Linear Mixed Models (PDF) Graphical Presentation of Longitudinal Data (PDF) Linear Statistical Models for Causation: A Critical Review (PDF)

Statistical Models | Scaling | Classical Test Theory/Item Response Theory/ Psychological Measurement | Design of Experiments and Surveys | Multivariate Methods | Institutional/Historical | Descriptive Statistics/ Graphical Procedures | Nonparametrics and Computationally Intensive Methods | Longitudinal/ Multilevel Models | Intervention Studies/ Observational Studies | Behavioral Genetics | Factor Analysis/ Structural Equation Models | Categorical Data Analysis | Statistical Theory

STATISTICAL MODELS

Additive Models
Akaike’s Criterion
All-X Models
All-Y Models
Calculating Covariance
Collinearity
Computational models
Dummy Variables
Fixed Effect Models
Generalizability
Generalized Additive
Model
Generalized Linear Models
(GLM)
Goodness of Fit
Hierarchical Models
Instrumental Variable
Internal Consistency
Intrinsic Linearity
Linear Model
Mallows Cp Statistic
Mediation
Model Selection
Moderation
Multiple Linear Regression
Nonlinear Models
Parsimony/Occham’s Razor
Polynomial Model
Recursive Models
Regression Models
Reproduced Matrix
Standardized Regression
Coefficients
Statistical Models
Transformation
Tree Models
Variable Selection


SCALING

Additive Constant Problem
Attitude Scaling
Bagging
Boosting
Bradley-Terry Model
Carroll-Arabie Taxonomy
Correspondence Analysis
Facet Theory
High-Dimensional
Regression
Horseshoe Pattern
Minimum Spanning Tree
Monotonic Regression
Multidimensional Scaling
Multidimensional Unfolding
Neural Networks
Optimal Scaling
Optimization Methods
Principal Components and
Extensions
Procrustes Analysis
Psychophysical Scaling
Random Forests
Scaling Asymmetric
Matrices
Scaling of Preferential
Choice
Shepard Diagram
Slicing Inverse Regression
Threeway and Multiway
Scaling
Ultrametric Inequality
Ultrametric Trees
Unidimensional Scaling


CLASSICAL TEST THEORY/ITEM RESPONSE THEORY/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT

Bayesian Item Response
Theory Estimation
Classical Test Models
Classical Test Score
Equating
Computer-Adaptive Testing
Computer-Based Test
Designs
Computer-Based Testing
Conditional Standard Errors
of Measurement
Criterion-Referenced
Assessment
Differential Item
Functioning
Free Response Data
Scoring
Generalizability Theory:
Basics
Generalizability Theory:
Estimation
Hierarchical Item Response
Theory Modeling
Item Analysis
Item Bias Detection:
Classical Approaches
Item Bias Detection:
Modern Approaches
Item Exposure Detection
Item Response Theory
(IRT) Models for
Dichotomous Data
Item Response Theory
Models for Rating Scale
Data
Item Response Theory:
Cognitive Models
Item ResponseTheory
Models for Polytomous
Response Data
Latent Class Analysis
Markov Chain Monte-Carlo
Item Response Theory
Estimation
Maximum Likelihood Item
Response Theory
Estimation
Model Fit: Assessment of
Multidimensional Item
Response Theory Models
Multi-trait Multi-method
Analyses
New Item Types and Scoring
Nonparametric Item
Response Theory Models
Person Misfit
Reliability: Definitions and
Estimation
Sequential Decision
Making
Setting Performance
Standards - Issues,
Methods
Structural Equation
Modeling and Test
Validation
Tau-Equivalent and
Congeneric Measurements
Test Bias Detection
Test Construction
Test Construction:
Automated
Test Dimensionality:
Assessment of
Test Translation
Validity Theory and
Applications


DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS AND SURVEYS

Analysis of Covariance
Analysis of Variance
Analysis of Variance and
Multiple Regression
Approaches
Analysis of Variance: Cell
Means Approach
Analysis of Variance:
Classification
Balanced Incomplete Block
Designs
Carryover and Sequence
Effects
Completely Randomized
Design
Confounding in the
Analysis of Variance
Effect Size Measures
Error Rates
Ethics in Research
Experimental Design
Face-to-Face Surveys
Factorial Designs
Focus Group Techniques
Interaction Effects
Internet Research Methods
Latin Squares Designs
Mail Surveys
Missing Data
Multiple Comparison
Procedures
Nonresponse in Sample
Surveys
Nuisance Variables
One Way
Designs:Nonparametric
and Resampling
Approaches
Proscriptive and
Restrospective Studies
Qualitative Research
Randomization
Randomized Block Designs
Regression Model Coding
for the Analysis of Variance
Regression to the Mean
Sample Size and Power
Calculation
Single and Double-Blind
Procedures
Survey Questionnaire
Design
Survey Sampling
Procedures
Telephone Surveys
Type I, Type II and Type III
Sums of Squares


MULTIVARIATE METHODS

Additive Tree
Axes in Multivariate
Analysis
Battery Reduction
Biplot
Canonical Correlation
Analysis
Cluster Analysis: Overview
Correlation and Covariance
Matrices
Covariance Matrices:
Testing Equality of
Data Mining
Discriminant Analysis
Eigenvalue/Eigenvector
Finite Mixture Distributions
Fuzzy Cluster Analysis
Hierarchical Clustering
Independence: Chi-square
and likelihood ratio tests
K-means Algorithm
Mahalanobis Distance
Microarrays
Misclassification Rates
Model Based Cluster
Analysis
Multiple Imputation
Multivariate Analysis of
Variance
Multivariate Analysis,
Bayesian
Multivariate Analysis:
Overview
Multivariate Multiple
Regression
Multivariate Normality Tests
Multivariate Outliers
Number of Clusters
Overlapping Clusters
Partial Correlation
Coefficients
Pattern Recognition
Principal Component
Analysis
Projection Pursuit
Proximity Measures
R & Q Analysis
Robust Statistics for
Multivariate Methods
Two-mode Clustering


INSTITUTIONAL/HISTORICAL

Arbuthnot, John
Bayes, Thomas
Bernoulli Family
Brown, William
Burt, Cyril Lodowic
Bush, Robert R
Campbell, Donald T
Cattell, Raymond Bernard
Cochran, William Gemmell
Cohen, Jacob
Coombs, Clyde Hamilton
Cox, Gertrude Mary
de Finetti, Bruno
de Moivre, Abraham
Deming, Edwards William
Development of Statistical
Theory in the 20th Century
Fechner, Gustav T
Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer
Fisherian Tradition in
Behavioral Genetics
Galton, Francis
Gauss, Johann Carl
Friedrich
Gosset, William Sealy
Graphical Methods Pretwentieth
Century
Guttman, Louise (Eliyahu)
History of Analysis of
Variance
History of Behavioral
Statistics
History of Correlational
Measurement
History of Discrimination
and Clustering
History of Factor Analysis:
British Perspective
History of Mathematical
Learning Theory
History of Multivariate
Analysis of Variance
History of Psychometrics
History of the Control
Group
Hotelling, Howard
Hull, Clark L
Kendall, Maurice George
Kolmogorov, Andrey
Nikolaevich
Laplace, Pierre Simon
(Marquis de)
Lord, Frederic Mather
Mahalanobis, Prasanta
Chandra
Markov, Andrei
Andreevich.
Maxwell, Albert Ernest
Mendelian Genetics
Rediscovered
Neyman, Jerzy
Nightingale, Florence
Pearson, Egon Sharpe
Pearson, Karl
Quetelet, Adolphe
Savage, Leonard Jimmie
Scheffe, Henry
Shannon, Claude
Snedecor, George Waddell
Spearman, Charles Edward
Stephenson, William
Stevens, S S
Thomson, Godfrey Hilton
Thurstone, Louis Leon
Tukey, John Wilder
Tversky, Amos
Urban, F M
Wiener, Norbert
Wilcoxon, Frank
Yates, Frank
Yule, George Udny


DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS/ GRAPHICAL PROCEDURES

Arithmetic Mean
Average Deviation
Bar Chart
Box Plots
Bubble Plot
Coefficient of Variation
Correlation
Covariance
Dot chart
Empirical Quantile-Quantile
Plots
ETA and ETA Squared
Exploratory Data Analysis
Geometric Mean
Harmonic Mean
Histogram
Index Plots
Interaction Plot
Interquartile Range
Intraclass Correlation
Kendall’s Coefficient of
Concordance
Kendall’s Tau - t
Kurtosis
Leverage Plot
M Estimators of Location
Median
Median Absolute Deviation
Pearson Product Moment
Correlation
Percentiles
Pie Chart
Point Biserial Correlation
Probability Plots
Quantiles
Quartiles
R Squared, Adjusted R
Squared
Range
Receiver Operating
Characteristics Curves
Residual Plot
Residuals
Resistant Line Fit
Scales of Measurement
Scatterplot Matrices
Scatterplot Smoothers
Scatterplots
Skewness
Spearman’s Rho
Standard Deviation
Standard Error
Stanine Scores
Star and Profile Plots
Stem and Leaf Plot
Symmetry Plot
Three dimensional (3D)
Scatterplots
Tolerance and Variance
Inflation Factor
Trellis Graphics
Trimmed Means
T-Scores
Variance
Winsorized Robust
Measures
Z-Scores



NONPARAMETRICS AND COMPUTATIONALLY INTENSIVE METHODS

Analysis of Covariance:
Nonparametric
Ansari-Bradley Test
Asymptotic Relative
Efficiency
Binomial Confidence
Interval
Binomial Distribution:
Estimating and Testing
parameters
Bootstrap Inference
Confidence Intervals:
Nonparametric
Cramer-Von Mises Test
Cross-validation
Distribution Free Inference,
an Overview
Friedman’s Test
Functional Data Analysis
Graphical Chain Models
Hodges-Lehman Estimator
Independent Components
Analysis
Influential Observations
Jackknife
Jonckheere-Terpstra Test
Kernel Smoothing
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Tests
Kruskal-Wallis Test
Linear Models: Permutation
Methods
Median Test
Mid-p Values
Monte Carlo Goodness of
Fit Tests
Monte Carlo Simulation
Multiple Comparison Tests:
Nonparametric and
Resampling Approaches
Nonparametric correlation
(Rs)
Nonparametric correlation
(tau)
Nonparametric Regression
Normal Scores & Expected
Order Statistics
Page’s 0rdered Alternatives
Test
Paired Observations,
Distribution Free Methods
Partial Least Squares
Permutation Based
Inference
Pitman Test
Randomization Based Tests
Randomized Block Design:
Nonparametric Analyses
Rank Based Inference
Replicability of Results
Runs Test
Sign Test
Signed Ranks Test
Symmetry: Distribution
Free Tests for
Theil Slope Estimate
Tukey Quick Test
Two-way Factorial:
Distribution-Free Methods
Walsh Averages
Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney
test
Within Case Designs:
Distribution Free Methods

LONGITUDINAL/ MULTILEVEL MODELS

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis
Centering in Multivariate
Linear Models
Classification and
Regression Trees
Clustered Data
Conditional Independence
Cross-Classified and
Multiple Membership
Models
Dropouts in Longitudinal
Data
Dropouts in Longitudinal
Studies: Methods of
Analysis
Fixed and Random Effects
Generalized Estimating
Equations (GEE)
Generalized Linear Mixed
Models
Graphical Presentation of
Longitudinal Data
Growth Curve Modeling
Heteroscedasticity and
Complex Variation
Linear Multilevel Models
Longitudinal Data Analysis
Lord’s Paradox
Marginal Models for
Clustered Data
Multilevel and SEM
Approaches to Growth
Curve Modeling
Nonlinear Mixed Effects
Models
Power and Sample Size in
Multivariate Linear Models
Random Effects in
Multivariate Linear Models:
Prediction
Randomized Response
Technique
Repeated Measures
Analysis of Variance
Sphericity Test
State Dependence
Summary Measure Analysis
of Longitudinal Data
Variance Components


INTERVENTION STUDIES/ OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

Adaptive Random
Assignment
Adaptive Sampling
Alternating Treatment
Designs
Area Sampling
Attrition
Binomial Effect Size Display
Block Random Assignment
Case Studies
Case-Cohort Studies
Case-Control Studies
Censored Observations
Census
Clinical Trials and
Intervention Studies
Cohort Sequential Design
Cohort Studies
Community Intervention
Studies
Compensatory Equalization
Compensatory Rivalry
Confounding Variable
Correlation Studies
Counter Null Value of an
Effect Size
Counterbalancing
Counterfactual Reasoning
Cross Sectional Design
Cross-Lagged Panel Design
Crossover Design
Demand Characteristics
Design Effects
Ecological Fallacy
Equivalence Trials
Expectancy Effect
External Validity
Field Experiment
Generalizability Theory:
Overview
Hawthorne Effect
Hill’s Criteria of Causation
Historical Controls
Incidence
Intention-to-Treat
Internal Validity
Interrupted Time Series
Design
Intervention Analysis
INUS Conditions
Matching
Meta-Analysis
Multiple Baseline Designs
Nonequivalent Control
Group Design
Nonrandom Samples
Number Needed to Treat
Observational Study
Panel Study
Placebo Effect
Prevalence
Propensity Score
Quasi-Experimental
Designs
Reactivity
Regression Artifacts
Regression Discontinuity
Design
Resentful Demoralization
Retrospective Studies
Reversal Design
Sensitivity Analysis in
Observational Studies
Simple Random
Assignment
Simple Random Sampling
Single-Case Designs
Social Validity
Stratification
Time Series Analysis


BEHAVIORAL GENETICS

ACE Model
Additive Genetic Variance
Adoption Studies
Allelic Association
Ascertainment Corrections
Assortative mating
Children of Twins Design
Cholesky Decomposition
Common Pathway Model
Comorbidity
Concordance Rates
Correlation Issues in
Genetics Research
Co-Twin Control Methods
Cultural Transmission
DeFries-Fulker Analysis
Direction of Causation
Models
Dominance
Epistasis
Family History Versus
Family Study Methods in
Genetics
Family Study and Relative
Risk
Gene-Environment
Correlation
Gene-Environment
Interaction
Genotype
Heritability
Heritability: Overview
Inbred Strain Study
Independent Pathway
Model
Liability Threshold Models
Linkage Analysis
Longitudinal Designs in
Genetic Research
Mendelian Inheritance and
Segregation Analysis
Multiple Informants
Multivariate Genetic
Analysis
Nonshared Environment
Population Stratification
Rater Bias Models
Selection Study (Mouse
Genetics)
Sex-Limitation Models
Shared Environment
Sibling Interaction Effects
Social Interaction Models
Software for Behavioral
Genetics
Twin Designs
Twins Reared Apart Design


FACTOR ANALYSIS/ STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS

Covariance Structure
Models
Covariance/variance/correl
ation
Direct and Indirect Effects
Factor Analysis of
Personality Measures
Factor Analysis:
Confirmatory
Factor Analysis: Exploratory
Factor Analysis: Multiple
Groups
Factor Analysis: Multitrait-
Multimethod
Factor Score Estimation
History of Factor Analysis:
Statistical Perspective
History of Path Analysis
Identification
Latent Variable
Path Analysis and Path
Diagrams
Residuals in Structural
Equation, Factor Analysis,
and Path Analysis Models
Second order Factor
Analysis: Confirmatory
Statistical Models for
Causation: A Critical
Review
Structural Equation
Modeling: Categorical
Variables
Structural Equation
Modeling: Checking
Substantive Plausibility
Structural Equation
Modeling: Mixture Models
Structural Equation
Modeling: Multilevel
Structural Equation
Modeling: Nontraditional
Alternatives
Structural Equation
Modeling: Overview
Structural Equation
Modeling: Software
Structural Equation
Modeling:Latent Growth
Curve Analysis
Structural Equation
Modeling:Nonstandard
Cases


CATEGORICAL DATA ANALYSIS

Binomial Test
Breslow-Day Statistic
Catastrophe Theory
Categorizing Data
Chi-Square Decomposition
Cochran’s C Test
Combinatorics for
Categorical Variables
Configural Frequency
Analysis
Contingency Tables
Exact Methods for
Categorical Data
Goodness of Fit for
Categorical Variables
Incomplete Contigency
Tables
Information Theory
Latent Transition Models
Logistic Regression
Log-linear models
Log-linear Rasch Models
for Stability and Change
Mantel-Haenszel Methods
Marginal Independence
Measures of Association
Models for Matched Pairs
Multigraph Modeling
Number of Matches and
Magnitude of Correlation
Odds and Odds Ratios
Optimal Design for
Categorical Variables
Ordinal Regression Models
Paradoxes
Polychoric Correlation
Power Analysis for
Categorical Methods
Prediction Analysis of
Cross-Classifications
Probits
Quasi-Independence
Quasi-Symmetry in
Contingency Tables
Rasch Modeling
Rasch Models for Ordered
Response Categories
Rater Agreement
Rater Agreement - Kappa
Rater Agreement -
Weighted Kappa
Relative Risk
Sampling Issues in
Categorical Data
Saturated Model
Simulation Methods for
Categorical Variables
Structural Zeros
Tetrachoric Correlation
Trend Tests for Counts and
Proportions
Two by Two Contingency
Tables
Yates’ Correction


STATISTICAL THEORY

A Priori v Post Hoc Testing
Additivity Tests
Bayesian Belief Networks
Bayesian Methods for
Categorical Data
Bayesian Statistics
Catalogue of Parametric
Tests
Catalogue of Probability
Density Functions
Central Limit Theory
Classical Statistical
Inference: Practice versus
Presentation
Classical Statistical
Inference Extended: Split-
Tailed Tests
Confidence Intervals
Critical Region
Decision Making Strategies
Deductive Reasoning and
Statistical Inference
Direct Maximum Likelihood
Estimation
Directed Alternatives in
Testing
Estimation
Event History Analysis
Expectation
Game Theory
Heuristics
Hueristics: Fast and Frugal
Incompleteness of
Probability Models
Information Matrix
Introduction to Probability
Laws of Large Numbers
Least Squares Estimation
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
and Bayesian Statistics
Markov Chains
Martingales
Maximum Likelihood
Estimation
Measurement: Overview
Model Evaluation
Model Identifiability
Moments
Multiple Testing
Neyman-Pearson Inference
Outlier Detection
Outliers
P Values
Power
Probability: Foundations of
Random Effects and Fixed
Effects Fallacy
Random Walks
Robust Testing Procedures
Robustness of Standard
Tests
Sampling Distributions
Sensitivity Analysis
Sequential Testing
Signal Detection Theory
Simple V Composite Tests
Simultaneous Confidence
Interval
Social Networks
Subjective Probability and
Human Judgement
Survival Analysis
Utility Theory

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