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Glossary: Chapter 11

artificial intelligence (AI)
The branch of computer science concerned with understanding the nature of human intelligence, with the goal of simulating aspects of it with a computer.

automated machine translation
A research field in linguistics and computer science that translates one human language into another with computers.

brute force
Solving a problem like a chess move by using the computer's ability to examine a large number of possible moves quickly in order to assess each for its potential for success or failure.

cognitive scientist
A scientist, perhaps trained in computer science, psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, or philosophy, interested in the study of brain/ computer analogues.

combinatorial explosion
The greatly increasing number of possible alternative moves that must be examined in looking forward several moves in games like chess or Go to choose the best move.robotic machine: A robot typically engineered with sensors and a gripper arm to carry out an automated industrial process.

CYC
A well-known project to develop computer understanding of common sense knowledge of the real world, involving encoding millions of facts and relations between them, so that the machine can draw inferences automatically.

DENDRAL
An early successful expert system for classifying chemical compounds based on their spectrographic characteristics and the rules that govern chemical bonding.

ELIZA
An early experimental computer program in AI that carried on a dialogue with a person. The computer appeared to understand what was being said but in fact was just filling blanks in formulaic conversation.

heuristics
Exploratory methods for problem solving that can be applied in particular situations for automated understanding, often consisting of rules of thumb or other ad hoc strategies.

image analysis
A research field in computer science concerned with developing technologies for automatic understanding of what a computer is seeing, such as identifying a target or an incoming enemy missile with a smart weapon.

inference engine
In an expert system, the use of reasoning, based on using the knowledge encoded into the system, to solve problems.

knowledge base
In an expert system, facts and relations among them gleaned from human experts.

limited domain
A term that describes how various kinds of success in AI have been achieved in relatively small, constrained areas of application.

neural networks (connectionism)
A computer technique intended to model the human brain's processes in learning, understanding, and remembering.

parallel processing
A combination of multiple interconnected processors and software techniques that analyze input data simultaneously rather than serially; useful in neural networks.

pattern matching
The human ability to recognize underlying patterns of similarity in different contexts, such as handwriting styles and dialects, for which neural networks using fuzzy logic seem appropriate.

process control application
A process in manufacturing often suitable for installation of robotic machines, such as automated welding on an assembly line.

production rule
An if/then condition incorporated into the inference engine of an expert system.

semantics
The field of linguistic analysis concerned with the meaning component of language, still one of the greatest challenges of natural language processing with computers.

sensory feedback
The ability of a robotic machine to receive sensory information as data and adjust its behavior accordingly, the highest level of achievement in today's robots.

SHRDLU (BLOCKS WORLD)
A pioneering natural language application designed by Terry Winograd, with features for understanding both the grammar and semantics of instructions for moving a set of blocks around on a plane surface.

syntax
The field of linguistics concerned with the grammatical relations of words in a sentence.

text processing
A field concerned with text-based applications of computers, including indexing, hyphenation, and concordances.

visualization systems
Robotic machines, such as some automated security systems, with television cameras and feedback mechanisms capable of analyzing a scene and carrying out an action based on what is seen.

world knowledge
Information that people take for granted that must be explicitly stated in computer programs, often as heuristic rules.


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