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Organic Chemistry: Concepts and Applications





Organic Chemistry: Concepts and Applications

Allan D. Headley

ISBN: 978-1-119-50458-0 November 2019 592 Pages


Providing an in-depth study of organic compounds and written for students in science or pre-professional programs, this textbook bridges the gap between general and organic chemistry and helps students better understand the material.

  • Covers the concepts needed to understand organic chemistry and teaches students how to apply them for problem-solving
  • Emphasizes the relevance of organic chemistry to the environment, industry, and biological and medical sciences
  • Includes multiple choice questions similar to aptitude exams for professional school, like the MCAT and DAT, to help students prepare for them


About the Companion Page

Chapter 1 - Bonding and Structure of Organic Compounds

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Electronic Structure of Atoms

1.2.1 Orbitals

1.2.2 Electronic Configuration of Atoms

1.2.3 Lewis Dot Structures of Atoms

1.3 Chemical Bonds

1.3.1 Ionic Bonds

1.3.2 Covalent Bonds

1.3.3 Shapes of Molecules

1.3.4 Bond Polarity and Polar Molecules

1.3.5 Formal Charges

1.3.6 Resonance

1.4 Chemical Formulas

1.4.1 Line-Angle Representations of Molecules

1.5 The Covalent bond

1.5.1 The Single Bond to Hydrogen   

1.5.2 The Single Bond to Carbon

1.5.3 The Single Bond to Heteroatoms

1.5.4 The Carbon-Carbon Double Bond

1.5.5 The Carbon-Heteroatom Double Bond

1.5.6 The Carbon-Carbon Triple Bond

1.5.7 The Carbon-Heteroatom Triple Bond

1.6 Bonding - Concept Summary and Applications

1.7 Intermolecular Attractions

1.7.1 Dipole-Dipole Intermolecular Attractions

1.7.2 Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond

1.7.3 Intermolecular London Force Attractions

1.8 Intermolecular Molecular Interactions - Concept Summary and Applications

Chapter 2 - Carbon Functional Groups and Organic Nomenclature

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Functional Groups

2.3 Saturated Hydrocarbons

2.3.1 Classification of the Carbons of Saturated Hydrocarbons

2.4 Organic Nomenclature

2.5 Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes

2.5.1 Nomenclature of Straight Chain Alkanes

2.5.2 Nomenclature of Branched Alkanes

2.5.3 Nomenclature of Compounds that Contain Heteroatoms

2.5.4 Common Names of Alkanes

2.5.5 Nomenclature of Cyclic Alkanes

2.5.6 Nomenclature of Branched Cyclic Alkanes

2.5.7 Nomenclature of Bicyclic Compounds

2.6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

2.7 Structure and Nomenclature of Alkenes

2.7.1 Nomenclature of Branched Alkenes

2.7.2 Nomenclature of Polyenes

2.7.3 Nomenclature of Cyclic Alkenes

2.8 Structure and Nomenclature of Substituted Benzenes

2.8.1 Structure and Nomenclature of Substituted Benzene Compounds

2.8.2 Nomenclature of Di-Substituted Benzenes

2.9 Structure and Nomenclature of Alkynes

Chapter 3 - Heteroatomic Functional Groups and Organic Nomenclature

3.1 Properties and Structure of Alcohols, Phenols and Thiols

3.1.1 Types of Alcohols

3.2 Nomenclature of Alcohols

3.2.1 Nomenclature of Difunctional Alcohols

3.2.2 Nomenclature of Cyclic Alcohols

3.2.3 Nomenclature of Substituted Phenols

3.3 Nomenclature of Thiols

3.4 Structure and Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones

3.5 Nomenclature of Aldehydes

3.5.1 Nomenclature of Difunctional Aldehydes

3.6 Nomenclature of Ketones

3.6.1 Nomenclature of Difunctional Ketones

3.6.2 Nomenclature of Cyclic Ketones

3.7 Structure and Properties of Carboxylic Acids

3.8 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids

3.8.1 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids

3.8.2 Nomenclature of Cyclic and Difunctional Carboxylic acids

3.9 Structure and Properties of Esters

3.9.1 Nomenclature of Esters

3.9.2 Nomenclature of Cyclic Esters

3.10 Structure and Properties of Acid Chlorides

3.10.1 Nomenclature of Acid Chlorides

3.10.2 Nomenclature of Difunctional Acid Chlorides

3.11 Structure and Properties of Anhydrides

3.11.1 Nomenclature of Anhydrides

3.12 Structure and Properties of Amines

3.12.1 Nomenclature of Amines

3.12.2 Nomenclature of Difunctional Amines

3.13 Structure and Properties of Amides

3.13.1 Nomenclature of Amides

3.14 Structure and Properties of Nitriles

3.14.1 Nomenclature of Nitriles

3.15 Structure and Properties of Ethers

3.15.1 Nomenclature of Ethers

3.15.2 Nomenclature of Oxiranes

3.16 An Overview of Spectroscopy and the Relationship to Functional Groups

3.16.1 Infra-Red Spectroscopy

Chapter 4 - Alkanes, Cycloalkanes and Alkenes: Isomers, Conformations and Stabilities

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Structural Isomers

4.3 Conformational Isomers of Alkanes

4.3.1 Dashed/Wedge Representation of Isomers

4.3.2 Newman Representation of Conformers

4.3.3 Relative Energies of Conformers

4.4 Conformational Isomers of Cycloalkanes

4.4.1 Conformational Isomers of Cyclopropane

4.4.2 Conformational Isomers of Cyclobutane

4.4.3 Conformational Isomers of Cyclopentane

4.4.4 Conformational Isomers of Cyclohexane

4.4.5 Conformational Isomers of Mono-Substituted Cyclohexane

4.4.6 Conformational Isomers of Di-Substituted Cyclohexane

4.5 Geometric Isomers

4.5.1 IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkene Geometric Stereoisomers

4.6 Stability of Alkanes

4.7. Stability of Alkenes

4.8 Stability of Alkynes

Chapter 5 - Stereochemistry

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Chiral Stereoisomers

5.2.1 Determination of Enantiomerism

5.2.2 Asymmetric Compounds Without a Chiral Center

5.3 Significance of Chirality

5.3.1 Molecular Chirality and Biological Action

5.4 Nomenclature of the Absolute Configuration of Chiral Molecules

5.5 Properties of Stereogenic Compounds

5.6 Compounds with More Than One Stereogenic Carbon

5.6.1 Cyclic Compounds with More Than One Sterogenic Center

5.7 Resolution of Enantiomers

Chapter 6 - An Overview of the Reactions in Organic Chemistry

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Acid Base Reactions

6.2.1 Acids

6.2.2 Bases

6.3 Addition Reactions

6.4 Reduction Reactions

6.5 Oxidation Reactions

6.6 Elimination Reactions

6.7 Substitution Reactions 

6.8 Pericyclic Reactions

6.9 Catalytic Coupling Reactions

Chapter 7 - Acid-Base Reactions in Organic Chemistry

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Lewis Acids and Bases

7.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Conjugate Bases

7.4 Predicting the Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases

7.5 Factors that Affect Acid and Base Strengths

7.5.1 Electronegativity

7.5.2 Type Hybridized Orbitals

7.5.3 Resonance

7.5.4 Polarizability/Atom Size

7.5.5 Inductive Effect

7.6 Applications of Acid-Bases Reactions in Organic Chemistry

Chapter 8 - Addition Reactions Involving Alkenes and Alkynes

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Mechanism for Addition Reactions Involving Alkenes

8.3 Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkenes (Hydrohalogenation of Alkenes)

8.3.1 Addition Reactions to Symmetrical Alkenes

8.3.2 Addition Reactions to Unsymmetrical Alkenes

8.3.3 Predicting the Major Addition Product

8.3.4 Predicting the Stereochemistry of Addition Reaction Products

8.3.5 Predicting the Major Addition Product - Markovnikov Rule

8.3.6 Unexpected Hydrohalogenation Products

8.3.7 Anti-Markovnikov Addition to Alkenes

8.4 Addition of Halogens to Alkenes (Halogenation of Alkenes) 

8.5 Addition of Halogens and Water to Alkenes (Halohydrin Formation)

8.6 Addition of Water to Alkenes (Hydration of Alkenes)

8.6.1 Hydration by Oxymercuration-Demercuration

8.6.2 Hydration by Hydroboration-Oxidation

8.7 Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes

8.7.1 Structure of Carbenes

8.7.2 Reactions of Carbenes

8.8 The mechanism for Addition Reactions Involving Alkynes

8.8.1 Addition of Bromine to Alkynes

8.8.2 Addition of Hydrogen Halide to Alkynes

8.8.3 Addition of Water to Alkynes

8.9 Applications of Addition Reactions to Synthesis

Chapter 9 - Addition Reactions Involving Carbonyls and Nitriles

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Mechanism for Addition Reactions Involving Carbonyl Compounds

9.3 Addition of HCN to Carbonyl Compounds

9.4 Addition of Water to Carbonyl Compounds

9.4.1 Reactivity of Carbonyl Compounds Towards Hydration

9.5 Addition of Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds

9.5.1 Ketals and Acetals as Protection Groups

9.6 Addition of Ylides to Carbonyl Compounds (The Wittig reaction)

9.6.1 Synthesis of Phosphorous Ylides

9.7 Addition of Enolates fo Carbonyl Compounds

9.8 Addition of Amines to Carbonyl Compounds

9.9 Mechanism for Addition Reactions Involving Imines

9.9.1 Addition of Water to Imines

9.10 Mechanism for Addition Reactions Involving Nitriles

9.10.1 Addition of Water to Nitriles

9.11 Applications of Addition Reactions to Synthesis

Chapter 10 - Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Reducing Agents of Organic Chemistry

10.2.1 Metal Hydrides

10.2.2 Organometallic Compounds

10.2.3 Dissolving Metals

10.2.4 Hydrogen in the Presence of a Catalyst

10.3 Reduction of C=O and C=S Containing Compounds

10.3.1 Reduction Using NaBH4 and LiAlH4

10.3.2 Reduction Using Organometallic Reagents

10.3.3 Reduction Using Acetylides

10.3.4 Reduction Using Metals

10.3.5 Reduction Using Hydrogen with a Catalyst

10.3.6 Reduction with Acid-Base Reactions

10.4 Reduction of Imines

10.4.1 Reduction Using NaBH4 and LiAlH4

10.4.2 Reduction Using Hydrogen with a Catalyst

10.5 Reduction of Oxiranes

10.6 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds, Alkynes and Alkenes

10.6.1 Reduction Using Dissolving Metals

10.6.2 Reduction Using Catalytic Hydrogenation

Chapter 11 - Oxidation Reactions in Organic Chemistry

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Oxidation

11.3 Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes

11.3.1 Oxidation Using Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4)

11.3.2 Oxidation Using Chromic Acid (H2CrO4)

11.3.3 Swern Oxidation

11.3.4 Dess-Martin Oxidation

11.3.5 Oxidation Using Pyridinium Chlorochromate

11.3.6 Oxidation Using Silver Ions

11.3.7 Oxidation Using Nitrous Acid

11.3.8 Oxidation Using Periodic acid

11.4 Oxidation of Alkenes Without Bond Cleavage 

11.4.1 Epoxidation of Alkenes Reactions of Epoxides

11.4.2 Oxidation of Alkenes with KMnO4

11.4.3 Oxidation of Alkenes with OsO4

11.5 Oxidation of Alkenes with Bond Cleavage

11.5.1 Oxidation of Alkenes with KMnO4 at Elevated Temperatures

11.5.2 Ozonolysis of Alkenes

11.6 Applications of Oxidation Reactions of alkenes

11.7 Oxidation of Alkynes 

11.8 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds

11.9 Autooxidation of Ethers

11.10 Applications of Oxidation Reactions to Synthesis

Chapter 12 - Elimination Reactions of Organic Chemistry

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Mechanisms of Elimination Reactions

12.2.1 Elimination Bimolecular (E2) Reaction Mechanism

12.2.2 Elimination Unimolecular (E1) Reaction Mechanism

12.2.4 Elimination Unimolecular – Conjugate Base (E1CB) Reaction Mechanism

12.3 Elimination of Hydrogen and Halide (Dehydrohalogenation)

12.4 Elimination of Water (Dehydration)

12.4.1 Dehydration Products

12.4.2 Carbocation Rearrangement

12.4.3 Pinacol Rearrangement

12.5 Applications of Elimination Reactions - Synthesis

Chapter 13 - Spectroscopy Revisited, A More Detailed Examination

13.1 Introduction

13.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

13.2.1 Types Spectroscopy Used in Organic Chemistry

13.3 UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Conjugated Systems

13.4 Infra-Red Spectroscopy

13.5 Mass Spectrometry

13.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

13.6.1 Theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

13.6.2 The NMR Spectrometer

13.6.3 Magnetic Shielding

13.6.4 The Chemical Shift, the Scale of the NMR Spectroscopy

13.6 5 Significance of Different Signals and Area Under Each Signal

13.6.6 Splitting of Signals

13.6.7 Carbon-13 NMR (13C NMR)

13.6.8 Carbon-13 Chemical Shifts and Coupling

Chapter 14 - Free Radical Substitution Reactions Involving Alkanes

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Types of Alkanes and Alkyl Halides

14.2.1 Classifications of Hydrocarbons

14.2.2 Bond Dissociation Energies of Hydrocarbons

14.2.3 Structure and Stability of Radicals

14.3 Chlorination of Alkanes

14.3.1 Mechanism for the Chlorination of Methane

14.3.3 Chlorination of Other Alkanes

14.4 Bromination of Alkanes

14.4.1 Bromination of Propane and Other Alkanes

14.5 Applications of Free Radical Substitution Reactions

14.6 Free-Radical Inhibitors

14.7 Environmental Impact of Organohalides and Free Radicals

Chapter 15 - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions at sp3 Carbons

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Electrophile

15.3 The Leaving group

15.3.1 Converting Amines to Good Leaving Groups

15.3.2 Converting Alcohols to Good Leaving Groups in an Acidic Medium

15.3.3 Converting Alcohols to Good Leaving Groups Using Phosphorous Tribromide

15.3.4 Converting Alcohols to Good Leaving Groups Using Thionyl Chloride

15.3.5 Converting Alcohols to Good Leaving Groups Using Sulfonyl Chloride

15.4 The Nucleophile 

15.5 Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

15.5.1 Mechanisms of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

15.6 Bimolecular Substitution Reaction Mechanism (SN2 Mechanism)

15.6.1 The Electrophile of SN2 Reactions

15.6.2 The Nucleophile of SN2 Reactions

15.6.3 The Solvents of SN2 Reactions

15.6.4 Stereochemistry of the Products of SN2 Reactions

15.6.5 Intramolecular SN2 Reactions

15.7 Unimolecular Substitution Reaction Mechanism (SN1 Mechanism)

15.7.1 The Nucleophile and Solvents of SN1 Reactions

15.7.2 Stereochemistry of the Products of SN1 Reactions

15.7.3 The Electrophile of SN1 Reactions

15.8 Applications of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions - Synthesis

15.8.1 Synthesis of Ethers

15.8.2 Synthesis of Nitriles

15.8.3 Synthesis of Silyl Ethers

15.8.4 Synthesis of Alkynes

15.8.5 Synthesis of α-Substituted Carbonyl Compounds

Chapter 16 - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions at Acyl Carbons

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Mechanism for Acyl Substitution

16.2.1 The Leaving Group of Acyl Substitution Reactions

16.2.2 Reactivity of Electrophile Towards Acyl Substitution

16.2.3 The Nucleophiles of Acyl Substitution Reactions

16.3 Substitution Reactions Involving Acid Chlorides

16.3.1 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Water

16.3.2 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Alcohols

16.3.3 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Ammonia and Amines

16.3.4 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Carboxylate Salts

16.3.5 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Soft Organometallic Reagents

16.3.6 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Hard Organometallic Reagents

16.3.7 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Soft Metallic Hydrides

16.3.8 Substitution Reactions of Acid Chlorides with Hard Metallic Hydrides

16.4 Substitution Reactions Involving Anhydrides

16.4.1 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Water

16.4.2 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Alcohols

16.4.3 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Ammonia and Amines

16.4.4 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Carboxylate Salts

16.4.5 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Soft Oganometallic Reagents

16.4.6 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Hard Organometallic Reagents

16.4.7 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Soft Metallic Hydrides

16.4.8 Substitution Reactions of Anhydrides with Hard Metallic Hydrides

16.5 Substitution Reactions Involving Esters

16.5.1 Substitution Reactions of Esters with Water

16.5.2 Substitution Reactions of Esters with Alcohols

16.5.3 Substitution Reactions of Esters with Ammonia and Amines

16.5.4 Substitution Reactions of Esters with Soft Organometallic Reagents

16.5.5 Substitution Reactions of Esters with Hard Organometallic Reagents

16.5.6 Substitution Reactions of Esters with Soft and Hard Metallic Hydrides

16.5.7 Substitution Reactions of Esters with Enolates of Esters

16.6 Substitution Reactions Involving Amides

16.6.1 Substitution Reactions of Amides with Water

16.6.2 Substitution Reactions of Amides with Hard Metallic Hydrides

16.7 Substitution Reactions Involving Carboxylic Acids

16.7.1 Substitution Reactions of Carboxylic Acids with Alcohols

16.7.2 Substitution Reactions of Carboxylic Acids with Ammonia and Amines

16.7.3 Substitution Reactions of Carboxylic Acids with Hard Metallic Hydrides

16.8 Substitution Reactions Involving Oxalyl Chloride

16.9 Substitution Reactions Involving Sulfur Containing Compounds

16.10 Applications of Acyl Reactions

16.10.1 Synthesis of Esters

16.10.2 Synthesis of Amides

Chapter 17 - Aromaticity and Aromatic Substitution Reactions

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Structure and Properties of Benzene

17.3 Nomenclature of Substituted Benzene

17.3.1 Nomenclature of Mono-Substituted Benzenes 

17.3.2 Nomenclature of Di-Substituted Benzenes 

17.3 Stability of Benzene

17.4 Characteristics of Aromatic Compounds

17.4.1 Carbocyclic-Aromatic Compounds and Ions

17.4.2 Polyclic Aromatic Carbocyclic-Aromatic Compounds

17.4.3 Heteroaromatic Compounds

17.5 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Benzene

17.5.1 Substitution Reactions Involving Nitronium ion

17.5.2 Substitution Reactions Involving the Halogen Cation

17.5.3 Substitution Reactions Involving Carbocations

17.5.4 Substitution Reactions Involving Acyl Cations

17.5.5 Substitution Reactions Involving Sulfonium Ion

17.6 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Disubstituted Benzene

17.6.1 Electron Activators for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

17.6.2 Electron Deactivators for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

17.6.3 Substitution Reactions Involving Disubstituted Benzenes

17.7 Applications – Synthesis of Substituted Benzene Compounds

17.8 Electrophilic Substitution Reactions of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

17.9 Electrophilic Substitution Reactions of Pyrrole 

17.10 Electrophilic Substitution Reactions of Pyridine 

17.11 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

17.11.1 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions Involving Substituted Benzenes

17.11.2 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions Involving Pyridines

Chapter 18 - Conjugated Systems and Pericyclic Reactions

18.1 Introduction

18.1.1 Stability of Conjugated Alkenes

18.2 Pericyclic Reactions

18.2.1 Cycloaddition Reactions Cycloaddition Reactions [2+2] Cycloaddition Reactions [4+2]

18.2.2 Electrocyclic Reactions

18.2.3 Sigmatropic Reactions

Chapter 19 - Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Reactions of Transition Metal Complexes

19.2.1 Oxitative Addition Reactions

19.2.2 Transmetallation Reactions

19.2.3 Ligand Migration Insertion Reactions

19.2.4 β-Elimination Reactions

19.2.5 Recuctive Elimination Reactions

19.3 Palladium Catalyzed Coupling Reactions

19.3.1 The Heck Reaction

19.3.2 The Suzuki Reaction

19.3.3 The Stillie Coupling Reaction

19.3.4 The Negishi Coupling Reaction

Chapter 20 – Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Cationic Polymerization of Alkenes

20.2.1 Cationic Polymerization of Isobutene

20.2.2 Cationic Polymerization of Styrene

20.3 Anionic Polymerization of Alkenes

20.3.1 Anionic Polymerization of Vinylidene Cyanide

20.4 Free Radical Polymerization of Alkenes

20.4.1 Free Radical Polymerization of Isobutylene

20.5 Copolymerization of Alkenes

20.5.1 Cationic Polymerization of Alkenes

20.5.2 Epoxy Resin Copolymers

20.6 Properties of Polymers

20.6.1 Solubility of Polymers

20.6.2 Thermal Properties of Polymers

20.7 Biopolymers

20.8 Amino Acids, Momomers of Peptides and Proteins

20.9 Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids

20.10 Synthesis of α-Amino Acids

20.10.1 Synthesis of Amino Acids Using the Strecker Synthesis

20.10.2 Synthesis of Amino Acids Using Reductive Amination

20.10.3 Synthesis of Amino Acids Using Hell Volhard Zelinsky Reaction

20.10.4 Synthesis of Amino Acids Using the Gabriel Malolic Ester Synthesis

20.11 Reactions of Amino Acids

20.11.1 Protection-Deprotection of the Amino Functionality

20.11.2 Reaction of the Carboxylic Acid Functionality

20.11.3 Reaction of Amino Acids to Form Dipeptides

20.11.4 Reaction of Amino Acids with Ninhydrin

20.12 Primary Structure and Properties of Peptides

20.12.1 Identification of Amino Acids of Peptides

20.12.2 Identification of the Amino Acid Sequence

20.13 Secondary Structure of Proteins

20.14 Monosaccharides, Momoners of Carbohydrates

20.15 Reactions of Monosaccharides

20.15.1 Hemiacetal Formation Involving Monosaccharides

20.15.2 Base catalyzed Epimerization of Monosaccharides

20.15.3 Enediol Rearrangement of Monosaccharides

20.15.4 Oxidation of Monosaccharides with Silver Ions

20.15.5 Oxidation of Monosaccharides with Nitric Acid

20.15.6 Oxidation of Monosaccharides with Periodic Acid

20.15.7 Reduction of Monosaccharides

20.15.8 Ester Formation of Monosaccharides

20.15.9 Ether Formation of Monosaccharides

20.15.10 Intermolecular Acetal Formation Involving Monosaccharides

20.16 Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

20.17 N-Glycosides and Amino Sugars

20.18 Lipids

20.19 Properties and Reactions of Waxes

20.20 Properties and Reactions of Triglycerides

20.20.1 Saponification (Hydrolysis) of Triglycerides

20.20.2 Reduction of Triglycerides

20.20.3 Transesterification of Triglycerides

20.21 Structure and Properties of Steroids, Prostaglandins and Terpenes