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Transparent Ceramics: Materials, Engineering, and Applications

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Transparent Ceramics: Materials, Engineering, and Applications

Adrian Goldstein, Andreas Krell, Zeev Burshtein

ISBN: 978-1-119-42949-4 March 2020 400 Pages

Hardcover
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$175.00
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Description

This book covers ceramic materials which can be fabricated into bulk transparent parts. The book starts with an introduction to transparent ceramics (TCs) and conveys the rationale and goals of the book and the factors (technical and economical) which determine the overall worth of the TCs.  A short description of transparency evolution, along ceramics history is also given. The book also provides a chapter devoted to the basics of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) interaction with matter, a necessary support for understanding the transparency of TCs, so as to make possible a correct understanding of the notion of "transparency" and how it is correlated with the physical processes which control it (reflection, refraction, scattering and absorption).

The book details the various applications of passive and active TCs including their use in Q-switches and gain-media, for laser systems,  materials for solid state lighting sources, armor, scintillators, IR windows, IR heat seeking devices for missile guidance systems, IR night vision devices, optical lenses and artificial gems. The book also covers the future prospects and challenges in the field. Wherever possible, the data presented are explained, in correlation with the theoretical science and engineering background introduced together with the data.

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction

1. 1 Importance of transparent ceramics. The book rationale, topic and aims.

1.2 Factors determining the overall worth of transparent ceramics

1.2.1 Technical characteristics

1.2.2 Fabrication and characterization costs

1.2.3 Overview of worth

1.3 Spectral domain, for ceramics high transmission, targeted in this book.

1.3.1 High transmission spectral domain

1.3.2 Electromagnetic radiation/solid interaction in the vicinity of the transparency domain

1.4 Definition of transparency levels

1.5 Evolution of transmissive ability along the ceramics development history

1.5.1 Transparency conferred by glassy phases

1.5.2 The first fully crystalline ,transparent ceramic

1.5.3 A brief progress history of all-crystalline transparent ceramics

Chapter 2 Electromagnetic Radiation; Interaction with Matter

2.1. Electromagnetic radiation: phenomenology and characterizing parameters

2.2. Interference and polarization

2.3. Main processes which disturb electromagnetic radiation after incidence on a solid

2.3.1 Refraction

2.3.2 Reflection

2.3.3 Birefringence

2.3.4 Scattering

2.3.5 Absorption

2.3.5.1 Transition metal and rare-earth cations in transparent ceramic hosts

2.3.5.2 Absorption spectra of metal and rare-earth cations located in TC hosts

2.3.5.2.1 Transition metal and rare-earth cations electronic spectra :theoretical basis

2.3.5.2.2 Absorption spectra of transition metal and rare-earth cations: examples

2.4 Physical processes controlling light absorption in the optical window vicinity

2.4.1 High photon energy window cut-off

2.4.2 Low photon energy window cut off; infrared light absorption in solids

2.5 Thermal emissivity

2.6 Color of solids

Chapter 3 Ceramics Engineering: Aspects Specific to Those Transparent

3. 1 Processing

3.1.1 List of main processing approaches

3.1.2 Powder-compacts sintering

3.1.2.1 Configuration requirements for high green body sinterability: factors of influence

3.1.2.2 Powder processing and green-body forming

3.1.2.2.1 Agglomerates

3.1.2.2.2 Powder processing

3.1.2.2.3 Forming techniques

3.1.2.3 Sintering

3.1.3 Bulk chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

3.1.4 Glass-ceramics fabrication by controlled glass crystallization

3.1.5 Bulk sol gel

3.1.6 Polycrystalline to single crystal conversion via solid state processes

3.1.7 Transparency conferred to non-cubic materials by limited lattice disordering

3.1.8 Transparent non-cubic nano ceramics

3.1.9 Grinding and Polishing

3. 2 Characterization

3.2.1 Characterization of particles, slurries, granules, and green bodies relevant in some TCs fabrication.

3.2.1.1 Powder characterization

3.2.1.2 Granules measurement and slurry characterization

3.2.1.3 Green body characterization

3.2.2 Scatterers topology illustration

3.2.2.1 Laser-scattering tomography (LST)

3.2.3 Discrimination between translucency and high transmission level

3.2.4 Bulk- density determination from optical transmission data

3.2.5 Lattice irregularities: Grain boundaries, Cations segregation, Inversion

3.2.6 Parasitic EMR absorbers identification and spectral characterization

3.2.7 Detection of ppm impurity concentration levels

3.2.8 Mechanical issues for windows and optical components

Chapter 4 Materials and Their Processing

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Principal materials description

4.2.1 MgAl2O4 (ZnAl2O4)

4.2.1.1 MgAl2O4

4.2.1.1.1 Structure

4.2.1.1.2 Fabrication

4.2.1.1.2.1 By powder compacts sintering

4.2.1.1.2.2 Fusion-casting

4.2.1.1.3 Properties of spinel

4.2.1.1.3.1 Mechanical properties

4.2.1.1.3.2 Optical and spectral properties

4.2.1.2 ZnAl2O4

4.2.2 γ-AlON

4.2.2.1 Composition and structure

4.2.2.2 Processing

4.2.2.3 Characteristics of densified AlON

4.2.3 Transparent and translucent alumina

4.2.3.1 Structure

4.2.3.2 Processing of T-PCA

4.2.3.3 Properties of transparent alumina

4.2.4 T-MgO and CaO

4.2.4.1 Structure

4.2.4.2 Raw materials and processing of T-MgO

4.2.4.3 Properties

4.2.4.4 Transparent CaO

4.2.5 T-YAG and other garnets

4.2.5.1 Structure, processing and properties

4.2.5.1.1 Processing

4.2.5.1. 2 Properties of YAG

4.2.5.2 LuAG

4.2.5.3 Garnets based on Tb

4.2.5.4 Garnets based on Ga

4.2.5.5 Other materials usable for magneto-optical components

4.2.6 Transparent yttria and other sesquioxides

4.2.6.1 Structure

4.2.6.2 Processing

4.2.6.3 Properties

4.2.6.4 Other sesquioxides with bixbyite lattice

4.2.7 T-ZrO2

4.2.7.1 Structure. Polymorphism. Effect of alloying

4.2.7.2 Processing-transparency correlation in cubic ZrO2 fabrication

4.2.7.3 Properties

4.2.8 Transparent fluoriddes

4.2.8.1 Crystallographic structure

4.2.8.2 Processing of T-CaF2

4.2.8.3 Properties

4.2.9 Transparent chalcogenides

4.2.9.1 Composition and structure

4.2.9.2 Processing

4.2.9.3 Properties

4.2.10 Ferroelectrics

4.2.10.1 Ferroelectrics with perovskite type lattice

4.2.10.2 PLZTs : fabrication and properties

4.2.10.3 Other perovskites, including Pb

4.2.10.4.1 BaTiO3

4.2.10.4.2 Materials based on the KNbO3-NaNbO3 system

4.2.11 Transparent glass ceramics

4.2.11.1 TGCs based on stuffed b-quartz solid solutions

4.2.11.2 TGCs based on crystals having a spinel type lattice

4.2.11.3 Mullite based TGCs

4.2.11.4 Other TGCs derived from polinary oxide systems

4.2.11.5 Oxyfluoride matrix TGCs

4.2.11.6 TGCs including very high crystalline phases concentration

4.2.11.7 Pyroelectric and ferroelectric T-GCs

4.2.12 Cubic-BN

4.2.13 Ultra-hard transparent diamond parts

4.2.13.1 Structure

4.2.13.2 Fabrication

4.2.13.3 Properties

4.2.14 Galium phospsphide (GaP)

4.2.15 SiC , Si3N4 and α-SiAlON

Chapter 5 Applications of Transparent Ceramics

5.1. General aspects

5.2. Brief description of main applications

5.2.1 Envelopes for lighting devices

5.2.2 Transparent Armor Including Ceramic Layers

5.2.2.1. Armor :general aspects

5.2.2.1.1 The threats armor has to defeat (projectiles )

5.2.2.1.2. The role of armor

5.2.2.1.3 Processes generated by the impact of a projectile on a ceramic strike-face (small arm launchers)

5.2.2.1.4 Final state of the projectile/armor impact event participants

5.2.2.1.5 Characteristics which influence armor performance

5.2.2.1.6 Ceramic armor study and design.

5.2.2.2 Specifics of the transparent-ceramic based armor.

5.2.2.3 Materials , for transparent armor

5.2.2. 4 Examples of TC armor applications

5.2.3 IR windows

5.2.3.1 The IR region

5.2.3.2 Background, regarding heavy duty IR windows

5.2.3.2.1 Threats to missile IR domes. Material characteristics relevant for their protection

5.2.3.3 Applications of IR TCs

5.2.3.4 Ceramic materials optimal for the various IR windows apps

5.2.3.5 Radomes

5.2.4 Transparent Ceramics for design, decorative use, and jewelry

5.2.5 Components of imaging optic devices (LENSES )

5-2.6 Dental ceramics

5.2.7 Applications of transparent ferroelectric and pyroelectric ceramics

5.2.8 Applications of ceramics with magnetic properties

5.2.9 Products based on ceramic doped with TM+ and/or RE+ cations

5.2.9.1 Gain media for solid state lasers

5.2.9.1.1 Lasers: definition and functioning mechanisms

5.2.9.1.2 Laser systems efficiency – characterizing parameters

5.2.9.1.3 Laser oscillators and amplifiers.

5.2.9.1.4 Device operation related improvements allowing increase of ceramic lasers performance

5.2.9.1. 5 Ceramic gain media (host + lasant ion)improvements

5.2.9.1.6 Applications of ceramic lasers

5.2.9. 2 Q-switches

5.2.9.2.1 General

5.2.9.2.2 TM + cations usable for switching

5.2.9. 3 Ceramic phosphors

5.2.9.3.1 Artificial light-sources: General considerations

5.2.9.3.2 Transparent bulk ceramics based phosphors for pc-LEDs

5.2.9.4 Scintillators

Chapter 6 Further Prospects

Chapter 7 Conclusions