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Harsh Environment Electronics: Interconnect Materials and Performance Assessment

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Harsh Environment Electronics: Interconnect Materials and Performance Assessment

Ahmed Sharif (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-81397-1 April 2019 256 Pages

Description

Provides in-depth knowledge on novel materials that make electronics work under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions

This book reviews the state of the art in research and development of lead-free interconnect materials for electronic packaging technology. It identifies the technical barriers to the development and manufacture of high-temperature interconnect materials to investigate into the complexities introduced by harsh conditions. It teaches the techniques adopted and the possible alternatives of interconnect materials to cope with the impacts of extreme temperatures for implementing at industrial scale. The book also examines the application of nanomaterials, current trends within the topic area, and the potential environmental impacts of material usage.

Written by world-renowned experts from academia and industry, Harsh Environment Electronics: Interconnect Materials and Performance Assessment covers interconnect materials based on silver, gold, and zinc alloys as well as advanced approaches utilizing polymers and nanomaterials in the first section. The second part is devoted to the performance assessment of the different interconnect materials and their respective environmental impact.

-Takes a scientific approach to analyzing and addressing the issues related to interconnect materials involved in high temperature electronics
-Reviews all relevant materials used in interconnect technology as well as alternative approaches otherwise neglected in other literature
-Highlights emergent research and theoretical concepts in the implementation of different materials in soldering and die-attach applications
-Covers wide-bandgap semiconductor device technologies for high temperature and harsh environment applications, transient liquid phase bonding, glass frit based die attach solution for harsh environment, and more
-A pivotal reference for professionals, engineers, students, and researchers

Harsh Environment Electronics: Interconnect Materials and Performance Assessment is aimed at materials scientists, electrical engineers, and semiconductor physicists, and treats this specialized topic with breadth and depth.

Preface xv

1 Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor Device Technologies for High-Temperature and Harsh Environment Applications 1
Md. Rafiqul Islam, Roisul H. Galib,Montajar Sarkar, and Shaestagir Chowdhury

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Crystal Structures and Fundamental Properties of Different Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors 3

1.2.1 Relevant Properties of GaN, SiC, and Si 3

1.2.2 Structure of SiC 3

1.2.2.1 Polytypism in SiC 3

1.2.2.2 Modification of SiC Structures with Dopant 6

1.2.3 III–V Nitride-Based Structure 6

1.2.3.1 Fundamental Properties of GaN and AlN 7

1.2.3.2 Nitride Crystal Growth 7

1.2.3.3 Polytypism in the III–V Nitrides 8

1.2.3.4 Electrical Properties of Undoped Nitride Thin films 9

1.2.3.5 Properties of Doped GaN 9

1.2.4 Alloys and Heterostructures 10

1.2.4.1 GaInN 10

1.3 Devices ofWide-Bandgap Semiconductors 10

1.3.1 SiC in Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs) 10

1.3.1.1 Specific Contact Resistance (𝜌c) 11

1.3.2 SiC in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) 12

1.3.2.1 1200-V, 60-A SiC Power Module MOSFET 12

1.3.2.2 Design of the 1200-V, 60-A Phase-leg Module 13

1.3.2.3 Blocking Capability 14

1.3.2.4 Static Characteristics 15

1.3.2.5 Transfer Characteristics 15

1.3.2.6 Evaluation of the Gate Oxide Stability 16

1.3.3 Six-Pack SiC MOSFET Modules Paralleled in a Half-Bridge Configuration 16

1.3.4 4H-SiC Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MESFET) for Integrated Circuits (ICs) 18

1.3.4.1 Design of 4H-SiC MESFET 18

1.3.4.2 IV Characteristics 19

1.3.5 SiC Capacitive Pressure Sensor 20

1.3.5.1 Sensor Characteristics at High Temperature 21

1.3.6 Ni2+-doped ZnO as Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMSs) 22

1.3.6.1 Saturation Magnetization (Ms) at High Temperatures 22

1.3.6.2 The Coercivity (Hc) and Effective MagneticMoment (𝜇eff) at High Temperatures 23

1.3.7 Thermomechanical Stability of SiC, GaN, AlN, ZnO, and ZnSe 24

1.4 Conclusion 25

References 26

2 High-Temperature Lead-free Solder Materials and Applications 31
Mohd F. M. Sabri, Bakhtiar Ali, and Suhana M. Said

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 High-Temperature Solder Applications 32

2.2.1 Die-Attach Material 32

2.2.2 BGA Technology 33

2.2.3 Flip-Chip Technology 34

2.2.4 MCM Technology 34

2.2.5 CSP Technology 35

2.3 Requirements for a Candidate Solder in High-temperature Applications 35

2.4 High-Pb-Content Solders 37

2.5 Zn-Based Solders 38

2.5.1 Zn–Al 38

2.5.2 Zn–Sn 39

2.6 Bi-Based Solders 42

2.6.1 Bi–Ag 42

2.6.2 Bi–Sb 44

2.7 Au-Based Solders 47

2.7.1 Au–Sn 47

2.7.2 Au–Ge 49

2.8 Sn-Based Solders 51

2.8.1 Sn–Sb 51

2.8.2 Sn–Ag–Cu/Sn–Cu/Sn–Ag 53

2.9 Conclusion and Future Research Directions 56

References 60

3 Role of Alloying Addition in Zn-Based Pb-Free Solders 67
Khairul Islam and Ahmed Sharif

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Zn-Al-Based Solders 68

3.3 Zn–Sn-Based Solders 75

3.4 Zn-Based Alloys with Minor Addition 80

3.5 Zn–Ni-Based Solders 81

3.6 Zn–Mg-Based Solders 82

3.7 Zn–In-Based Solders 83

3.8 Zn–Ag-Based Solders 84

3.9 Conclusion 84

Acknowledgment 85

References 85

4 Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Creep Resistance of a Cast Zn–Al–Mg High-temperature Lead-Free Solder Alloy 91
Reza Mahmudi, Davood Farasheh, and Seyyed S. Biriaie

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Experimental Procedures 93

4.2.1 Materials and Processing 93

4.2.2 Mechanical Property Measurements 93

4.3 Results and Discussion 94

4.3.1 Shear Strength and Hardness 94

4.3.2 Microstructural Observations 97

4.3.3 Impression Creep 100

4.3.4 Creep Mechanisms 103

4.3.5 Microstructure–Property Relationships 110

4.4 Conclusions 111

References 112

5 Development of Zn–Al–xNi Lead-Free Solders for High-Temperature Applications 115
Sanjoy Mallick, Md Sharear Kabir, and Ahmed Sharif

5.1 Introduction 115

5.2 Experimental 116

5.3 Results and Discussions 118

5.4 Conclusions 130

Acknowledgments 131

References 131

6 Study of Zn–Mg–Ag High-Temperature Solder Alloys 135
Roisul H. Galib, Md. Ashif Anwar, and Ahmed Sharif

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Materials and Methods 136

6.3 Results and Discussions 137

6.3.1 Chemical Composition 137

6.3.2 Microstructural Analysis 137

6.3.3 Mechanical Properties 141

6.3.4 Electrical Properties 142

6.3.5 Thermal Properties 142

6.4 Conclusions 143

Acknowledgments 144

References 144

7 Characterization of Zn–Mo and Zn–Cr Pb-Free Composite Solders as a Potential Replacement for Pb-Containing Solders 147
Khairul Islam and Ahmed Sharif

7.1 Introduction 147

7.2 Experimental 149

7.3 Results and Discussion 150

7.3.1 Zn–xMo System 150

7.3.1.1 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) 150

7.3.1.2 Microstructure of Zn–xMo System 151

7.3.1.3 Brinell Hardness 153

7.3.1.4 Tensile Strength 153

7.3.1.5 Tensile Fracture Surface Analysis 154

7.3.1.6 TMA Analysis 154

7.3.1.7 Electrical Conductivity Analysis 156

7.3.2 Zn–xCr System 156

7.3.2.1 Differential Thermal Analysis 156

7.3.2.2 Microstructure of Zn–xCr System 157

7.3.2.3 Brinell Hardness 158

7.3.2.4 Tensile Strength 159

7.3.2.5 Fracture Surface Analysis 160

7.3.2.6 TMA Analysis 160

7.3.2.7 Electrical Conductivity Analysis 162

7.3.3 Comparison of Zn–xMo and Zn–xCr Solders with Conventional Solders 162

7.4 Conclusion 163

Acknowledgments 163

References 164

8 Gold-Based Interconnect Systems for High-Temperature and Harsh Environments 167
Ayesha Akter, Ahmed Sharif, and Rubayyat Mahbub

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 High-Temperature Solder System 168

8.2.1 Au as High-Temperature Solder 169

8.3 Various Au-Based Solder Systems 169

8.3.1 Au–Sn System 170

8.3.1.1 Au-Rich Side of the Au–Sn System 171

8.3.1.2 Sn-Rich Side of the Au–Sn System 172

8.3.2 Au–Ge System 174

8.3.3 Au–In System 176

8.3.4 Au–Si System 177

8.4 Other Interconnecting Systems 178

8.4.1 Wire Bonding 178

8.4.2 Au-enriched SLID 179

8.4.3 Nanoparticle-Stabilized Composite Solder 180

8.4.4 Solderable Coatings 181

8.5 Applications 182

8.5.1 Electronic Connectors 182

8.5.2 Optoelectronic Connectors 182

8.5.3 Medical Field 183

8.5.4 Jewelry 183

8.5.5 Au Stud Bump 184

8.6 Substitutes for Au and Reductions in Use 184

8.7 Future Uses of Au 185

8.8 Conclusions 185

Acknowledgments 185

References 185

9 Bi-Based Interconnect Systems and Applications 191
Manifa Noor and Ahmed Sharif

9.1 Introduction 191

9.2 Various Bi-Based Solder Systems 192

9.2.1 Bi–Ag Alloys 192

9.2.2 Bi–Sb Alloy 196

9.2.3 Bi–Sb–Cu Alloy 198

9.2.4 Bi–Cu-Based Alloys 199

9.2.5 Bi–Sn 201

9.2.6 Bi–La 204

9.2.7 Bi-Based Transient Liquid Phase Bonding 204

9.2.8 Bi-Based Composite System 205

9.3 Conclusion 206

Acknowledgments 206

References 206

10 Recent Advancement of Research in Silver-Based Solder Alloys 211
Ahmed Sharif

10.1 Introduction 211

10.2 Overview of Different Ag-Based Systems 213

10.2.1 Ag Pastes 213

10.2.1.1 Micron-Ag Paste 213

10.2.1.2 Nano-Ag Paste 215

10.2.1.3 Hybrid Silver Pastes 216

10.2.1.4 Ag-Based Bimetallic Paste 217

10.2.1.5 Composite Micron-Ag Pastes 218

10.2.2 Ag Laminates 219

10.2.3 Plated Ag 219

10.2.4 Silver Foil 220

10.2.5 Ag Columns 222

10.2.6 Ag–In System 223

10.3 Conclusions 223

Acknowledgments 224

References 224

11 Silver Nanoparticles as Interconnect Materials 235
Md. Ashif Anwar, Roisul Hasan Galib, and Ahmed Sharif

11.1 Introduction 235

11.2 Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles 236

11.2.1 Carey Lea’s Colloidal 236

11.2.2 e-Beam IrradiationMethod 237

11.2.3 Chemical Reduction Method 237

11.2.4 Thermal Decomposition Method 238

11.2.5 Laser Ablation Method 239

11.2.6 Microwave Radiation Method 239

11.2.7 Solid–Liquid Extraction Method 240

11.2.8 Tollens Method 240

11.2.9 Biological Method 241

11.2.10 Polyoxometalate Method 241

11.2.11 Solvated Metal Atom Dispersion Method 241

11.3 Composition of Ag Nanopaste 241

11.4 Joining Methods 242

11.5 Properties of Nano-Ag Joints 243

11.5.1 Shear Properties of Nano-Ag Joints 245

11.5.2 Thermal Properties 246

11.5.3 Rheological Properties 247

11.6 Factors Affecting the Properties of Nano-Ag Joints 248

11.6.1 Particle Size and Composition of the Paste 248

11.6.2 Effect of Sintering Temperature, Time, and Pressure on Ag Joints 252

11.6.3 Bonding Substrate 254

11.7 Applications of Ag Nanoparticles 255

11.7.1 Die-Attach Material 255

11.7.2 Solar Cell 255

11.7.3 Nano-Ag as a Potent Bactericidal Agent 256

11.7.4 Nano-Ag in Antifungal Therapy 256

11.8 Conclusions and Future Trends 257

References 257

12 Transient Liquid Phase Bonding 263
Tariq Islam and Ahmed Sharif

12.1 Introduction 263

12.2 History and Development of TLP 264

12.3 Theoretical Aspects of TLP 266

12.3.1 TLP Process, Types, and Relevance with Phase Diagram 266

12.3.2 Classification of TLP Bonding Based on Interlayer Composition 272

12.3.3 Variants of TLP Bonding 272

12.4 Development and Applicable Trends of TLP Using Alloy Systems (Phase Diagrams) with Special Features 273

12.4.1 Cu–Sn System 273

12.4.2 Ni–Sn System 276

12.4.3 Ag–Sn System 280

12.4.4 Au–Sn System 281

12.4.5 Miscellaneous Systems 283

12.4.5.1 Cu–Ga System 283

12.4.5.2 Au–(Ge, Si) System 284

12.5 Applications and Materials Used in TLPB 284

12.6 Future of TLP and Conclusion 285

References 285

13 All-Copper Interconnects for High-Temperature Applications 293
Ahmed Sharif

13.1 Introduction 293

13.2 Direct Cu-to-Cu Bonding 294

13.2.1 Thermocompression Bonding 294

13.2.2 Surface-Activated Bonding (SAB) 296

13.2.3 Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) 296

13.2.4 Capping with Metal Layer 297

13.3 Cu Paste Bonding 299

13.3.1 Cu Nanoparticle (Cu NP) 299

13.3.1.1 Bonding with Cu NP Under Pressure 299

13.3.1.2 Cu NP Bonding Without Pressure 301

13.3.2 Cu Microparticles 301

13.3.3 Cu Hybrid Particles 303

13.3.4 Cu–Sn TLP System 303

13.3.5 Cu–Ag Composite Systems 304

13.4 Conclusions 306

Acknowledgments 306

References 306

14 Glass-Frit-Based Die-Attach Solution for Harsh Environments 313|
Ahmed Sharif

14.1 Introduction 313

14.1.1 Basic Criteria of the Glass Composition for Glass Frit 314

14.2 Overview of Different Glass Frit Systems 315

14.2.1 Pb-Containing Glass Frit 316

14.2.2 Pb-Free Glass Frit 316

14.2.2.1 Borosilicate Glasses 317

14.2.2.2 Phosphate Glasses 318

14.2.2.3 Bi-Based Lead-Free Frit 319

14.2.2.4 Vanadate Glasses 319

14.2.2.5 Tellurite Glasses 319

14.2.3 Conductive Glass Frit 320

14.3 Bonding Process 320

14.4 Bond Characteristics 322

14.5 Conclusions 324

Acknowledgments 325

References 325

15 Carbon-Nanotube-Reinforced Solders as Thermal Interface Materials 333
Md Muktadir Billah

15.1 Introduction 333

15.2 Typical Thermal Interface Materials 334

15.3 Solders as Thermal Interface Materials 334

15.4 Literature Study: Different Fabrication Techniques 336

15.4.1 Mechanical Alloying/Sonication and Sintering 336

15.4.2 Reflow Process 338

15.4.3 Electrochemical Co-deposition Method 339

15.4.4 Using Metal-Coated Nanotubes 339

15.4.5 Sandwich Method 341

15.4.6 Melting Route 341

15.5 Challenges and Future Scope 342

References 342

16 Reliability Study of Solder Joints in Electronic Packaging Technology 345
Ahmed Sharif and Sushmita Majumder

16.1 Introduction 345

16.2 Reliability Tests 346

16.2.1 Destructive Shear Test 346

16.2.2 Pull Test 347

16.2.3 Bending Test 348

16.2.4 Board-Level Drop Test 349

16.2.5 Thermal Cycling 351

16.2.6 Shock Impact 354

16.2.7 Fatigue Test 355

16.2.8 Pressure Cooker Test 356

16.2.9 Thermal Shock Testing 357

16.2.10 Acoustic Microscopy 358

16.2.11 Thermography 358

16.2.12 X-ray Computed Tomography 359

16.3 Conclusion 360

Acknowledgments 360

References 361

Index 367