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Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry, 2nd Edition

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$68.99

Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry, 2nd Edition

John R. Dean

ISBN: 978-1-119-47874-4 March 2019 248 Pages

Description

A new edition of this practical approach to sampling, experimentation, and applications in the field of inductively coupled plasma spectrometry 

The second edition of Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry discusses many of the significant developments in the field which have expanded inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry from a useful optical emission spectroscopic technique for trace element analysis into a source for both atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry, capable of detecting elements at sub-ppb (ng mL−1) levels with good accuracy and precision.

Comprising nine chapters, this new edition has been fully revised and up-dated in each chapter. It contains information on everything you need to practically know about the different types of instrumentation as well as pre- and post-experimental aspects. Designed to be easily accessible, with a ‘start-to-finish’ approach, each chapter outlines the key practical aspects of a specific aspect of the topic. The author, a noted expert in the field, details specific applications of the techniques presented, including uses in environmental, food and industrial analysis. This edition:

  • Emphasizes the importance of health and safety;
  • Provides advanced information on sample preparation techniques;
  • Presents an updated chapter on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry;
  • Features a new chapter on current and future development in ICP technology and one on practical trouble shooting and routine maintenance.  

Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry offers a practical guide that can be used for undergraduate and graduate students in the broad discipline of analytical chemistry, which includes biomedical science, environmental science, food science and forensic science, in both distance and open learning situations. It also provides an excellent reference for those in postgraduate training in these fields. 

About the Author xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xix

Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols xxiii

1 The Analytical Approach 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Essentials of Practical Work 2

1.3 Health and Safety 3

1.4 SI Units and Their Use 4

1.5 Significant Figures 11

1.6 Calibration and Quantitative Analysis 12

1.7 Making Notes of Practical Work and Observations 13

1.8 Data Analysis 14

1.9 Data Treatment 17

1.10 Data Quality 18

1.11 Data Interpretation and Context 21

1.12 Analytical Terms and Their Definitions 21

1.13 Summary 26

2 Sampling and Storage 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Sampling Soil 28

2.3 Sampling Water 31

2.4 Sampling Air 32

2.5 Sample Storage 34

2.6 Sample Preservation 36

2.7 Summary 37

3 Sample Preparation 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Aqueous Samples 40

3.2.1 Liquid–Liquid Extraction 40

3.2.1.1 Procedure for APDC Extraction in to MIBK 42

3.2.2 Ion Exchange 42

3.2.2.1 Procedure for Batch Ion Exchange Extraction 43

3.3 Solid Samples 43

3.3.1 Decomposition Techniques 45

3.3.1.1 Procedure for Acid Digestion A 46

3.3.1.2 Procedure for Acid Digestion B 46

3.3.1.3 Procedure for Microwave Acid Digestion 49

3.3.2 Alternate Decomposition Techniques 49

3.3.2.1 Procedure for Dry Ashing 49

3.3.2.2 Procedure for Fusion 50

3.4 Extraction Procedures 51

3.4.1 Procedure for Extractable Mercury from Soil and Sediment 52

3.4.2 Procedure for Speciation of Extractable Mercury from Soil and Sediment 52

3.4.3 Procedure for Arsenic Species Extraction 52

3.4.4 Single Extraction Methods 57

3.4.4.1 Procedure for EDTA Extraction 57

3.4.4.2 Procedure for AA Extraction 58

3.4.4.3 Procedure for Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid (DTPA) Extraction 58

3.4.4.4 Procedure for Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) Extraction 58

3.4.4.5 Procedure for Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) Extraction 59

3.4.4.6 Procedure for Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) Extraction 60

3.4.5 Sequential Extraction 60

3.4.5.1 Procedure for Stage 1 Extraction 62

3.4.5.2 Procedure for Stage 2 Extraction 62

3.4.5.3 Procedure for Stage 3 Extraction 63

3.4.6 CISED 63

3.4.6.1 Procedure for CISED 64

3.4.7 In Vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Method 65

3.4.7.1 Procedure for Gastric Extraction 66

3.4.7.2 Procedure for Gastric + Intestinal Extraction 67

3.4.8 In Vitro Simulated Epithelium Lung Fluid Method 67

3.4.8.1 Procedure for Inhalation Bioaccessibility Extraction 69

3.5 Summary 69

Reference 69

3.A Extraction Reagents for Single Extraction Methods 70

3.A.1 Preparation of EDTA, 50 mM 70

3.A.2 Preparation of AA, 0.43 M 70

3.A.3 Preparation of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid (DTPA), 5 mM 70

3.A.4 Preparation of Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3), 1 M 70

3.A.5 Preparation of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2), 0.01 M 70

3.A.6 Preparation of Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3), 0.1 M 71

3.B Extraction Reagents for the Sequential Extraction Method 71

3.B.1 Preparation of Solution A (Acetic Acid, 0.11 M) 71

3.B.2 Preparation of Solution B (Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride or Hydroxyammonium Chloride, 0.5 M) 71

3.B.3 Preparation of Solution C (Hydrogen Peroxide [300 mg g−1], 8.8 M) 71

3.B.4 Preparation of Solution D (Ammonium Acetate, 1 M) 71

3.C Extraction Reagents for the Unified Bioaccessibility Method 72

3.C.1 Preparation of Simulated Saliva Fluid 72

3.C.2 Preparation of Simulated Gastric Fluid 72

3.C.3 Preparation of Simulated Duodenal Fluid 72

3.C.4 Preparation of Simulated Bile Fluid 73

3.D Extraction Reagents for the In Vitro SELF 73

3.D.1 Preparation of SELF 73

4 Sample Introduction 75

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Nebulizers 76

4.3 Spray Chambers and Desolvation Systems 79

4.4 Discrete Sample Introduction 83

4.5 Continuous Sample Introduction 87

4.6 Hydride and Cold‐Vapour Generation Techniques 91

4.7 Summary 93

References 93

5 The Inductively Coupled Plasma 95

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Radiofrequency Generators 96

5.3 Inductively Coupled Plasma Formation and Operation 96

5.4 Processes Within the ICP 106

5.5 Signal Processing and Instrument Control 106

5.6 Summary 107

References 108

6 Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectrometry 109

6.1 Introduction 110

6.2 Fundamentals of Spectroscopy 110

6.2.1 Origins of Atomic Spectra 111

6.2.2 Spectral Line Intensity 113

6.2.3 Spectral Line Broadening 114

6.3 Plasma Spectroscopy 116

6.4 Spectrometers 118

6.4.1 Sequential Spectrometer 122

6.4.2 Simultaneous Spectrometers 122

6.5 Detectors 125

6.5.1 Photomultiplier Tube 127

6.5.2 Charge‐Transfer Devices 128

6.6 Interferences 130

6.7 Summary 131

References 132

7 Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry 133

7.1 Introduction 133

7.2 Fundamentals of Mass Spectrometry 134

7.2.1 Some Terminology 134

7.3 Inorganic Mass Spectrometry 135

7.3.1 The Ion Source: ICP 137

7.3.2 The Interface 138

7.4 Mass Spectrometers 139

7.4.1 Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer 140

7.4.2 High‐Resolution Mass Spectrometers 142

7.4.3 Ion‐Trap Mass Spectrometer 150

7.4.4 Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer 152

7.5 Detectors 153

7.6 Interferences 156

7.6.1 Isobaric Interferences 156

7.6.2 Molecular Interferences 158

7.6.3 Remedies for Molecular Interferences 161

7.6.3.1 Charge Transfer 161

7.6.3.2 Proton Transfer 162

7.6.3.3 Hydrogen‐Atom Transfer 162

7.6.3.4 Atom Transfer 162

7.6.3.5 Adduct Formation 162

7.6.4 Non‐Spectral Interferences: Matrix‐Induced 164

7.7 Isotope Dilution Analysis 165

7.8 Summary 176

References 176

8 Inductively Coupled Plasma: Current and Future Developments 177

8.1 Introduction 177

8.2 Comparison of ICP–AES and ICP–MS 177

8.3 Applications 182

8.4 Current and Future Developments 183

8.4.1 In General, for the ICP 184

8.4.2 For ICP–MS 185

8.4.3 For ICP–AES 189

8.5 Useful Resources 191

References 198

Further Reading 198

9 Inductively Coupled Plasma: Troubleshooting and Maintenance 201

9.1 Introduction 201

9.2 Diagnostic Issues 201

9.3 Tips to Reduce… 202

9.3.1 Potential Autosampler Issues 202

9.3.2 Contamination 202

9.4 Tips to Improve… 203

9.4.1 Sample Preparation 203

9.5 How To … 203

9.5.1 Unblock a Blocked Pneumatic Concentric Nebulizer 203

9.5.2 Clean the Spray Chamber 203

9.5.3 Clean the Plasma Torch 204

9.6 What to do About… 204

9.6.1 Plasma Ignition Problems 204

9.7 Shut Down Procedure (At the End of the Day) 204

9.8 Regular Maintenance Schedule 205

The Periodic Table 207

SI Units and Physical Constants 209

Index 213