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Handbook of Major Palm Pests: Biology and Management




Handbook of Major Palm Pests: Biology and Management

Victoria Soroker (Editor), Stefano Colazza (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-05748-2 January 2017 Wiley-Blackwell 344 Pages



Handbook of Major Palm Pests: Biology and Management contains the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on the red palm weevil and the palm borer moth, two newly emergent invasive palm pests which are adversely affecting palm trees around the world. It provides state-of-the-art scientific information on the ecology, biology, and management of palm pests from a global group of experts in the field.

An essential compendium for anyone working with or studying palms, it is dedicated to the detection, eradication, and containment of these invasive species, which threaten the health and very existence of global palm crops.
Contributors xiii

Nomenclature xvii

Introduction xxi

1 Some Representative Palm Pests: Ecological and Practical Data 1
Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier, Nunzio Isidoro, Josep A. Jaques, Paola Riolo, Mohamed Kamal and Didier Rochat

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 General Features About Palms and their Pests 2

1.3 Crown and Stem Borers 5

1.4 Defoliators of Fronds (= Leaves) 11

1.5 Sap and Frond (= Leaves) Feeders? 17

1.6 Inflorescence and Fruit Borers 20

1.7 Roots 27

1.8 Conclusion 28

References 29

2 Morphology and Physiology of Palm Trees as Related to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon Infestation and Management 39
Yuval Cohen

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Palms in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin 39

2.3 Palm Morphology and Anatomy 41

2.4 The Palm Crown 42

2.5 The Structure of the Palm Stem 46

2.6 Conclusion 51

References 51

3 Economic and Social Impacts of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon on Palms 54
Alan MacLeod and Mohamud Hussein

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Ecosystem Services Provided by Palms 55

3.3 Impacts and Costs of Mitigation 61

3.4 Conclusion 63

References 64

4 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Taxonomy, Distribution, Biology, and Life Cycle 69
Didier Rochat, Oscar Dembilio, Josep A. Jaques, Pompeo Suma, Alessandra La Pergola, Rachid Hamidi, Dimitris Kontodimas and Victoria Soroker

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Taxonomy and Distribution 70

4.3 Biology and Host Plants 73

4.4 Life Cycle and Adaptation to the Temperate and Desert Areas 85

4.5 Conclusion 96

References 97

5 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Behavior, Ecology, and Communication 105
Ezio Peri, Didier Rochat, Gregor Beluši¡c, Marko Ili´c, Victoria Soroker, Shay Barkan, Salvatore Guarino, Paolo Lo Bue and Stefano Colazza

5.1 Introduction 105

5.2 Main Behaviors Involved in Species Dynamics 106

5.3 Chemical Cues 111

5.4 Vision and Visual Cues 119

5.5 Conclusion 124

References 125

6 Paysandisia archon: Taxonomy, Distribution, Biology, and Life Cycle 131
Nunzio Isidoro, Paola Riolo, Elisa Verdolini, Ezio Peri and Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Taxonomy of the Castniidae 131

6.3 Distribution of P. archon 133

6.4 Morphology of P. archon Stages 135

6.5 Biology 137

6.6 Conclusion 145

References 145

7 Paysandisia archon: Behavior, Ecology, and Communication 150
Brigitte Frérot, Rachid Hamidi, Nunzio Isidoro, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Ezio Peri, Roberto Romani, Gregor Beluši¡c and Primož Pirih

7.1 Introduction 150

7.2 P. archon Reproductive Behavior 151

7.3 Host-Finding and Chemical Cues 155

7.4 Visual Cues: Their Roles in Mate and Host Location 160

References 167

8 Natural Enemies of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 171
Lola Ortega-García, Elisabeth Tabone, Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier, Dana Ment, Maurane Buradino, Josep A. Jaques, Inmaculada Garrido-Jurado, Oscar Dembilio and Enrique Quesada Moraga

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 Natural Enemies 172

8.3 Perspectives on Biological Control of R. ferrugineus and P. archon 180

References 181

9 Visual Identification and Characterization of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon Infestation 187
Dimitris Kontodimas, Victoria Soroker, Costas Pontikakos, Pompeo Suma, Laurence

Beaudoin-Ollivier, Filitsa Karamaouna and Paola Riolo

9.1 Introduction 187

9.2 Non-Pathognomonic Symptoms 188

9.3 Pathognomonic Symptoms 191

9.4 Identification of RPWInfestation 201

9.5 Identification of PBM Infestation 202

9.6 Simultaneous Infestation of Both Pests and Co-Occurrence with Other Pests or Diseases 204

9.7 Conclusion 207

References 207

10 Surveillance Techniques and Detection Methods for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 209
Victoria Soroker, Pompeo Suma, Alessandra La Pergola, Vicente Navarro Llopis, Sandra Vacas, Yafit Cohen, Yuval Cohen, Victor Alchanatis, PanosMilonas, Ofri Golomb, Eitan Goldshtein, Abd El Moneam El Banna and Amots Hetzroni

10.1 Introduction 209

10.2 Acoustic Detection 210

10.3 Chemical Detection 214

10.4 Thermal Detection 218

10.5 Detection of Pest Distribution by Monitoring Traps 220

10.6 Conclusion 226

References 228

11 CPLAS Information Systemas a Monitoring Tool for Integrated Management of Palm Pests 233
Costas Pontikakos, Filitsa Karamaouna, Amots Hetzroni, Dimitris Kontodimas, Victoria Soroker, Frosa Samiou, Yuval Cohen, Stella Giorgoudelli, OuraniaMelita, Stavros Papageorgiou, Paul Benjamin and Eitan Goldshtein

11.1 Introduction 233

11.2 CPLAS Architecture and Functions 234

11.3 Web-mapping Service of CPLAS 251

11.4 Conclusion 252

References 254

12 Control Measures Against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 255
Josep A. Jaques, Paola Riolo, Neil Audsley, Joan Manel Barroso, Oscar Dembilio, Nunzio Isidoro, Roxana LuisaMinuz, Sandro Nardi, Vicente Navarro Llopis, Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier and Enrique Quesada Moraga

12.1 Why Control of R. ferrugineus and P. archon is so Difficult: Reasons to Deal with Both of these Pests Together 255

12.2 Current Control Methods 256

12.3 Future Needs and Trends 270

References 271

13 Action Programs for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 280
Pompeo Suma, Ezio Peri, Alessandra La Pergola, Victoria Soroker, Oscar Dembilio, Paola Riolo and Sandro Nardi

13.1 Introduction 280

13.2 General Measures against all IAS 281

13.3 Threats and Risks presented by IAS:The case of RPWand PBM 282

13.4 The Action Plan as Part of a Global Strategy for the Containment of RPW and PBM Infestations 283

13.5 Analysis of Pest Status and Distribution of RPWand PBM as a Strategy for Detecting Change and Emerging Impacts 283

13.6 Establishing Effective Systems to Assess Risk and Prioritize Management 285

13.7 Definition of an EarlyWarning and Monitoring System 286

13.8 Citizen Involvement in Undertaking Voluntary Measures to Counteract the Spread of RPWand PBM 286

13.9 Setup of an RPWand PBM Portal Online 287

13.10 Development of Funding Mechanisms to Manage RPWand PBM Infestations 287

13.11 Case Studies 288

13.12 Action Programs for Agricultural and Non-Agricultural Areas 294

13.13 Conclusion and Future Outlook 296

References 296

Index 300