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Molecular Plant Abiotic Stress: Biology and Biotechnology

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Molecular Plant Abiotic Stress: Biology and Biotechnology

Aryadeep Roychoudhury (Editor), Dr. Durgesh Kumar Tripathi (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-46367-2 June 2019 480 Pages

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Description

A close examination of current research on abiotic stresses in various plant species

The unpredictable environmental stress conditions associated with climate change are significant challenges to global food security, crop productivity, and agricultural sustainability. Rapid population growth and diminishing resources necessitate the development of crops that can adapt to environmental extremities. Although significant advancements have been made in developing plants through improved crop breeding practices and genetic manipulation, further research is necessary to understand how genes and metabolites for stress tolerance are modulated, and how cross-talk and regulators can be tuned to achieve stress tolerance.

Molecular Plant Abiotic Stress: Biology and Biotechnology is an extensive investigation of the various forms of abiotic stresses encountered in plants, and susceptibility or tolerance mechanisms found in different plant species. In-depth examination of morphological, anatomical, biochemical, molecular and gene expression levels enables plant scientists to identify the different pathways and signaling cascades involved in stress response. This timely book:

  • Covers a wide range of abiotic stresses in multiple plant species
  • Provides researchers and scientists with transgenic strategies to overcome stress tolerances in several plant species
  • Compiles the most recent research and up-to-date data on stress tolerance
  • Examines both selective breeding and genetic engineering approaches to improving plant stress tolerances
  • Written and edited by prominent scientists and researchers from across the globe

Molecular Plant Abiotic Stress: Biology and Biotechnology is a valuable source of information for students, academics, scientists, researchers, and industry professionals in fields including agriculture, botany, molecular biology, biochemistry and biotechnology, and plant physiology.

List of Contributors xv

1 Plant Tolerance to Environmental Stress: Translating Research from Lab to Land 1
P. Suprasanna and S. B. Ghag

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Drought Tolerance 3

1.3 Cold Tolerance 10

1.4 Salinity Tolerance 12

1.5 Need for More Translational Research 16

1.6 Conclusion 17

References 17

2 Morphological and Anatomical Modifications of Plants for Environmental Stresses 29
Chanda Bano, Nimisha Amist, and N. B. Singh

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Drought-induced Adaptations 32

2.3 Cold-induced Adaptations 33

2.4 High Temperature-induced Adaptations 34

2.5 UV-B-induced Morphogenic Responses 35

2.6 Heavy Metal-induced Adaptations 35

2.7 Roles of Auxin, Ethylene, and ROS 36

2.8 Conclusion 37

References 38

3 Stomatal Regulation as a Drought-tolerance Mechanism 45
Shokoofeh Hajihashemi

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Stomatal Morphology 46

3.3 Stomatal Movement Mechanism 47

3.4 Drought Stress Sensing 48

3.5 Drought Stress Signaling Pathways 48

3.5.1 Hydraulic Signaling 49

3.5.2 Chemical Signaling 49

3.5.2.1 Plant Hormones 49

3.5.3 Nonhormonal Molecules 52

3.5.3.1 Role of CO2 Molecule in Response to Drought Stress 52

3.5.3.2 Role of Ca2+ Molecules in Response to Drought Stress 53

3.5.3.3 Protein Kinase Involved in Osmotic Stress Signaling Pathway 53

3.5.3.4 Phospholipid Role in Signal Transduction in Response to Drought Stress 53

3.6 Mechanisms of Plant Response to Stress 54

3.7 Stomatal Density Variation in Response to Stress 56

3.8 Conclusion 56

References 57

4 Antioxidative Machinery for Redox Homeostasis During Abiotic Stress 65
Nimisha Amist, Chanda Bano, and N. B. Singh

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Reactive Oxygen Species 66

4.2.1 Types of Reactive Oxygen Species 67

4.2.1.1 Superoxide Radical (O2⋅−) 67

4.2.1.2 Singlet Oxygen (1O2) 68

4.2.1.3 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) 69

4.2.1.4 Hydroxyl Radicals (OH) 69

4.2.2 Sites of ROS Generation 69

4.2.2.1 Chloroplasts 70

4.2.2.2 Peroxisomes 70

4.2.2.3 Mitochondria 70

4.2.3 ROS and Oxidative Damage to Biomolecules 71

4.2.4 Role of ROS as Messengers 73

4.3 Antioxidative Defense System in Plants 74

4.3.1 Nonenzymatic Components of the Antioxidative Defense System 74

4.3.1.1 Ascorbate 74

4.3.1.2 Glutathione 75

4.3.1.3 Tocopherols 75

4.3.1.4 Carotenoids 76

4.3.1.5 Phenolics 76

4.3.2 Enzymatic Components 76

4.3.2.1 Superoxide Dismutases 77

4.3.2.2 Catalases 77

4.3.2.3 Peroxidases 77

4.3.2.4 Enzymes of the Ascorbate–Glutathione Cycle 78

4.3.2.5 Monodehydroascorbate Reductase 79

4.3.2.6 Dehydroascorbate Reductase 79

4.3.2.7 Glutathione Reductase 79

4.4 Redox Homeostasis in Plants 80

4.5 Conclusion 81

References 81

5 Osmolytes and their Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 91
Abhimanyu Jogawat

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Osmolyte Accumulation is a Universally Conserved Quick Response During Abiotic Stress 92

5.3 Osmolytes Minimize Toxic Effects of Abiotic Stresses in Plants 93

5.4 Stress Signaling Pathways Regulate Osmolyte Accumulation Under Abiotic Stress Conditions 94

5.5 Metabolic Pathway Engineering of Osmolyte Biosynthesis Can Generate Improved Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Crop Plants 95

5.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 97

Acknowledgements 97

References 97

6 Elicitor-mediated Amelioration of Abiotic Stress in Plants 105
Nilanjan Chakraborty, Anik Sarkar, and Krishnendu Acharya

6.1 Introduction 105

6.2 Plant Hormones and Other Elicitor-mediated Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 106

6.3 PGPR-mediated Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 109

6.4 Signaling Role of Nitric Oxide in Abiotic Stresses 109

6.5 Future Goals 114

6.6 Conclusion 114

References 115

7 Role of Selenium in Plants Against Abiotic Stresses: Phenological and Molecular Aspects 123
Aditya Banerjee and Aryadeep Roychoudhury

7.1 Introduction 123

7.2 Se Bioaccumulation and Metabolism in Plants 124

7.3 Physiological Roles of Se 125

7.3.1 Seas Plant Growth Promoters 125

7.3.2 The Antioxidant Properties of Se 125

7.4 Se Ameliorating Abiotic Stresses in Plants 126

7.4.1 Se and Salt Stress 126

7.4.2 Se and Drought Stress 127

7.4.3 Se Counteracting Low-temperature Stress 128

7.4.4 Se Ameliorating the Effects of UV-B Irradiation 128

7.4.5 Se and Heavy Metal Stress 129

7.5 Conclusion 129

7.6 Future Perspectives 130

References 130

8 Polyamines Ameliorate Oxidative Stress by Regulating Antioxidant Systems and Interacting with Plant Growth Regulators 135
Prabal Das, Aditya Banerjee, and Aryadeep Roychoudhury

8.1 Introduction 135

8.2 PAs as Cellular Antioxidants 136

8.2.1 PAs Scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species 136

8.2.2 The Co-operative Biosynthesis of PAs and Proline 137

8.3 The Relationship Between PAs and Growth Regulators 137

8.3.1 Brassinosteroids and PAs 137

8.3.2 Ethylene and PAs 137

8.3.3 Salicylic Acid and PAs 138

8.3.4 Abscisic Acid and PAs 138

8.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 139

Acknowledgments 140

References 140

9 Abscisic Acid in Abiotic Stress-responsive Gene Expression 145
Liliane Souza Conceição Tavares, Sávio Pinho dos Reis, Deyvid Novaes Marques, Eraldo José Madureira Tavares, Solange da Cunha Ferreira, Francinilson Meireles Coelho, and Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

9.1 Introduction 145

9.2 Deep Evolutionary Roots 146

9.3 ABA Chemical Structure, Biosynthesis, and Metabolism 151

9.4 ABA Perception and Signaling 153

9.5 ABA Regulation of Gene Expression 154

9.5.1 Cis-regulatory Elements 155

9.5.2 Transcription Factors Involved in the ABA-Mediated Abiotic Stress Response 156

9.5.2.1 bZIP Family 157

9.5.2.2 MYC and MYB 157

9.5.2.3 NAC Family 159

9.5.2.4 AP2/ERF Family 160

9.5.2.5 Zinc Finger Family 162

9.6 Post-transcriptional and Post-translational Control in Regulating ABA Response 164

9.7 Epigenetic Regulation of ABA Response 167

9.8 Conclusion 168

References 169

10 Abiotic StressManagement in Plants: Role of Ethylene 185
Anket Sharma, Vinod Kumar, Gagan Preet Singh Sidhu, Rakesh Kumar, Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Poonam Yadav, Dhriti Kapoor, Aditi Shreeya Bali, Babar Shahzad, Kanika Khanna, Sandeep Kumar, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, and Renu Bhardwaj

10.1 Introduction 185

10.2 Ethylene: Abundance, Biosynthesis, Signaling, and Functions 186

10.3 Abiotic Stress and Ethylene Biosynthesis 187

10.4 Role of Ethylene in Photosynthesis Under Abiotic Stress 188

10.5 Role of Ethylene on ROS and Antioxidative System Under Abiotic Stress 194

10.6 Conclusion 196

References 196

11 Crosstalk Among Phytohormone Signaling Pathways During Abiotic Stress 209
Abhimanyu Jogawat

11.1 Introduction 209

11.2 Phytohormone Crosstalk Phenomenon and its Necessity 210

11.3 Various Phytohormonal Crosstalk Under Abiotic Stresses for Improving Stress Tolerance 210

11.3.1 Crosstalk Between ABA and GA 210

11.3.2 Crosstalk Between GA and ET 211

11.3.3 Crosstalk Between ABA and ET 211

11.3.4 Crosstalk Between ABA and Auxins 212

11.3.5 Crosstalk Between ET and Auxins 213

11.3.6 Crosstalk Between ABA and CTs 213

11.4 Conclusion and Future Directions 213

Acknowledgements 215

References 215

12 PlantMolecular Chaperones: Structural Organization and their Roles in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 221
Roshan Kumar Singh, Varsha Gupta, and Manoj Prasad

12.1 Introduction 221

12.2 Classification of Plant HSPs 223

12.2.1 Structure and Functions of sHSP Family 223

12.2.2 Structure and Functions of HSP60 Family 224

12.2.3 Structure and Functions of the HSP70 Family 225

12.2.3.1 DnaJ/HSP40 227

12.2.4 Structure and Functions of HSP90 Family 228

12.2.5 Structure and Functions of HSP100 Family 229

12.3 Regulation of HSP Expression in Plants 230

12.4 Crosstalk Between HSP Networks to Provide Tolerance Against Abiotic Stress 231

12.5 Genetic Engineering of HSPs for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 232

12.6 Conclusion 234

Acknowledgements 234

References 234

13 Chloride (Cl) Uptake, Transport, and Regulation in Plant Salt Tolerance 241
DB Shelke, GC Nikalje, TD Nikam, P Maheshwari, DL Punita, KRSS Rao, PB Kavi Kishor, and P. Suprasanna

13.1 Introduction 241

13.2 Sources of Cl Ion Contamination 242

13.3 Role of Cl in Plant Growth and Development 243

13.4 Cl Toxicity 244

13.5 Interaction of Soil Cl with Plant Tissues 245

13.5.1 Cl Influx from Soil to Root 245

13.5.2 Mechanism of Cl Efflux at the Membrane Level 245

13.5.3 Differential Accumulation of Cl in Plants and Compartmentalization 246

13.6 Electrophysiological Study of Cl Anion Channels in Plants 247

13.7 Channels and Transporters Participating in Cl Homeostasis 248

13.7.1 Slow Anion Channel and Associated Homologs 249

13.7.2 QUAC1 and Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters 251

13.7.3 Plant Chloride Channel Family Members 253

13.7.4 Phylogenetic Tree and Tissue Localization of CLC Family Members 255

13.7.5 Cation, Chloride Co-transporters 257

13.7.6 ATP-binding Cassette Transporters and Chloride Conductance Regulatory Protein 258

13.7.7 Nitrate Transporter1/Peptide Transporter Proteins 259

13.7.8 Chloride Channel-mediated Anion Transport 259

13.7.9 Possible Mechanisms of Cl− Influx, Efflux, Reduced Net Xylem Loading, and its Compartmentalization 260

13.8 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 260

References 261

14 The Root Endomutualist Piriformospora indica: A Promising Bio-tool for Improving Crops under Salinity Stress 269
Abhimanyu Jogawat, Deepa Bisht, Nidhi Verma, Meenakshi Dua, and Atul Kumar Johri

14.1 Introduction 269

14.2 P. indica: An Extraordinary Tool for Salinity Stress Tolerance Improvement 269

14.3 Utilization of P. indica for Improving and Understanding the Salinity Stress Tolerance of Host Plants 270

14.4 P. indica-induced Biomodulation in Host Plant under Salinity Stress 270

14.5 Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and ROS in Host Plant During Interaction with P. indica 272

14.6 Role of Calcium Signaling and MAP Kinase Signaling Combating Salt Stress 272

14.7 Effect of P. indica on Osmolyte Synthesis and Accumulation 273

14.8 Salinity Stress Tolerance Mechanism in Axenically Cultivated and Root Colonized P. indica 274

14.9 Conclusion 277

Acknowledgments 278

Conflict of Interest 278

References 278

15 Root Endosymbiont-mediated Priming of Host Plants for Abiotic Stress Tolerance 283
Abhimanyu Jogawat, Deepa Bisht, and Atul Kumar Johri

15.1 Introduction 283

15.2 Bacterial Symbionts-mediated Abiotic Stress Tolerance Priming of Host Plants 284

15.3 AM Fungi-mediated Alleviation of Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Vascular Plants 286

15.4 Other Beneficial Fungi and their Importance in Abiotic Stress Tolerance Priming of Plants 287

15.4.1 Piriformospora indica: A Model System for Bio-priming of Host Plants Against Abiotic Stresses 288

15.4.2 Fungal Endophytes, AM-like Fungi, and Other DSE-mediated Bio-priming ofHost Plants for Abiotic Stress Tolerance 289

15.5 Implication of Transgenes from Symbiotic Microorganisms in the Era of Genetic Engineering and Omics 289

15.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 290

Acknowledgements 291

References 291

16 Insight into the Molecular Interaction Between Leguminous Plants and Rhizobia Under Abiotic Stress 301
Sumanti Gupta and Sampa Das

16.1 Introduction 301

16.1.1 Why is Legume–Rhizobium Interaction Under the Scientific Scanner? 301

16.2 Legume–Rhizobium Interaction Chemistry: A Brief Overview 302

16.2.1 Nodule Structure and Formation:The Sequential Events 302

16.2.2 Nod Factor Signaling: From Perception to Nodule Inception 304

16.2.3 Reactive Oxygen Species:The Crucial Role of the Mobile Signal in Nodulation 305

16.2.4 Phytohormones: Key Players on All Occasions 306

16.2.5 Autoregulation of Nodulation: The Self Control fromWithin 306

16.3 Role of Abiotic Stress Factors in Influencing Symbiotic Relations of Legumes 307

16.3.1 How Do Abiotic Stress Factors Alter Rhizobial Behavior During Symbiotic Association? 307

16.3.2 Abiotic Agents Modulate Symbiotic Signals of Host Legumes 308

16.3.3 Abiotic Stress Agents as Regulators of Defense Signals of Symbiotic Hosts During Interaction with Other Pathogens 309

16.4 Conclusion: The Lessons Unlearnt 309

References 310

17 Effect of Nanoparticles on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Defense Systemin Plants 315
Savita Sharma, Vivek K. Singh, Anil Kumar, and Sharada Mallubhotla

17.1 Introduction 315

17.2 Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment 317

17.3 Nanoparticle Transformations 318

17.4 Plant Response to Nanoparticle Stress 320

17.5 Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) 323

17.6 Nanoparticle Induced Oxidative Stress 324

17.7 Antioxidant Defense System in Plants 326

17.8 Conclusion 327

References 328

18 Marker-assisted Selection for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants 335
Saikat Gantait, Sutanu Sarkar, and Sandeep Kumar Verma

18.1 Introduction 335

18.2 Reaction of Plants to Abiotic Stress 336

18.3 Basic Concept of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 337

18.4 Genetics of Abiotic Stress Tolerance 338

18.5 Fundamentals of Molecular Markers and Marker-assisted Selection 339

18.5.1 Molecular Markers 339

18.5.2 Marker-assisted Selection 341

18.6 Marker-assisted Selection for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants 341

18.6.1 Marker-assisted Selection for Heat Tolerance 342

18.6.1.1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 342

18.6.1.2 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) 343

18.6.1.3 Oilseed Brassica 343

18.6.1.4 Grape (Vitis species) 343

18.7 Marker-assisted Selection for Drought Tolerance 344

18.7.1.1 Maize (Zea mays) 344

18.7.1.2 Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) 345

18.7.1.3 Oilseed Brassica 346

18.7.1.4 Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) 346

18.7.2 Marker-assisted Selection for Salinity Tolerance 347

18.7.2.1 Rice (Oryza sativa) 347

18.7.2.2 Mungbean (Vigna radiata) 348

18.7.2.3 Oilseed Brassica 349

18.7.2.4 Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 350

18.7.3 Marker-assisted Selection for Low Temperature Tolerance 351

18.7.3.1 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 351

18.7.3.2 Pea (Pisum sativum) 353

18.7.3.3 Oilseed Brassica 354

18.7.3.4 Potato (Solanum tuberosum) 355

18.8 Outlook 356

References 356

19 Transgenes: The Key to Understanding Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice 369
Supratim Basu, Lymperopoulos Panagiotis, Joseph Msanne, and Roel Rabara

19.1 Introduction 369

19.2 Drought Effects in Rice Leaves 370

19.3 Molecular Analysis of Drought Stress Response 370

19.4 Omics Approach to Analysis of Drought Response 371

19.4.1 Transcriptomics 371

19.4.2 Metabolomics 372

19.4.3 Epigenomics 373

19.5 Plant Breeding Techniques to Improve Rice Tolerance 374

19.6 Marker-assisted Selection 374

19.7 Transgenic Approach: Present Status and Future Prospects 375

19.8 Looking into the Future for Developing Drought-tolerant Transgenic Rice Plants 376

19.9 Salinity Stress in Rice 376

19.10 Candidate Genes for Salt Tolerance in Rice 378

19.11 QTL Associated with Rice Tolerance to Salinity Stress 379

19.12 The Saltol QTL 380

19.13 Conclusion 381

References 381

20 Impact of Next-generation Sequencing in Elucidating the Role of microRNA Related to Multiple Abiotic Stresses 389
Kavita Goswami, Anita Tripathi, Budhayash Gautam, and Neeti Sanan-Mishra

20.1 Introduction 389

20.2 NGS Platforms and their Applications 390

20.2.1 NGS Platforms 390

20.2.1.1 Roche 454 390

20.2.1.2 ABI SoLid 391

20.2.1.3 ION Torrent 392

20.2.1.4 Illumina 393

20.2.2 Applications of NGS 394

20.2.2.1 Genomics 395

20.2.2.2 Metagenomics 396

20.2.2.3 Epigenomics 396

20.2.2.4 Transcriptomics 397

20.3 Understanding the Small RNA Family 398

20.3.1 Small Interfering RNAs 398

20.3.2 microRNA 402

20.4 Criteria and Tools for Computational Classification of Small RNAs 402

20.4.1 Pre-processing (Quality Filtering and Sequence Alignment) 403

20.4.2 Identification and Prediction of miRNAs and siRNAs 403

20.5 Role of NGS in Identification of Stress-regulated miRNA and their Targets 407

20.5.1 miR156 408

20.5.2 miR159 408

20.5.3 miR160 409

20.5.4 miR164 409

20.5.5 miR166 409

20.5.6 miR167 409

20.5.7 miR168 410

20.5.8 miR169 410

20.5.9 miR172 410

20.5.10 miR393 410

20.5.11 miR396 411

20.5.12 miR398 411

20.6 Conclusion 411

Acknowledgments 412

References 412

21 Understanding the Interaction of Molecular Factors During the Crosstalk Between Drought and Biotic Stresses in Plants 427
Arnab Purohit, Shreeparna Ganguly, Rituparna Kundu Chaudhuri, and Dipankar Chakraborti

21.1 Introduction 427

21.2 Combined Stress Responses in Plants 428

21.3 Combined Drought–Biotic Stresses in Plants 428

21.3.1 Plant Responses Against Biotic Stress during Drought Stress 429

21.3.2 Plant Responses Against Drought Stress during Biotic Stress 430

21.4 Varietal Failure Against Multiple Stresses 430

21.5 Transcriptome Studies of Multiple Stress Responses 431

21.6 Signaling Pathways Induced by Drought–Biotic Stress Responses 432

21.6.1 Reactive Oxygen Species 432

21.6.2 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Cascades 433

21.6.3 Transcription Factors 434

21.6.4 Heat Shock Proteins and Heat Shock Factors 436

21.6.5 Role of ABA Signaling during Crosstalk 437

21.7 Conclusion 438

Acknowledgments 439

Conflict of Interest 439

References 439

Index 447