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Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition

E-Book

$92.99

Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition

Volker V. Quaschning

ISBN: 978-1-119-51488-6 February 2019 352 Pages

Description

Provides clear analysis on the development potentials and practical realization of solar, wind, wave, and geothermal renewable energy technologies

Presented as a clear introduction to the topics of climate protection and renewable energy, this book demonstrates the correlations between use of energy, energy prices, and climate change. It evaluates and analyzes the current world situation (drawing on examples given from countries across the globe), whilst also giving essential and practical guidance on ‘personal’ climate protection. Each major type of renewable energy system is covered in detail and with an easy-to-read approach, making it an ideal manual for planning and realizing climate protection and renewable energy systems, while also being an informative textbook for those studying renewable energy and environment and sustainability courses.

Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition starts by examining our hunger for energy—how much we need, how much we use, and how much it is costing us. It then looks at the state of climate change today and the causes. Following that, the book focuses on how we waste and save energy. The remaining chapters look at the many alternative sources of energy generation, like photovoltaics, solar thermal systems and power plants, wind power systems, hydropower plants, and geothermal power. The book also delves into current state of biomass energy and the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. It finishes with a look at the future of the subject, shining a light on some positive examples of sustainable energy.

  • Clear overview on each state-of-the-art technology in alternative energy production
  • Presents correlations between use of energy and energy prices, and climate change
  • Provides guidance on what the reader can do to reduce their own energy waste
  • Full-color figures and photographs throughout, data diagrams and simple calculations and results, and text boxes that highlight important information
  • International examples of renewable energy in action 

Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and professionals studying or working on renewable energy, or environmental and sustainability alternatives. It will also benefit planners, operators, financers, and consultants in those fields.

Preface to First Edition xi

Preface to the Second Edition xiii

1 Our Hunger for Energy 1

1.1 Energy Supply – Yesterday and Today 2

1.1.1 From the French Revolution to the Early Twentieth Century 2

1.1.2 The Era of Black Gold 4

1.1.3 Natural Gas – The Newest Fossil Energy Source 7

1.1.4 Nuclear Power – Split Energy 8

1.1.5 The Century of Fossil Energy 12

1.1.6 The Renewables Century 13

1.2 Energy Needs – Who Needs What, Where, and How Much? 14

1.3 ‘Anyway’ Energy 17

1.4 Energy Reserves –Wealth for a Time 20

1.4.1 Non-Conventional Reserves – Prolongation of the Oil Age 21

1.4.2 An End in Sight 22

1.4.3 The End of Fission 24

1.5 High Energy Prices – the Key to Climate Protection 24

2 The Climate Before the Collapse 27

2.1 It Is Getting Warm – Climate Changes Today 27

2.1.1 Accelerated Ice Melt 27

2.1.2 More Frequent Natural Catastrophes 30

2.2 The Guilty Parties – Causes of Climate Change 33

2.2.1 The Greenhouse Effect 33

2.2.2 The Prime Suspect: Carbon Dioxide 34

2.2.3 Other Culprits 38

2.3 Outlook and Recommendations –What Lies Ahead? 40

2.3.1 Will it Be Bitterly Cold in Europe? 43

2.3.2 Recommendations for Effective Climate Protection 45

2.4 A Difficult Birth – Politics and Climate Change 48

2.4.1 German Climate Policy 48

2.4.2 International Climate Policy 49

2.5 Self-Help Climate Protection 51

3 From Wasting Energy to Saving Energy and Reducing Carbon Dioxide 53

3.1 Inefficiency 53

3.2 Personal Energy Needs – Savings at Home 56

3.2.1 Domestic Electricity – Money Wasted 56

3.2.2 Heat – Surviving the Winter with Almost No Heating 60

3.2.3 Transport – Getting Somewhere Using Less Energy 64

3.3 Industry and Commerce – Everyone Else is to Blame 66

3.4 Your Personal Carbon Dioxide Balance 67

3.4.1 Emissions Caused Directly by One’s Own Activities 67

3.4.2 Indirect Emissions 68

3.4.3 Total Emissions 71

3.5 The Sale of Ecological Indulgences 71

4 ‘Energiewende’ (Energy Transition) – The Way to a Better Future? 75

4.1 Coal and Nuclear Power Plants – Crutch Instead of Bridge 75

4.1.1 Energy and Automotive Companies Have Bet on the Wrong Horse 76

4.1.2 Lignite – A Climate Killer Made in Germany 78

4.1.3 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration – Out of Sight, Out of Mind 81

4.1.4 Nuclear Power Comeback Was Not a Radiant Success 83

4.2 Efficiency and CHP – A Good Double for Starters 84

4.2.1 Combined Heat and Power – Using Fuel Twice 84

4.2.2 Saving Energy – Achieving More with Less 85

4.3 Renewables – Energy Without End 87

4.4 Germany Is Becoming Renewable 88

4.4.1 All Sectors Are Important 89

4.4.2 Energy Transition in the Heat Sector 90

4.4.3 Energy Transition in the Transport Sector 93

4.4.4 Energy Transition in the Electricity Sector 94

4.4.5 Reliable Supply Using Renewables 97

4.4.6 Decentralized Instead of Centralized – Fewer Power Lines 100

4.5 Not So Expensive – The Myth of Unaffordability 101

4.6 Energy Revolution Instead of Half-Hearted Energy Transition 103

4.6.1 German Energy Policy – In the Shadow of Corporations 103

4.6.2 Energy Transition in the Hands of the Citizens – A Revolution Is Imminent 104

5 Photovoltaics – Energy from Sand 107

5.1 Structure and Function 107

5.1.1 Electrons, Holes, and Space-Charge Regions 107

5.1.2 Efficiency, Characteristics, and MPP 109

5.2 Production of Solar Cells – From Sand to Cell 111

5.2.1 Silicon Solar Cells – Power from Sand 111

5.2.2 From Cell to Module 113

5.2.3 Thin-Film Solar Cells 114

5.3 PV Systems – Grids and Islands 115

5.3.1 Sun Islands 115

5.3.2 Sun in the Grid 118

5.3.3 More Solar Independence 121

5.4 Planning and Design 124

5.4.1 Designing Stand-Alone Systems 124

5.4.2 Designing Grid-Connected Systems 126

5.4.3 Planned Autonomy 130

5.5 Economics 131

5.5.1 What Does It Cost? 131

5.5.2 Funding Programmes 132

5.5.3 Avoiding VAT 134

5.6 Ecology 135

5.7 PV Markets 136

5.8 Outlook and Development Potential 137

6 Solar Thermal Systems – Year-Round Heating from the Sun 141

6.1 Structure and Functionality 142

6.2 Solar Collectors – Collecting the Sun 145

6.2.1 Swimming Pool Absorbers 145

6.2.2 Flat-Plate Collectors 145

6.2.3 Air-Based Collectors 146

6.2.4 Vacuum-Tube Collectors 147

6.3 Solar Thermal Systems 149

6.3.1 Hot Water from the Sun 149

6.3.2 Heating with the Sun 152

6.3.3 Solar Communities 154

6.3.4 Cooling with the Sun 155

6.3.5 Swimming with the Sun 156

6.3.6 Cooking with the Sun 157

6.4 Planning and Design 158

6.4.1 Solar Thermal Heating of Domestic HotWater 158

6.4.2 Solar Thermal Auxiliary Heating 161

6.5 Economics 163

6.5.1 When Does It Pay off? 163

6.5.2 Funding Programmes 163

6.6 Ecology 164

6.7 Solar Thermal Markets 165

6.8 Outlook and Development Potential 167

7 Solar Power Plants – Even More Power from the Sun 169

7.1 Focusing on the Sun 169

7.2 Solar Power Plants 171

7.2.1 Parabolic Trough Power Plants 171

7.2.2 Solar Tower Power Plants 175

7.2.3 Dish-Stirling Power Plants 177

7.2.4 Solar Chimney Power Plants 178

7.2.5 Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Plants 179

7.2.6 Solar Chemistry 179

7.3 Planning and Design 180

7.3.1 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants 181

7.3.2 Solar Chimney Power Plants 182

7.3.3 Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Plants 182

7.4 Economics 182

7.5 Ecology 183

7.6 Solar Power Plant Markets 184

7.7 Outlook and Development Potential 185

8 Wind Power Systems – Electricity from Thin Air 189

8.1 Gone with the Wind –Where the Wind Comes From 190

8.2 Utilizing Wind 192

8.3 Wind Turbines and Windfarms 196

8.3.1 Wind Chargers 196

8.3.2 Large, Grid-Connected Wind Turbines 197

8.3.3 Small Wind Turbines 201

8.3.4 Windfarms 202

8.3.5 Offshore Windfarms 203

8.4 Planning and Design 206

8.5 Economics 208

8.6 Ecology 210

8.7 Wind Power Markets 212

8.8 Outlook and Development Potential 213

9 Hydropower Plants –Wet Electricity 215

9.1 Tapping into the Water Cycle 215

9.2 Water Turbines 217

9.3 Hydropower Plants 220

9.3.1 Run-of-River Hydropower Plants 220

9.3.2 Storage Power Plants 222

9.3.3 Pumped-storage Hydropower Plants 222

9.3.4 Tidal Power Plants 224

9.3.5 Wave Power Plants 225

9.3.6 Ocean Current Power Plants 226

9.4 Planning and Design 227

9.5 Economics 228

9.6 Ecology 228

9.7 Hydropower Markets 230

9.8 Outlook and Development Potential 231

10 Geothermal Energy – Power from the Deep 233

10.1 Tapping into the Earth’s Heat 233

10.2 Geothermal Heat and Power Plants 237

10.2.1 Geothermal Heat Plants 237

10.2.2 Geothermal Power Plants 238

10.2.3 Geothermal HDR Power Plants 240

10.3 Planning and Design 241

10.4 Economics 242

10.5 Ecology 242

10.6 Geothermal Markets 243

10.7 Outlook and Development Potential 244

11 Heat Pumps – From Cold to Hot 245

11.1 Heat Sources for Low-Temperature Heat 245

11.2 Operating Principle of Heat Pumps 247

11.2.1 Compression Heat Pumps 248

11.2.2 Absorption Heat Pumps and Adsorption Heat Pumps 249

11.3 Planning and Design 250

11.4 Economics 253

11.5 Ecology 254

11.6 Heat Pump Markets 257

11.7 Outlook and Development Potential 257

12 Biomass – Energy from Nature 259

12.1 Origins and Use of Biomass 260

12.2 Biomass Heating 263

12.2.1 Wood as a Fuel 263

12.2.2 Open Fires and Woodburning Stoves 266

12.2.3 Log Boilers 266

12.2.4 Wood Pellet Heating 268

12.3 Biomass Heat and Power Plants 269

12.4 Biofuels 271

12.4.1 Bio-oil 271

12.4.2 Biodiesel 272

12.4.3 Bioethanol 273

12.4.4 BtL Fuels 274

12.4.5 Biogas 275

12.5 Planning and Design 276

12.5.1 Log Boilers 276

12.5.2 Wood Pellet Heating 277

12.6 Economics 279

12.7 Ecology 280

12.7.1 Solid Fuels 281

12.7.2 Biofuels 282

12.8 Biomass Markets 282

12.9 Outlook and Development Potential 284

13 Renewable Gas and Fuel Cells 285

13.1 Hydrogen as an Energy Source 287

13.2 Methanation 289

13.3 Transport and Storage of Renewable Gas 290

13.3.1 Transport and Storage of Hydrogen 290

13.3.2 Transport and Storage of Renewable Methane 291

13.4 Fuel Cells: Bearers of Hope 293

13.5 Economics 296

13.6 Ecology 297

13.7 Markets, Outlook, and Development Potential 298

14 Sunny Prospects – Examples of Sustainable Energy Supply 301

14.1 Climate-Compatible Living 301

14.1.1 Carbon-Neutral Standard Prefabricated Houses 301

14.1.2 Plus-Energy Solar House 302

14.1.3 Plus-Energy Housing Estate 303

14.1.4 Heating Only with the Sun 304

14.1.5 Zero Heating Costs After Redevelopment 305

14.2 Working and Producing in a Climate-friendly Manner 306

14.2.1 Offices and Shops in the ‘Sonnenschiff’ 306

14.2.2 Zero-Emissions Factory 306

14.2.3 Carbon-free Heavy Equipment Factory 307

14.2.4 Plus-Energy Head Office 307

14.3 Climate-Compatible Driving 309

14.3.1 Travelling Around the World in a Solar Car 309

14.3.2 Across Australia in 33 hours 310

14.3.3 Emission-free Deliveries 311

14.3.4 Electric Cars for All 312

14.4 Climate-Compatible Travel by Water or Air 313

14.4.1 Advanced Sailing 313

14.4.2 Solar Ferry on Lake Constance 314

14.4.3 World Altitude Record with a Solar Aeroplane 314

14.4.4 Flying Around the World in a Solar Plane 315

14.4.5 Flying for Solar Kitchens 316

14.5 Everything Becomes Renewable 317

14.5.1 A Village Becomes Independent 317

14.5.2 Hybrid Power Plant for Secure Renewable Supply 318

14.6 Everything will Turn Out Fine 319

A Appendix 321

A.1 Energy Units and Prefixes 321

A.2 Geographic Coordinates of Power Plants 322

A.3 Further Reading 325

References 327

Index 331