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Applied Landscape Ecology


AUD $101.99

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Applied Landscape Ecology

AUD $101.99
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AUD $126.95
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An insightful guide to the concepts and practices of modern landscape ecology

Elements of geography, conservation biology, soil science and other disciplines factor into landscape ecology's rich analyses of the ecological and environmental forces at play across different terrains. With its unique, organism-oriented approach to the subject, Applied Landscape Ecology considers the effects of ecological processes upon particular species and places its findings within the context of larger-scale concerns. Students, researchers, and practitioners alike will find this a rewarding and instructive read that offers practical and detailed information on the latest methods and technologies used in the field today. 

This essential resource:

  • Takes an interdisciplinary approach to landscape ecology
  • Examines the subject within the contexts of specific organisms
  • Covers cutting-edge technologies and methods
  • Represents a collaboration between an international team of landscape ecology experts

Whether new to the practice or an established ecologist, anyone with an interest in this exciting and developing field should have a copy of Applied Landscape Ecology at their disposal. 

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

1 Concepts and Approaches in Landscape Ecology 1

1.1 The Historical Development of Landscape Ecology as a Science 1

1.2 Hierarchical Levels in Ecology 6

1.3 The Spatial Hierarchy of Land 7

1.4 Fundamental Concepts: Landscape Scale and Size, Pattern, Process, and Change 9

1.5 The Representation of the Landscape and its Elements 13

Key Points 20

Endnotes 20

2 Points as Landscape Elements 25

2.1 The Different Patterns 25

2.2 Distance Methods to Detect Pattern 29

2.3 Quadrat Analysis to Detect Pattern 31

2.4 Consideration of Scale in Nearest-Neighbor Analyses 35

2.5 Consideration of Scale in Quadrat Analyses 40

Key Points 44

Endnotes 44

3 Linear Elements and Networks 47

3.1 The Linear Features and Corridors in the Landscape 47

3.2 Curvilinearity and Fractal Analysis 50

3.3 Linear Density of Networks 57

3.4 Spatial Distribution of Linear Networks 60

3.5 Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Linear Networks 62

3.6 A Study of Linear Features on the European Scale 65

3.7 The Topology of the Networks 66

3.8 Network Connectivity 68

3.9 Connectivity Indices Based on Topological Distances between Patches (Nodes) 72

Key Points 77

Endnotes 78

4 Patches and Their Interactions 81

4.1 The Importance of Patch Size for Species Diversity 81

4.2 The Importance of Patch Edge and Shape 86

4.3 The Measurement of Patch Size and Perimeter 88

4.4 Quantifying Patch Shape 90

4.5 An Example for the Use of Perimeter–Area Relationships 92

4.6 Patch Interior and Edge 94

4.7 Interaction between Patches and the Theory of Island Biogeography 99

4.8 Interaction between Patches and Populations: The Concept of Metapopulation 102

4.9 Estimating the Interaction between Patches by the Distance and Size of Neighbors 104

4.10 An Example of the Use of the Gravity Model 108

Key Points 111

Endnotes 111

5 The Vertical Dimension of Landscapes 115

5.1 The Importance of Elevation Illustrated for Birds in the Macaronesian Islands 115

5.2 Montane Islands 120

5.3 The Vertical Dimension in Aquatic Systems 122

5.4 The Vertical Structure of Vegetation and Species Diversity 122

Key Points 126

Endnotes 126

6 Movements through Landscapes 129

6.1 Percolation Theory 129

6.2 Contagion Analysis and Percolation 133

6.3 Resistance Surfaces 137

6.4 Example of Percolation Movements through Landscapes 140

Key Points 142

Endnotes 143

7 Landscape Composition, Diversity, and Habitat Selection 145

7.1 Measurements of Diversity 145

7.2 Species Diversity of Habitats and Landscapes 150

7.3 The Habitat Use Diversity of a Species 155

7.4 The Relationship between the Species Diversity of a Landscape and the Habitat Use Diversity of the Species 157

7.5 Habitat Selection 161

7.6 Landscape Composition and Diversity 169

Key Points 170

Endnotes 171

8 Landscape Pattern: Composition and Configuration 173

8.1 Composition and Configuration Represent Different Aspects of Landscapes 173

8.2 Configuration Assessed by Patch Numbers, Sizes, Perimeters, and Shapes 175

8.3 Edge Contrast 178

8.4 Configuration Assessed by Types of Cell Adjacencies 181

8.5 Combination of Landscape Pattern Indices 186

8.6 Example of Uses of Pattern and Configuration Metrics to Compare Landscapes 189

Key Points 191

Endnotes 191

9 Landscape Dynamics 193

9.1 The Dynamic Nature of Landscapes: Disturbances and Equilibrium 193

9.2 The Two-State Landscapes 195

9.3 Rotating Landscapes 198

9.4 Indices for the Dynamics and Randomness of Landscape Changes 202

9.5 Measuring the Complexity of Landscape Change 204

9.6 Simulating Changes in Landscape Composition 206

9.7 Conditional Landscape Changes 211

Key Points 216

Endnotes 217

10 From Landscape Ecology to Landscape Management 219

10.1 Natural Processes and Landscape Management 219

10.2 Transition Matrices as the Mathematical Framework 223

10.3 Management of Landscape Composition and the Transition Matrix Model 226

10.4 The Use of Transition Matrices to Incorporate Changes in Disturbance Regimes and/or Management Activities 228

10.5 Combining Spatial and Temporal Analysis in Transition Models 238

Key Points 252

Endnotes 252

Appendix A Description of Notation Used in Formulae and Metrics 255

Index 263