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Exploration and Monitoring of the Continental Shelf Underwater Environment

Hardcover

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AUD $353.95

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Exploration and Monitoring of the Continental Shelf Underwater Environment

Iftikhar B. Abbasov (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-48803-3 September 2018 318 Pages

Hardcover
Out of stock
AUD $353.95

Description

There is still so much about the oceans that scientists do not know, and exploring the continental shelves of the world is a huge part of finding out more about these underwater environments.  Further to that, it is extremely important that, while scientists and engineers explore and monitor the continental shelf, no damage is done to these precious environments. That is the needle that this study intends to thread, giving scientists and engineers a better method and processes for exploring these underwater mysteries, while protecting the environment and wildlife thriving beneath.

Written by a proven scientist in this area, this book is dedicated to the unique developments of hydroacoustical equipment to monitor the coastal shelf. The results of the original experimental sonar studies with application of the parametric antenna are presented.  The book presents a survey of the modern methods and technical monitoring facilities of the coastal aqueous environment. The basic characteristics of the parametric antennas are given considering propagation of the acoustic waves in the environments with dispersion and acoustical absorption.  The author and his colleagues consider the questions of formation of the parametric antenna field in layered-heterogeneous media and the peculiarities of sounding of the interfaces and bottom sediments. Ecological monitoring methods of the basic parameters of quality and condition of the aqueous environment are analyzed. The peculiarities of diagnostics of the underwater engineering constructions when monitoring the offshore strips are described.

For both veteran engineers and students in the field alike, this breakthrough study is a must-have for any scientific library concerned with studying the oceans and especially the continental shelf.

Abstract xiii

Preface xv

1 Monitoring of Aqueous Environment of the Continental Shelf: The Current State 1
Iftikhar B. Abbasov

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 General Monitoring Tasks 3

1.3 Remote Monitoring with the Help of Satellites 4

1.4 Monitoring of Underwater Seismic Activity 6

1.5 Fish Stock Monitoring 6

1.6 Monitoring in the Marine Archeology 7

1.7 The Use of Underwater Vehicles for Geological Exploration 7

1.8 Use of Underwater Vehicles for Monitoring of Ecosystems 8

1.9 Modern Underwater Vehicles for Monitoring of Ecosystems 11

1.10 Hydro Acoustical Shelf Monitoring Systems 18

1.11 Conclusion 22

References 22

2 Parametric Antennas in the Mediums with Hydrophysical Inhomogeneities: Theory and Experiment 25
Igor А. Kirichenko

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Assignment of the Task of Theoretical and Experiment Research of the Parametric Antennas in the Mediums with Hydro Physical Inhomogeneities 27

2.3 Methods of Solution of KhZK Equations Considering Hydrophysical Inhomogeneities  31

2.4 Measurement Procedure of the Field Characteristics of the Parametric Antenna and Backward Volume Scattering at Models of the Hydrophysical Inhomogeneities 34

2.5 The Results of Experimental Measurements of Characteristics of the Parametric Antenna Field and Backward Volume Scattering at Models of Hydrophysical Inhomogeneities 41

2.6 Discussion of the Results of the Theoretical and Experimental Research 54

2.7 Conclusion 54

References 55

3 Research of the Phase Characteristics of Parametrical Radiators for Measuring Purposes 57
Vladimir V. Grivtsov

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Measurement Procedure of the Phase Structure of the Acoustic Field 58

3.3 Phase Portrait of the Field of the Parametric Antenna with Planar Transformer of Pumping 62

3.4 Phase Distributions in the Spherically Diverging Waves of the Parametrical Antenna 68

3.5 Parametrical Radiator Use for Hydro Acoustical Measurements in the Limited Size Tanks 72

3.6 Conclusion 79

References 79

4 Influence of Layer-Discrete Areas on the Formation of the Direction Acoustic Parametric Antenna at the Diagnostic of the Water Environment 81
Nicolai P. Zagrai

4.1 Limitations of the Nonlinear Interaction Region 82

4.1.1 Statement of the Problem 82

4.1.2 Limitation of the Nonlinear Interaction Region by the General Surface of Round Piston Transformer

of the Acoustic Parametric Antenna 84

4.1.3 Limitation of the Nonlinear Interaction Region by the General Surface of Rectangular Piston Transformer of the Acoustic Parametric Antenna 86

4.1.4 Limitation by the Incident Flat Surface 87

4.1.5 Limitation with Curved Surfaces 89

4.1.6 The Field of Acoustic Parametric Antenna with Layered-Non-Homogeneous  Nonlinear Interaction Region 92

4.2 Nonlinear Interaction Region as a System of the Normal (Orthogonal) Discrete Plane-Parallel Layers. Statement of the Problem 94

4.3 Experimental Studies of the Field of Acoustic Parametric Antenna at Presence of the Layer, Plate and System of Layers in the Nonlinear Interaction Region 102

4.3.1 Liquid Layer 102

4.3.2 Plate 105

4.3.3 Incident Plate 109

4.3.4 System of Plates 114

4.4 Layers with Diffused Boundaries in the Nonlinear Interaction Region 118

4.4.1 On the Formation of the Field of an Acoustic Parametric Antenna in a Periodic Structure with Diffuse Boundaries 118

4.4.2 Application of the Immersion Method to Consider a System of Layers with Blurred Boundaries 119

4.5 Conclusion 123

References 125

5 Experimental Research of Penetration of the Acoustic Inhomogeneous Plane Waves from Water into Air 129
Alexander P. Voloshchenko and Sergey P. Tarasov

5.1 Introduction 129

5.2 Statement of the Problem 132

5.3 Method of Investigation 143

5.4 Results of the Study 147

5.5 Discussion 157

5.6 Conclusion 164

References 164

6 Study of Nonlinear Interaction of Acoustic Waves Driven by Parametric Radiating Antenna During Sounding of Bottom Sediments 167
Yuri V. Dushenin and Mikhail S. Rybachek

6.1 Introduction 167

6.2 Statement of the Problem 173

6.3 Research Technique of the Basic PA Characteristics in BS at Normal Incidence to the Interface with

Subsequent Excitation in BS of Longitudinal Waves 173

6.4 Results of Research of the Basic PA Characteristics in BS at Normal Incidence to the Interface with Subsequent Excitation of P-Waves in BS 184

6.5 Research Technique of the Basic PA Characteristics in BS at Incidence to the Interface at Angles Close to Critical, with Subsequent Excitation in BS of Shear Waves 191

6.6 The Results of Research of the Basic PA Characteristics in BS, at Incidence to the Interface at Angles, Close to Critical, with Subsequent Excitation of Shear Waves in BS 198

6.7 Discussion 204

6.8 Conclusion 206

References 207

7 The Underwater Ultrasonic Equipment with the Nonlinear Acoustics Effect’s Application 211
Vadim Yu. Voloshchenko and Elizaveta V. Voloshchenko

7.1 Introduction 212

7.2 The Navigation System with Short Based Length 214

7.3 An Impulse Method for Broadband Acoustical Measurements 219

7.4 The Nonlinear Hydroacoustic Wavegraph 223

7.5 Conclusion 231

References 232

8 The Research of Waters Eutrophication of the Gulf of Taganrog of the Sea of Azov For Ecological Monitoring Purposes 235
Alena Yu. Zhidkova, Natalia V. Gusakova and Viktor V. Petrov

8.1 Introduction 236

8.2 Problem Statement 237

8.3 Methods 239

8.4 Results 243

8.5 Discussion 261

8.6 Conclusion 262

References 262

9 The Application Features of Sonar Systems for Control of Underwater Engineering Structures and Monitoring Area 267

9.1 Introduction 267

9.2 Procedure of Detailed Investigation of the Objects with the Help of Side Scan Sonar 270