Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods: From Hypothesis to Results

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Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods: From Hypothesis to Results

ISBN: 978-1-118-23457-0 July 2012 Jossey-Bass 496 Pages

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Quantitative and Statistical Research Methodsoffers a guide for psychology, counseling, and education students in the use of statistics and research designs, combined with guidance on using SPSS in the course of their research. Each chapter covers a research problem, taking the student through identifying research questions and hypotheses; identifying, classifying, and operationally defining the study variables; choosing appropriate research designs; conducting power analysis; choosing an appropriate statistic for the problem; using a data set; conducting data screening and analyses (SPSS); interpreting the statistics; and writing the results related to the problem. Designed so students will know how to plan research and conduct statistical analyses using several different procedures.

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Tables and Figures ix

Preface xvii

The Authors xix

Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview 1

Review of Foundational Research Concepts 3

Review of Foundational Statistical Information 6

The Normal Distribution 14

Chapter 2 Logical Steps of Conducting Quantitative Research: Hypothesis-Testing Process 29

Hypothesis-Testing Process 30

Chapter 3 Maximizing Hypothesis Decisions Using Power Analysis 39

Balance between Avoiding Type I and Type II Errors 41

Chapter 4 Research and Statistical Designs 53

Formulating Experimental Conditions 54

Reducing the Imprecision in Measurement 55

Controlling Extraneous Experimental Influences 57

Internal Validity and Experimental Designs 59

Choosing a Statistic to Use for an Analysis 67

Chapter 5 Introduction to IBM SPSS 20 77

The IBM SPSS 20 Data View Screen 80

Naming and Defining Variables in Variable View 80

Entering Data 86

Examples of Basic Analyses 87

Examples of Modifying Data Procedures 96

Chapter 6 Diagnosing Study Data for Inaccuracies and Assumptions 99

Research Example 100

Chapter 7 Randomized Design Comparing Two Treatments and a Control Using a One-Way Analysis of Variance 129

Research Problem 130

Study Variables 131

Research Design 133

Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 135

Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 136

Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 137

Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 138

Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 143

Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 144

Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 162

Formula Calculations of the Study Results 166

Chapter 8 Repeated-Treatment Design Using a Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance 183

Research Problem 184

Study Variables 185

Research Design 186

Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 189

Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 190

Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 191

Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 192

Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 195

Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 196

Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 216

Formula Calculations of the Study Results 218

Chapter 9 Randomized Factorial Experimental Design Using a Factorial ANOVA 231

Research Problem 232

Study Variables 232

Research Design 233

Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Questions 237

Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 238

Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 240

Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 241

Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0

Assuming H0 Is True 247

Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 248

Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 271

Formula Calculations of the Study Results 278

Chapter 10 Analysis of Covariance 297

Research Problem 298

Study Variables 299

Research Design 300

Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 301

Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 301

Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 302

Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 302

Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 is True 306

Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 307

Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 324

Formula ANCOVA Calculations of the Study Results 327 ANCOVA Study Results 339

Chapter 11 Randomized Control Group and Repeated-Treatment Designs and Nonparametics 345

Research Problem 346

Study Variables 346

Research Design 347

Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 349

Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 349

Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 350

Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 350

Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 is True 354

Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 355

Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes 370 Formula Calculations 376

Nonparametric Research Problem Two: Friedman’s Rank Test for Correlated Samples and Wilcoxon’s Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test 382

Chapter 12 Bivariate and Multivariate Correlation Methods Using Multiple Regression Analysis 401

Research Problem 402

Study Variables 402

Research Method 403

Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 405

Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 405

Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 406

Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 406

Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 is True 407

Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 407 Hand Calculations of Statistics 423

Chapter 13 Understanding Quantitative Literature and Research 439

Interpretation of a Quantitative Research Article 440

References 461

Index 465