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Indoor Positioning: Technologies and Performance

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Indoor Positioning: Technologies and Performance

Nel Samama

ISBN: 978-1-119-42186-3 June 2019 Wiley-IEEE Press 368 Pages

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Description

Provides technical and scientific descriptions of potential approaches used to achieve indoor positioning, ranging from sensor networks to more advanced radio-based systems

This book presents a large technical overview of various approaches to achieve indoor positioning. These approaches cover those based on sensors, cameras, satellites, and other radio-based methods. The book also discusses the simplification of certain implementations, describing ways for the reader to design solutions that respect specifications and follow established techniques. Descriptions of the main techniques used for positioning, including angle measurement, distance measurements, Doppler measurements, and inertial measurements are also given.

Indoor Positioning: Technologies and Performance starts with overviews of the first age of navigation, the link between time and space, the radio age, the first terrestrial positioning systems, and the era of artificial satellites. It then introduces readers to the subject of indoor positioning, as well as positioning techniques and their associated difficulties. Proximity technologies like bar codes, image recognition, Near Field Communication (NFC), and QR codes are covered—as are room restricted and building range technologies. The book examines wide area indoor positioning as well as world wide indoor technologies like High-Sensitivity and Assisted GNSS, and covers maps and mapping. It closes with the author's vision of the future in which the practice of indoor positioning is perfected across all technologies. This text:

  • Explores aspects of indoor positioning from both theoretical and practical points of view
  • Describes advantages and drawbacks of various approaches to positioning
  • Provides examples of design solutions that respect specifications of tested techniques
  • Covers infra-red sensors, lasers, Lidar, RFID, UWB, Bluetooth, Image SLAM, LiFi, WiFi, indoor GNSS, and more

Indoor Positioning is an ideal guide for technical engineers, industrial and application developers, and students studying wireless communications and signal processing.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Introduction xv

1 A Little Piece of History… 1

1.1 The First Age of Navigation 1

1.2 Longitude Problem and Importance of Time 2

1.3 Link Between Time and Space 4

1.3.1 A Brief History of the Evolution of the Perception of Time 4

1.3.2 Comparison with the Possible Change in Our Perception of Space 6

1.4 The Radio Age 8

1.5 First Terrestrial Positioning Systems 9

1.6 The Era of Artificial Satellites 11

1.6.1 GPS System 13

1.7 New Problem: Availability and Accuracy of Positioning Systems 14

Bibliography 15

2 What Exactly Is the Indoor Positioning Problem? 17

2.1 General Introduction to Indoor Positioning 18

2.1.1 Basic Problem: Example of the Navigation Application 19

2.1.2 The “Perceived” Needs 20

2.1.3 Wide Range of Possible Technologies 22

2.1.4 Comments on the “Best” Solution 25

2.1.4.1 Local or Global Coverage 26

2.1.4.2 With orWithout Local Infrastructure 27

2.2 Is Indoor Positioning the Next “Longitude Problem”? 27

2.3 Quick Summary of the Indoor Problem 30

Bibliography 31

3 General Introduction to Positioning Techniques and Their Associated Difficulties 33

3.1 Angle-Based Positioning Technique 33

3.1.1 Pure Angle-Based Positioning Technique 33

3.1.2 Triangulation-Based Positioning Technique 34

3.2 Distance-Based Positioning Technique 35

3.2.1 Distances to Known Environment-Based Positioning Technique 35

3.2.2 Radar Method 36

3.2.3 Hyperbolic Method 38

3.2.4 Mobile Telecommunication Networks 38

3.3 Doppler-Based Positioning Approach 40

3.3.1 Doppler Radar Method 40

3.3.2 Doppler Positioning Approach 41

3.4 Physical Quantity-Based Positioning Approaches 42

3.4.1 Luminosity Measurements 42

3.4.2 Local Networks 42

3.4.3 Attitude and Heading Reference System 45

3.4.3.1 Accelerometers 46

3.4.3.2 Gyrometers 47

3.4.3.3 Odometers 47

3.4.3.4 Magnetometers 48

3.5 Image-Based Positioning Approach 49

3.6 ILS, MLS, VOR, and DME 49

3.7 Summary 51

Bibliography 52

4 Various Possible Classifications of Indoor Technologies 55

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Parameters to Be Considered 56

4.3 Discussion About These Parameters 57

4.3.1 Parameters Related to the Hardware of the System 57

4.3.2 Parameters Related to the Type and Performances of the System 58

4.3.3 Parameters Related to the Real Implementation of the System 59

4.3.4 Parameters Related to the Physical Aspects of the System 60

4.4 Technologies Considered 63

4.5 Complete Tables 71

4.6 Playing with the Complete Table 79

4.7 Selected Approach for the Rest of the Book 88

Bibliography 99

5 Proximity Technologies: Approaches, Performance, and Limitations 103

5.1 Bar Codes 103

5.2 Contactless Cards and Credit Cards 107

5.3 Image Recognition 109

5.4 Near-Field Communication – NFC 112

5.5 QR Codes 114

5.6 Discussion of Other Technologies 117

Bibliography 118

6 Room-Restricted Technologies: Challenges and Reliability 121

6.1 Image Markers 121

6.2 Infrared Sensors 129

6.3 Laser 130

6.4 Lidar 133

6.5 Sonar 136

6.6 Ultrasound Sensors 138

Bibliography 140

7 “Set of Rooms” Technologies 145

7.1 Radar 145

7.2 RFID 149

7.3 UWB 152

Bibliography 156

8 Building Range Technologies 159

8.1 Accelerometer 159

8.2 Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy 163

8.3 Gyrometer 167

8.4 Image-Relative Displacement 169

8.5 Image SLAM 171

8.6 LiFi 171

8.7 Light Opportunity 174

8.8 Sound 176

8.9 Theodolite 177

8.10 WiFi 180

8.11 Symbolic WiFi 182

Bibliography 187

9 Building Range Technologies: The Specific Case of Indoor GNSS 191

9.1 Introduction 191

9.2 Concept of Local Transmitters 193

9.3 Pseudolites 194

9.4 Repeaters 198

9.4.1 Clock Bias Approach 199

9.4.2 Pseudo Ranges Approach 202

9.4.2.1 Theoretical Aspects 202

9.5 Repealites 206

9.5.1 Proposed System Architecture 206

9.5.2 Advantages 208

9.5.3 Limitations 209

9.6 Grin-Locs 209

9.6.1 Double Antenna 210

9.6.1.1 Angle Approach 210

9.6.1.2 Quadrics Approach 211

9.6.2 Resolution in Case of Several Double Antennas 213

9.6.2.1 Positioning with the Angle Approach 213

9.6.2.2 Positioning with the Quadric Approach 214

Bibliography 216

10 Wide Area Indoor Positioning: Block, City, and County Approaches 223

10.1 Introduction 223

10.2 Amateur Radio 225

10.3 ISM Radio Bands (433/868/…MHz) 226

10.4 Mobile Networks 227

10.4.1 First Networks (GSM) 227

10.4.2 Modern Networks (3G, 4G, and 5G) 232

10.5 LoRa and SigFox 234

10.6 AM/FM Radio 236

10.7 TV 237

Bibliography 239

11 Worldwide Indoor Positioning Technologies: Achievable Performance 241

11.1 Argos and COSPAS-SARSAT Systems 241

11.1.1 Argos System 241

11.1.2 COSPAS-SARSAT System 244

11.2 GNSS 246

11.3 High-Accuracy GNSS 248

11.3.1 HS-GNSS 249

11.3.2 A-GNSS 251

11.4 Magnetometer 253

11.5 Pressure Sensor 256

11.6 Radio Signals of Opportunity 258

11.7 Wired Networks 259

Bibliography 261

12 Combining Techniques and Technologies 267

12.1 Introduction 267

12.2 Fusion and Hybridization 269

12.2.1 Strategies for Combining Technologies 269

12.2.2 Strategies for Choosing the Optimal Data 270

12.2.2.1 Least Squares Method 273

12.2.3 Classification and Estimators 274

12.2.4 Filtering 275

12.3 Collaborative Approaches 276

12.3.1 Approach Using DopplerMeasurements to Estimate Velocities 276

12.3.2 Approach Using DopplerMeasurements in Case Some Nodes Are Fixed 280

12.3.3 Approach Using DopplerMeasurements to Estimate Angles 282

12.3.4 Approach Using Distance Measurements 285

12.3.5 Approach Analyzing the Deformation of the Network 287

12.3.6 Comments 288

12.4 General Discussion 290

Bibliography 291

13 Maps 295

13.1 Map: Not Just an Image 296

13.2 Indoor Poses Specific Problems 297

13.3 Map Representations 298

13.4 Recording Tools 301

13.5 Some Examples of the Use of Indoor Mapping 304

13.5.1 Some Guiding Applications 305

13.5.2 Some Services Associated with Mapping 306

13.6 Synthesis 308

Bibliography 308

14 Synthesis and Possible Forthcoming “Evolution” 311

14.1 Indoor Positioning: Signals of Opportunity or Local Infrastructure? 312

14.1.1 A Few Constrained Selections 312

14.1.2 Comparison of Three Approaches and Discussion 315

14.1.2.1 Inverted GNSS Radar 315

14.1.2.2 NFC-Distributed System and Its Map 316

14.1.2.3 Cooperative Approach Between Communicating Terminals 317

14.2 Discussion 319

14.3 Possible Evolution of Everybody’s Daily Life 321

14.3.1 Student’s Day 321

14.3.1.1 Morning Session at the University 322

14.3.2 Improving an Outpatient’s Visit to Hospital 323

14.3.2.1 Preparation of the “Journeys” 323

14.3.2.2 Displacements of Patients and Automatic Rescheduling 323

14.3.2.3 Reports – Analytics 323

14.3.3 Flow of People in Public Places 325

14.4 Internet of Things and Internet of Everything 326

14.5 Possible Future Approaches 327

14.6 Conclusion 330

Bibliography 331

Index 333