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LTE Advanced Pro: Towards the 5G Mobile Network

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LTE Advanced Pro: Towards the 5G Mobile Network

Frédéric Launay, André Perez

ISBN: 978-1-119-62968-9 June 2019 Wiley-ISTE 316 Pages

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Description

This book presents LTE evolution towards 5G mobile communication and the emergence of new requirements for MBB, MTC and LLC services.

As LTE technologies evolve, LTE Advanced Pro dramatically increases cell capacity and user data rates for the MBB unicast service. Such requirements are obtained using full-dimension MIMO, carrier aggregation (on either licensed or unlicensed frequency bands) and dual connectivity.

To improve the efficiency of same-content delivery to multiple users, 3GPP proposes a group communications service over LTE and defines mission critical push-to-talk (MCPTT) for dedicated public safety services.

Complementary low-cost and low-power modems with enhanced coverage and massive connectivity are emerging. Thus, this book also discusses the need for LTE to support low-rate transmission and high-latency communication for MTC services.

List of Abbreviations xi

Introduction xxix

Chapter 1. MBB Service – Network Architecture 1

1.1. Initial architecture 1

1.1.1. Functional architecture 1

1.1.2. Protocol architecture 6

1.2. CUPS architecture 13

1.3. Heterogeneous networks 15

1.3.1. HeNB station 16

1.3.2. Relay node 19

1.3.3. RRH module 23

1.3.4. Dual connectivity 25

Chapter 2. MBB Service – Spatial Multiplexing 29

2.1. Multiplexing techniques 29

2.1.1. MIMO mechanism 29

2.1.2. Beamforming 31

2.1.3. Antenna configurations 31

2.2. Antenna ports 33

2.2.1. Downlink 33

2.2.2. Uplink 35

2.3. UCI 36

2.4. Transmission modes 38

2.4.1. Downlink 38

2.4.2. Uplink 41

2.5. FD-MIMO mechanism 41

2.6. eFD-MIMO mechanism 46

Chapter 3. MBB Service – Carrier Aggregation 49

3.1. Functional architecture 49

3.2. LTE aggregation 50

3.2.1. Radio channels 50

3.2.2. PDCCH physical channel 52

3.2.3. MAC layer 54

3.2.4. Mobile categories 54

3.3. LAA aggregation 57

3.3.1. Frame structure 57

3.3.2. Access to the radio channel 60

3.3.3. Discovery reference signal (DRS) 61

3.4. LWA aggregation 62

3.4.1. Protocol architecture 62

3.4.2. Procedures 63

3.5. LWIP aggregation 67

3.5.1. Protocol architecture 67

3.5.2. Tunnel establishment 69

Chapter 4. Wi-Fi Integration – Network Architecture 71

4.1. Functional architecture 71

4.1.1. Architecture based on the S2a interface 71

4.1.2. Architecture based on the S2b interface 74

4.1.3. Architecture based on the S2c interface 76

4.2. Tunnel establishment 78

4.2.1. Architecture based on the S2a interface 78

4.2.2. Architecture based on the S2b interface 82

4.2.3. Architecture based on the S2c interface 83

4.3. DIAMETER protocol 84

4.3.1. AAA server interfaces 85

4.3.2. PCRF interfaces 89

Chapter 5. Wi-Fi Integration – Procedures 91

5.1. Mutual authentication 91

5.1.1. EAP-AKA method 91

5.1.2. Mutual authentication procedure 92

5.1.3. Procedure for rapid renewal of authentication 95

5.1.4. Application to the MIPv4 FA mechanism 96

5.2. SWu tunnel establishment 97

5.2.1. IPSec mechanism 97

5.2.2. SWu tunnel establishment procedure 98

5.2.3. Procedure for rapid renewal of authentication 101

5.3. S2a/S2b tunnel establishment 102

5.3.1. PMIPv6 mechanism 102

5.3.2. GTPv2 mechanism 107

5.3.3. MIPv4 FA mechanism 109

5.4. S2c tunnel establishment 113

5.4.1. Trusted Wi-Fi access 114

5.4.2. Untrusted Wi-Fi access 115

Chapter 6. Wi-Fi Integration – Network Discovery and Selection 117

6.1. Mechanisms defined by 3GPP organization 117

6.1.1. ANDSF function 117

6.1.2. RAN assistance 125

6.2. Mechanisms defined by IEEE and WFA organizations 125

6.2.1. Information elements provided by the beacon 127

6.2.2. Information elements provided by the ANQP server 128

Chapter 7. LLC Service – Proximity Communications 133

7.1. Introduction 133

7.2. Functional architecture 135

7.2.1. D2D communication 135

7.2.2. V2X communication 139

7.3. Direct discovery 141

7.4. Radio interface 142

7.4.1. Radio interface structure 142

7.4.2. Physical resources 145

Chapter 8. LLC Service – Group Communications 151

8.1. Introduction 151

8.2. Transport architecture 152

8.2.1. Functional architecture 152

8.2.2. Protocol architecture 154

8.3. Service architecture 155

8.3.1. Functional architecture 155

8.3.2. Protocol architecture 158

8.4. Radio interface 159

8.4.1. MBSFN-RS 160

8.4.2. PMCH 162

8.4.3. RRC messages 166

8.5. Procedures 170

8.5.1. Mutual authentication. 170

8.5.2. Mobile registration 171

8.5.3. Multicast bearer establishment 172

Chapter 9. LLC Service – GCSE and MCPTT Functions 175

9.1. Introduction 175

9.2. GCSE function 176

9.2.1. Functional architecture 176

9.2.2. Protocol architecture 177

9.3. MCPTT function 178

9.3.1. Functional architecture 178

9.3.2. Protocol architecture 182

9.4. Procedures 186

9.4.1. Group creation 186

9.4.2. Group affiliation 187

9.4.3. Session pre-establishment 188

9.4.4. Group call 190

9.4.5. Private call 191

9.4.6. Floor 194

Chapter 10. MTC Service – Network Architecture 197

10.1. Functional architecture 197

10.1.1. MTC-IWF entity 198

10.1.2. MTC-AAA entity 199

10.1.3. SCEF entity 199

10.1.4. IWF-SCEF entity 200

10.2. Network optimization 200

10.2.1. RRC state Suspend 202

10.2.2. RRC state Resume 203

10.3. Congestion control 204

10.4. Procedures 206

10.4.1. Triggering procedure 206

10.4.2. Group message delivery 207

10.4.3. Event monitoring configuration 209

10.4.4. NIDD transfer 213

Chapter 11. MTC Service – Radio Interfaces 219

11.1. Introduction 219

11.2. Special features 220

11.2.1. PSM feature 220

11.2.2. eDRX feature 221

11.2.3. Coverage extension 221

11.3. LTE-M interface 221

11.3.1. Radio channel 221

11.3.2. Guard time 222

11.3.3. Physical channels 223

11.4. NB-IoT interface 226

11.4.1. Radio channel 226

11.4.2. Resource block 227

11.4.3. Physical signals and channels 228

Chapter 12. MBB Service – 5G Integration 237

12.1. Deployment options 237

12.2. Functional architecture 239

12.3. Protocol architecture 240

12.3.1. Radio interface 240

12.3.2. F1 interface 243

12.4. Procedures 245

12.4.1. Adding a secondary node 245

12.4.2. Changing a secondary node 247

12.4.3. Removing a secondary node 249

12.5. Transmission chain 250

12.5.1. Frequency bands 250

12.5.2. Waveform 251

12.5.3. Time frame 253

12.5.4. Error correction codes 254

12.5.5. Reference signals 254

12.5.6. PSS, SSS and PBCH 254

References 259

Index 265