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Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks

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Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks

Description

The mobile market has experienced unprecedented growth over the last few decades. Consumer trends have shifted towards mobile internet services supported by 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Inherent to existing networks are problems such as lack of spectrum, high energy consumption, and inter-cell interference. These limitations have led to the emergence of 5G technology. It is clear that any 5G system will integrate optical communications, which is already a mainstay of wide area networks. Using an optical core to route 5G data raises significant questions of how wireless and optical can coexist in synergy to provide smooth, end-to-end communication pathways. Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks explores new emerging technologies, concepts, and approaches for seamlessly integrating optical-wireless for 5G and beyond.

Considering both fronthaul and backhaul perspectives, this timely book provides insights on managing an ecosystem of mixed and multiple access network communications focused on optical-wireless convergence. Topics include Fiber–Wireless (FiWi), Hybrid Fiber-Wireless (HFW), Visible Light Communication (VLC), 5G optical sensing technologies, approaches to real-time IoT applications, Tactile Internet, Fog Computing (FC), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), Software-Defined Networking (SDN), and many others. This book aims to provide an inclusive survey of 5G optical-wireless requirements, architecture developments, and technological solutions.

 

About the Editors ii

Contributors v

Preface xxvii

Acknowledgments i

Introduction iii

1 Towards a Converged Optical-Wireless Fronthaul/Backhaul Solution for 5G Networks and Beyond 1
Isiaka Ajewale Alimi, Nelson Jesus Muga, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Catia Pinho, Jonathan Rodriguez, Paulo Pereira Monteiro, Antonio Lucios Teixeira

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Cellular Network Interface and Solution 3

1.2.1 MBH/MFH Architecture 3

1.2.2 Integrated MBH/MFH Transport Network 5

1.3 5G Enabling Technologies 5

1.3.1 Ultra-Densication 6

1.3.2 C-RAN and RAN Virtualization 6

1.3.3 Advanced radio coordination 8

1.3.4 Millimeter-Wave Small Cells 9

1.3.5 Massive MIMO 10

1.3.6 New Multicarrier Modulations for 5G 10

1.4 Fiber-Wireless Network Convergence 11

1.5 Radio-over-Fiber Transmission Scheme 12

1.5.1 Digital Radio-over-Fiber (D-RoF) Transmission 12

1.5.2 Analog Radio-over-Fiber (A-RoF) Transmission 13

1.6 Optical MBH/MFH Transport Network Multiplexing Schemes 14

1.6.1 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) based Schemes 14

1.6.2 Spatial-Division Multiplexing (SDM) based Schemes 15

1.7 Wireless based MFH/MBH 18

1.7.1 FSO Communication Systems 18

1.7.2 Hybrid RF/FSO Technology 21

1.7.3 Relay-Assisted FSO Transmission 22

1.8 Experimental Channel measurement and characterization 23

1.9 Results and Discussions 24

1.10 Conclusion 24

Acknowledgments 24

Bibliography 25

2 Hybrid Fiber Wireless (HFW) Extension for GPON Toward 5G 31
Rattana Chuenchom, Andreas Ste_an, Robert G. Walker, Stephen J. Clements, Yigal Leiba, Andrzej Banach, Mateusz Lech, Andreas Stohr

2.1 Passive Optical Network 32

2.1.1 GPON and EPON standard 33

2.2 Transparent Wireless Extension of Optical Links 34

2.2.1 Transparent wireless extension of optical links using CRoF 34

2.3 Key Enabling Photonic and Electronic Technologies 36

2.3.1 Coherent Photonic Mixer 36

2.3.2 Single side band Mach-Zehnder modulator 38

2.3.3 High power amplifier in E-band for GPON extension 40

2.3.4 Integrated radio access units 42

2.4 Field Trial for 2.5 Gbit/s GPON over Wireless 43

2.4.1 RX Throughput and packet loss 48

2.4.2 Latency 48

2.4.3 Jitter 49

2.5 Conclusions 49

Bibliography 50

3 Software Defened Networking and Network Function Virtualisation for Converged Accessmetro Networks 53
Marco Rumi , Frank Slyne

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 The 5G requirements driving network convergence and virtualisation 54

3.3 Access and metro convergence 57

3.3.1 Long-Reach Passive Optical Network 58

3.3.2 New architectures in support of 5G networks, network virtualisation and mobile functional split 59

3.4 Functional convergence and virtualisation of the central offices 62

3.4.1 Infrastructure 63

3.4.2 Management and Control 66

3.4.3 Cross-Layer Components 70

3.5 Conclusions 70

Bibliography 70

4 Multicore Fibres for 5G Fronthaul Evolution 77
Ivana Gasulla, José Capmany

4.1 Why 5G communications demand for optical Space-Division Multiplexing 77

4.2 Multicore Fibre Transmission Review 79

4.2.1 Homogeneous MCFs 80

4.2.2 Heterogeneous MCFs 81

4.3 Radio Access Networks using Multicore Fibre Links 82

4.3.1 Basic MCF link between Central O_ce and Base Station 84

4.3.2 MCF-based Radio over Fibre C-RAN 85

4.3.3 MCF-based Digital Radio over Fibre C-RAN 87

4.4 Microwave signal processing enabled by multicore fibres 88

4.4.1 Signal Processing over a Heterogeneous MCF link 90

4.4.2 RF Signal Processing over a Homogeneous MCF Multicavity device 92

4.5 Final Remarks 94

Bibliography 95

5 Enabling VLC and Wi-Fi Network Technologies and Architectures Towards 5G 99
Isiaka Ajewale Alimi, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Jonathan Rodriguez, Paulo Pereira Monteiro, Antonio Lu__s Teixeira, Stanislav Zv_anovec, Zabih Ghassemlooy

5.1 Introduction 100

5.2 Optical Wireless Systems 102

5.3 Visible Light Communication (VLC) System Fundamentals 104

5.4 VLC Current and Anticipated Future Applications 107

5.4.1 Underwater Wireless Communications 109

5.4.2 Airlines and Aviation 109

5.4.3 Hospitals 110

5.4.4 Vehicular Communication Systems 110

5.4.5 Sensitive Areas 111

5.4.6 Manufacturing and Industrial Applications 111

5.4.7 Retail Stores 112

5.4.8 Consumer Electronics 112

5.4.9 Internet of Things 112

5.4.10 Other Application Areas 113

5.5 Hybrid VLC and RF Networks 113

5.6 Challenges and Open-Ended Issues 114

5.6.1 Flicker and Dimming 115

5.6.2 Data Rate Improvement 115

5.7 Conclusions 116

Acknowledgments 116

Bibliography 117

6 5G RAN: Key Radio Technologies and Hardware Implementation Challenges 123
Hassan Hamdoun, Mohamed Hamid, Shoaib Amin, Hind Dafallah

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 5G NR-enabled Use Cases 124

6.2.1 eMBB and uRLLC 125

6.2.2 Migration to 5G 126

6.3 5G RAN Radio-enabling Technologies 126

6.3.1 Massive MIMO (M-MIMO) 127

6.3.2 Carrier Aggregation and Licensed Assisted Access to unlicensed spectrum 130

6.3.3 Dual Connectivity 131

6.3.4 Device-to-Device (D2D) communication 132

6.4 Hardware Impairments 132

6.4.1 Hardware Impairments-Transmitters 133

6.4.2 Hardware Impairments - Receivers 135

6.4.3 Hardware Impairments - Transceivers 135

6.5 Technology and Fabrication challenges 136

6.6 Conclusion 137

Bibliography 137

7 Millimeter Wave Antenna Design for 5G Applications 143
Issa Elfergani, Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini, Abdelgader Abdalla, Jonathan Rodriguez, Raed Abd-Alhameed

7.1 Introduction 144

7.2 Antenna Design and Procedure 146

7.3 Antenna Optimisation and Analysis 147

7.3.1 The inuence of ground plane length (GL) 148

7.3.2 The effect of feeding strip position (Fp) 148

7.3.3 The inuences of the substrate type 149

7.4 MMwave Antenna Design with notched frequency band 150

7.5 MMwave Antenna Design with Loaded Capacitor 153

7.6 Conclusion 156

Acknowledgement 156

Bibliography 156

8 Wireless Signal Encapsulation on Seamless Fiber{mmWave System 161
Pham Tien Dat, Atsushi Kanno, Naokatsu Yamamoto, Testuya Kawanishi

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Principle of signal encapsulation 163

8.2.1 Downlink system 163

8.2.2 Uplink system 165

8.3 Examples of signal encapsulation 166

8.3.1 Downlink transmission 166

8.3.2 Uplink transmission 170

8.3.3 MmWave link distance 173

8.3.4 Conclusion 175

Bibliography 176

9 5G Optical Sensing Technologies 179
Seedahmed S. Mahmoud , Bernhard Koziol, Jusak Jusak

9.1 Introduction 179

9.2 Optical Fibre Communication Network: Intrusion Methods 182

9.3 Physical Protection of Optical Fibre Communication Cables 183

9.3.1 Location-Based Optical Fibre Sensors 185

9.3.2 Point-Based Optical Fibre Sensors 187

9.3.3 Zone-Based Optical Fibre Sensors 189

9.4 Design Consideration and Performance Characteristics 190

9.4.1 Performance Parameters 190

9.4.2 The Needs for Robust Signal Processing Methods 191

9.4.3 System Installation and Technology Suitability 192

9.5 Conclusions 193

Bibliography 193

10 The Tactile Internet over 5G FiWi Architectures 197
Amin Ebrahimzadeh, Mahfuzulhoq Chowdhury, Martin Maier

10.1 Introduction 197

10.2 The Tactile Internet: State of the Art and Open Challenges 203

10.3 Related Work 206

10.4 HITL-Centric Teleoperation over AI Enhanced FiWi Networks 207

10.5 HART-Centric Task Allocation over Multi-Robot FiWi based Tactile Internet Infrastructures 212

10.6 Conclusions 217

Bibliography 218

11 Energy Efficiency in Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) for 5G Mobile Networks:

Opportunities and Challenges 223
Isiaka Ajewale Alimi, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Akeem Olapade Mufutau, Fernando Pereira Guiomar, Ifiok Otung, Jonathan Rodriguez, Paulo Pereira Monteiro, Ant_onio Lu__s Teixeira

11.1 Introduction 224

11.1.1 Environmental effects 225

11.1.2 Economic benefits 225

11.2 Standardized Energy Efficiency Metric (Green metric) 228

11.2.1 Power per subscriber, tra_c and distance/area 229

11.2.2 Energy consumption rating (ECR) measured in Watt/Gbps 229

11.2.3 Telecommunications energy efficiency ratio (TEER) 230

11.2.4 Telecommunication Equipment Energy Efficiency Rating (TEEER) 230

11.3 Green Design for Energy Crunch Prevention in 5G networks 230

11.3.1 Hardware solutions 231

11.3.2 Network planning and deployment 232

11.3.3 Resource allocation 233

11.3.4 Energy harvesting (EH) and transfer 233

11.4 Fiber-based Energy Efficient Network 235

11.4.1 Zero Power RAU PoF Network 236

11.4.2 Battery Powered RRH PoF Network 236

11.5 System and Power Consumption Model 237

11.5.1 Remote unit power consumption 239

11.5.2 Centralized unit power consumption 239

11.5.3 Fronthaul power consumption 239

11.5.4 Massive MIMO energy efficiency 240

11.6 Simulation Results and Discussions 242

11.7 Conclusion 242

Acknowledgments 243

Bibliography 243

12 Fog Computing Enhanced Fiber-Wireless Access Networks in the 5G Era 247
Bhaskar Prasad Rimal, Martin Maier

12.1 Background and Motivation 247

12.1.1 Next-Generation PON and Beyond 247

12.1.2 FiWi Broadband Access Networks 250

12.1.3 Role of Fog Computing 251

12.1.4 Computation Offloading 251

12.1.5 Key Issues and Contributions 253

12.2 Fog Computing Enhanced FiWi Networks 255

12.2.1 Network Architecture 255

12.2.2 Protocol Description 255

12.3 Analysis 256

12.3.1 Survivability Analysis 256

12.3.2 End-to-End Delay Analysis 258

12.4 Implementation and Validation 259

12.4.1 Experimental Testbed 259

12.4.2 Results 260

12.5 Conclusions and Outlook 262

12.5.1 Conclusions 262

12.5.2 Outlook 262

Bibliography 263

13 Techno-economic and Business Feasibility Analysis of 5G Transport Networks 267
Forough Yaghoubi, Mozhgan Mahloo, Lena Wosinska, Paolo Monti, Fabricio S. Farias, Joao C. W. A. Costa, Jiajia Chen

13.1 Introduction 268

13.2 Mobile Backhaul Technologies 270

13.3 Techno-economic Framework 272

13.3.1 Architecture Module 274

13.3.2 Topology Module 274

13.3.3 Market Module 274

13.3.4 Network Dimensioning Tool 274

13.3.5 Cost Module 275

13.3.6 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Module 275

13.3.7 Business Models and Scenarios 277

13.3.8 Techno-economic Module 278

13.4 Case Study 278

13.4.1 Application of Methodology/Scenarios 279

13.4.2 Techno-economic Evaluation Results 282

13.4.3 Sensitivity Analysis 284

13.5 Conclusion 286

Bibliography