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Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures

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Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures

Bandy X. Lee

ISBN: 978-1-119-24070-9 February 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 336 Pages

Description

A comprehensive overview of the integrative study of violence

Violence continues to be one of the most urgent global public health problems that contemporary society faces. Suicides and homicides are increasing at an alarming rate, particularly in younger age groups and lower-income countries. Historically, the study of violence has been fragmented across disparate fields of study with little cross-disciplinary collaboration, thus creating a roadblock to decoding the underlying processes that give rise to violence and hindering efforts in research and prevention. Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures assembles and organizes current information into one comprehensive volume, introducing students to the multiple sectors, disciplines, and practices that collectively comprise the study of violence.

This innovative textbook presents a unified perspective that integrates the sociological, biological, politico-economic, structural, and environmental underpinnings of violence. Each chapter examines a distinct point of learning, beginning with an overview of the content and concluding with discussion questions and an analytical summary. The chapters focus on key domains of research encouraging interdisciplinary investigation and helping students to develop critical analytical skills and form their own conclusions.

  • Fills a significant gap in the field by providing a coherent text that consolidates information on the multiple aspects of violence
  • Examines current legal, medical, public health, and policy approaches to violence prevention and their application within a global context
  • Illustrates how similar causes of violence may have dissimilar manifestations
  • Presents a multidisciplinary examination of the symptoms and underlying processes of violence
  • Offers a thorough yet accessible learning framework to undergraduate and graduate students without prior knowledge of the study of violence

More than just an accumulation of facts and data, this essential text offers a broad introduction to a thinking process that can produce rigorous scholarship across disciplines and lead to a deeper understanding of violence in its many forms. 

Preface xiii

Overview

Part I General Framework 1

1 Introduction 3

A Brief Introduction 3

Defining Violence 4

Redefining Violence 5

Examples of Violence 6

The Iliad 6

The Khmer Rouge 7

A Case of Child Neglect 7

Suicide by Gun 8

Connecting the Dots 8

A New Field 10

A New Awareness 12

Structure of the Text 15

What to Expect 17

Conclusion 18

References 19

Causes

Part II Intra-/Interpersonal Framework 23

2 The Biology of Violence 25

Introduction 25

The Tempting Idea 26

Case Vignettes 28

The Case of Phineas Gage 28

Familial Depression 29

Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress 30

Postpartum Depression and Psychosis 31

Aggression versus Violence 31

Mental Illness and Violence 32

The Neuroplastic Brain 34

Environment and Epigenetics 35

The Interconnected Whole 36

Conclusion 38

References 39

3 The Psychology of Violence 45

Introduction 45

One Among Many 47

Case Vignettes 48

Clinical Depression 48

Antisocial Personality 49

Extreme Narcissism 50

Heat of Passion 51

The Mind as Iceberg 52

Some Defense Mechanisms 53

The Mind as Paradox 54

A Developmental Matter 56

Positive Psychology 57

Conclusion 58

References 60

4 The Symbolism (or Spiritual Causes) of Violence 64

Introduction 64

Violence and Meaning 65

Case Vignettes 66

Mythological Violence 66

Cycle of Revenge 67

Cult Violence 68

Mob Violence 69

A Longing for Life 70

A Forbidden Concept 71

Violence in Religion and Art 73

Meaning and Moral Development 74

Compassion and Creativity 76

Conclusion 77

References 78

Causes (Continued)

Part III Social and Societal Framework 83

5 The Sociology and Anthropology of Violence 85

Introduction 85

Evolution of Sociology 86

Evolution of Anthropology 87

Case Vignettes 88

A Cult of End Times 88

Social Exclusion 90

Social Negation 90

Warring Peoples 91

Domestic Terrorism 92

Sociological Theories 93

Anthropological Perspectives 95

Need for Belonging 97

Conclusion 98

References 99

6 The Political Science and Economics of Violence 104

Introduction 104

Evolution of the Two Disciplines 105

Case Vignettes 106

A Separatist Movement 106

Apartheid 108

Social Engineering 109

Rape as a Weapon of War 110

Military Dictatorship 110

Macro‐Scale Political Science Theories 111

Micro‐Scale Political Science Theories 113

Microeconomic Perspectives 114

Macroeconomic Perspectives 115

Concepts of Power 116

Conclusion 118

References 119

7 Structural Violence 123

Introduction 123

Origins of the Concept 124

Case Vignettes 127

A Prison Inmate’s Predicament 127

A Poor Child’s Martyrdom 127

A Lead Into Collective Violence 128

A Lead Into Self‐Directed Violence 129

Healthcare, Nutrition, and Liberty Disparities 130

Gender, Racial, and Voting Rights Disparities 132

Expansion of the Concept 133

The Most Potent Stimulant 135

Conclusion 136

References 138

8 Environmental (and Nuclear) Violence 143

Introduction 143

Clarifying Misconceptions 144

Furthering the Concept 145

Case Vignettes 147

Violence Over Diminishing Resources 147

Premature Deaths due to Lack of Water 147

Migrations Due to Climate Change 148

Nuclear Devastation 149

Political Economy and Scarcity 150

Resource Curse and Violent Dispossession 151

Secondary Violence from the Environment 152

The Perils of Nuclear War 153

Conclusion 155

References 156

Consequences

Part IV Life Cycle Framework 161

9 Consequences of Violence 163

Introduction 163

Case Vignettes 164

Child Abuse and Neglect 164

Veteran Partner Violence 166

Financial and Physical Elder Abuse 167

Medical Consequences of Rape 168

Wartime Collective Sexual Violence 169

Self‐Directed Violence 170

Youth, Intimate Partner, and Sexual Violence 171

Child Maltreatment and Elder Abuse 173

Collective Violence 174

Consequences of Trauma 175

Conclusion 176

References 177

Cures

Part V Intervention Framework 183

10 Criminal Justice Approaches 185

Introduction 185

Historical Overview 186

Restoration versus Retribution 188

Discrimination and Legitimacy 191

Reform versus Abolition 192

Case Studies 194

Scandinavian Prisons 194

Prison Meditation 195

Prison Animal Therapy 195

Youth Violence Prevention 196

Prison Violence Prevention Programming 196

Conclusion 197

References 199

11 International Law Approaches 204

Introduction 204

Historical Background 205

International Legal Structures 206

Challenges and Successes 208

Abuses and the Difficulty of Enforcement 209

Changing Landscapes 211

Case Studies 214

A and Others v. the UK (2004) 214

Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro (2007) 215

Andriciuc and Others v. Banca Romanească SA (2017) 215

F v. Bevandorlasi es Allampolgarsagi Hivatal (2018) 216

Quinteros v. Uruguay (1983) 216

Conclusion 217

References 218

Cures (Continued)

Part VI Prevention Framework 225

12 Public Health Approaches 227

Introduction 227

History 228

The Ecological Framework 230

A Typology of Violence 231

The Public Health Method 232

Violence Prevention 232

Multisectoral Collaboration 234

Challenges and Possibilities 236

Case Studies 238

A Prenatal Care Program 238

Family Violence Prevention 239

School‐Based Violence Prevention 240

Bullying Prevention 240

Firearm Restriction Policies 241

Conclusion 242

References 243

13 Global Medicine Approaches 248

Introduction 248

Historical Background 249

Human‐Centered Healthcare 251

A CARE Model 253

A Creative Model 256

Local and Global 258

Case Studies 259

Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) 259

Cure Violence 260

Mercy Corps 261

One Acre Fund 261

The Library Project 262

Conclusion 262

References 263

14 Nonviolence Approaches 268

Introduction 268

Historical Basis 269

More Recent Examples 270

Criticisms 272

Basic Tenets 273

Applications 274

Case Studies 276

A Beacon of Hope Amid Racial Discrimination 276

Fighting the Good Fight 277

The Father of a Nation 278

Lessons From a War Zone 279

The Monk With a Cause 280

Conclusion 281

References 283

Conclusion

Part VII Overview and Analysis 287

15 Synthesis and Integration 289

Introduction 289

The Endgame of Violence 290

The Threat of Nuclear War 293

The Threat of Climate Catastrophe 295

The Threat of Escalating Inequality 296

The Fruits of Integration 298

The Power of Unity 299

Conclusion 302

References 303

Index 308