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Blandy's Urology, 3rd Edition

Omar M. Aboumarzouk (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-86324-4 February 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 888 Pages

Description

Blandy's Urology, 3rd edition is set to become a classic in its field, the latest edition of one of the most well-loved general urology textbooks for urologists and surgeons alike, successfully combining both general urology and urologic surgery.  Its key strength is the unique ‘Blandy way’ of describing urological diseases and their management, consisting of:
    • clear, straightforward, uncomplicated descriptions of disease/conditions, including hundreds of clinical photos
    • an abundance of outstanding drawn surgical diagrams to illustrate best technique in the operating theatre
    • a focus on the most commonly seen problems in the clinic
    • organization of each topic under anatomical headings

Especially loved by urology and surgery trainees for its straightforward approach to the speciality and as a preparation for speciality urology exams, consultants and specialists also value it as a handy refresher tool. 

Preface xxxvii

List of Contributors xxxix

Part I 1

1 Armaments in Urology 3
Shibs Datta

1.1 Principles of Urological Technology 4

1.2 Wound Healing in the Urinary Tract 19

1.3 Simulation in Urology 27

2 Principles of Medical Statistics 39
Julie Morris

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Descriptive Statistics 39

2.3 Confidence Intervals 41

2.4 Significance Tests 42

2.5 Relationships between Variables 44

2.6 Diagnostic Tests 45

2.7 Study Design 46

2.8 Number Needed to Treat 47

2.9 Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analysis 47

3 Embryology for the Urologist 49
Allan Johnston, Maike F. Eylert, Tarik Amer, and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

3.1 Historical Consideration 50

3.2 Introduction 50

3.3 Embryology of the Kidneys and Ureters 50

3.4 Embryology of the Bladder 57

3.5 Embryology of the Indifferent Genital System 60

3.6 Embryology of the Male Genital System 61

3.7 Embryology of the Prostate 67

3.8 Embryology of the Penis and Urethra 68

3.9 Neuter State 70

3.10 Embryology of the Female Genital System 70

3.11 Embryology of the Adrenal Gland 71

References

4 Principles of Urologic Oncology 75
Oliver W. Hakenberg

4.1 The Scope of Urologic Oncology 75

4.2 Carcinogenesis 75

4.3 Molecular Biology of Cancer Growth 79

4.4 Tumour‐ Promoting Inflammation 81

4.5 Reprogramming Energy Metabolism 81

4.6 Evading Immune Destruction 82

4.7 The Tumour Microenvironment 82

4.8 The Rate of Cancer Growth 82

4.9 Principles of Treatment 82

4.10 Oncologic Surgery 84

Part II 91

5 Kidney and Ureter Anatomy 93
Hiro Ishii, Omar M. Aboumarzouk, and Hendrik Van Poppel

5.1 Comparative Anatomy 94

5.2 Renal Fasciae 96

5.3 Macroscopic Appearances 96

5.4 Arterial Supply 96

5.5 Renal Veins 98

5.6 Common Vascular and Anatomic Variations 99

5.7 Lymphatics 99

5.8 Innervation of the Kidney 99

6 Kidney and Ureter Physiology 107
Motaz ElMahdy Hassan and Mohamed Ismail

6.1 Glomerular Filtration Rate 107

6.2 Renal Tubules 109

6.3 Hormonal Function of the Kidney 110

6.4 Special Disorders of Renal Tubules 111

6.5 Acid–Base Metabolism 111

6.6 Obstructive Uropathy 112

6.7 Ureteric Physiology 113

6.8 Whitaker Test 114

7 Renal Failure 117
Pramod Nagaraja and Farid Ghalli

7.1 Acute Kidney Injury 117

7.2 Chronic Kidney Disease 120

7.3 Dialysis 123

8 Renal Transplant 127
Oliver W. Hakenberg

8.1 The Patients and the Kidneys 128

8.2 Technique of Removal of Donor Kidneys 130

8.3 Immunology of Organ Transplantation 137

8.4 Graft Rejection 139

8.5 Immunosuppression 141

9 Kidney and Ureter: Congenital and Acquired Anomalies 145
Alberto Mantovani, Jane Hendry, and Pankaj Mishra

9.1 Introduction 145

9.2 Congenital Abnormalities of the Kidney 145

9.3 Congenital Abnormalities of the PUJ 153

10 Hydronephrosis 165
Maitrey Darrad, Ameet Gupta, and Nick Rukin

10.1 Definition 165

10.2 Incidence 165

10.3 Pathophysiology 166

10.4 Diagnostic Imaging 169

10.5 Complications of Hydronephrosis 171

10.6 Management (General Principles) 171

10.7 Perinatal Hydronephrosis 171

10.8 Pelviureteric Junction Obstruction 172

10.9 Retrocaval Ureter 181

10.10 Duplication Anomalies, Ectopic Ureter, and Ureteroceles 181

10.11 VUR 183

10.12 Megaureter 185

10.13 Ureteral Strictures 185

11 Kidney and Ureter Trauma 189
Sarfraz Ahmad and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

11.1 Kidney Injuries 189

11.2 Ureteral Injuries 200

12 Kidney and Ureter Inflammation 209
Ameet Gupta and Krishna Narahari

12.1 Medical Inflammatory Conditions of the Kidney 209

12.2 Acute Surgical Inflammatory Conditions of the Kidney 211

12.3 Chronic Surgical Inflammatory Conditions of the Kidney 218

12.4 Other Inflammatory Conditions of the Kidney 223

12.5 Inflammatory Conditions of the Ureters 228

13 Kidney and Ureter Neoplasm 237
Jane Hendry, Bhavan P. Rai, Alan S. McNeill, Ghulam Nabi, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Khaver Qureshi, Nkem Umez‐Eronini, Grenville Oades, and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

13.1 Kidney Neoplasms 238

13.2 Benign Renal Masses 258

13.3 Ureter and Renal Pelvis Neoplasms 261

14 Kidney and Ureter Calculi 277
Omar M. Aboumarzouk, Paul Cook, Olivier Traxer, Palle J.S. Osther, Luca Villa, Jonathan Cloutier, Helene Jung, Kim H. Andreassen, and Bhaskar K. Somani

14.1 Epidemiology 277

14.2 Pathophysiology 277

14.3 Formation of Calculi in the Kidney 278

14.4 Common Types of Urinary Stones 279

14.5 Clinical Features 281

14.6 Complications of Stones 281

14.7 Investigations 282

14.8 Investigations for Metabolic Stone Disease 288

14.9 Medical Management of Stones 289

14.10 Surgery for Stones 291

15 Kidney and Ureter Vascular Disorders 321
Abdullah Zreik and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

15.1 Congenital Anomalies of the Renal Vessels 321

15.2 Renal Artery Disorders 322

15.3 Disorders of the Renal Veins 328

16 The Adrenal Glands 331
Michael Stechman and David Scott Coombes

16.1 Principles of Endocrine Surgery 331

16.2 Anatomy 332

16.3 Physiology 333

16.4 Pathology 334

16.5 Pathology of the Adrenal Medulla 340

16.6 Congenital Disorders of the Adrenals 346

16.7 Trauma 346

16.8 Inflammation 346

Part III 349

17 Bladder and Urethra Structure and Function 351
Maike F. Eylert and Arjun K. Nambiar

17.1 Anatomy 351

17.2 Physiology 355

18 Bladder Congenital Anomalies 359
Katerina Prodromou and Pankaj Mishra

18.1 Embryology 359

18.2 Exstrophy‐ Epispadias Complex 359

18.3 Urachal Anomalies 368

18.4 Bladder Diverticula 370

18.5 Disorders of Development of the Sacrum 371

18.6 UTI in Children 371

19 Bladder Trauma 383
Abdullah Zreik, Ahmed Mahrous, and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

19.1 Bladder Injuries 383

20 Bladder Inflammation 391
Ameet Gupta, Anna Manwaring, and Krishna Narahari

20.1 Introduction and Definitions 391

20.2 Acute Cystitis or Lower UTI 392

20.3 Chronic Interstitial Cystitis and Bladder Pain Syndrome 400

20.4 Tuberculosis 400

20.5 Parasitic Infections 400

20.6 Amoebiasis 405

20.7 Worm Infestations 406

20.8 Catfish 406

21 Bladder Neoplasm 409
Kawa Omar, Nawal Shamim Khan, and Muhammad Shamim Khan

21.1 Bladder Neoplasm 410

21.2 Field Biopsies 417

21.3 Pathology 417

21.4 Malignant Tumours of the Bladder 417

21.5 Grading of Transitional Cell Carcinoma 422

21.6 Staging of Bladder Tumours 422

21.7 Risk Stratification after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumour 422

21.8 Treatment of Transitional Cell Carcinoma 422

21.9 Muscle‐ Invasive Bladder Cancer 427

21.10 Recurrence and Follow‐up of MIBC 435

21.11 Management of Locally Advanced MIBC (T3b/T4) and Metastatic Disease (N1 or M1) 435

21.12 Bladder Cancer Variants 437

22 Urinary Diversion 447
Kawa Omar, Nawal Shamim Khan, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Johannes Alfred Witjes, and Muhammad  Shamim Khan

22.1 Urinary Diversions 448

22.2 Bladder Urinary Diversion 449

22.3 Functional Follow‐Up 461

22.4 Quality of Life Urinary Diversion after Cystectomy 461

23 Bladder Disorder of Function 465
Arjun K. Nambiar, Maike F. Eylert, Lisette A ‘t Hoen, and Bertil F.M. Blok

23.1 Introduction 465

23.2 Investigating Bladder Function 468

23.3 Disorders of Function 476

23.4 Urethral Disorders 489

24 Fistulae and Sinuses 499
Jenny Jones and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

24.1 Principles and Definitions 499

24.2 Pathophysiology 499

24.3 General Complications 500

24.4 Organ‐Specific Fistulae 500

Part IV 509

25 Prostate Structure and Function 511
Adam Cox, Matthew Jefferies, and Raj Persad

25.1 Comparative Anatomy 511

25.2 Maturation of the Prostate 511

25.3 Anatomy of the Prostate 513

25.4 Prostate Physiology 517

26 Prostate Inflammation 523
Mark J. Salji, Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen, and Hing Y. Leung

26.1 Classification of Prostatitis 523

26.2 Investigations 525

26.3 Imaging 525

26.4 Serum Prostate Specific Antigen 526

26.5 Histology 526

26.6 Treatment Options 526

26.7 Upoint Phenotypic Classification of CP/CPPS 527

26.8 Surgical Options 527

26.9 Heat Therapies 527

26.10 Prostate Tuberculosis 528

26.11 Summary 528

27 Prostate Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 531
Daniel W. Good, Bashar Nahas, Simon Phipps, Rick Popert, Jens‐Uwe Stolzenburg, and Stuart Alan S. McNeill

27.1 Nomenclature 532

27.2 Aetiology 532

27.3 Pathology of BPH 534

27.4 Complications of BPH 535

27.5 Epidemiology and Natural History of BPH 538

27.6 Investigations 539

27.7 Management 541

27.8 Surgical Management 547

28 Prostate Neoplasm 563
Mark J. Salji, Imran Ahmad, Sarah Slater, Fat‐Wui Poon, Abdulla Alhasso, Nadja V. Melquiot, Holly Bekarma, Jane Hendry, and Hing Y. Leung

28.1 Epidemiology 563

28.2 Aetiology 564

28.3 Clinical Features 565

28.4 Prognosis 566

28.5 Investigations 566

28.6 Pathology, Histopathology, and Molecular Pathology 573

28.7 Management, Treatments, and Patient Selection 577

28.8 Androgen‐Deprivation Therapy 587

28.9 Castration‐Resistant Prostate Cancer 591

28.10 The Role of TURP for Voiding Symptoms Associated with PCa 593

28.11 Controversies, Cutting‐Edge Developments, and Hot Topics 594

Part V 611

29 Penis and Urethra Structure and Penis 613
Ayman Younis and Christopher Harding

29.1 Anatomy and Physiology 613

29.2 The Penis 613

29.3 The Scrotum 617

29.4 The Urethra 617

29.5 Erection 619

29.6 Function of the Scrotum 622

30 Penis and Urethra and Prostate Congenital Anomalies 623
Anand Upasani, Divyesh Desai, Imran Mushtaq, and Pankaj Mishra

30.1 Foreskin 623

30.2 Hypospadias 628

30.3 Primary Epispadias 632

30.4 Posterior Urethral Valves 635

30.5 Prostatic Utricle 639

30.6 Syringocele 639

30.7 Anterior Urethral Valves 640

30.8 Urethral Duplication 641

30.9 Urethral Anomalies in Anorectal Malformations 642

30.10 Interesting Terminologies 645

31 Penis and Urethra Trauma 651
Ayman Younis and Trevor J. Dorkin

31.1 Penis and Scrotum 651

31.2 Urethral Trauma 653

32 Penis and Urethra Inflammation 663
Nick Watkin and Asheesh Kaul

32.1 Urethral Inflammation 663

32.2 Penile Inflammation 664

32.3 Other Urethro‐Peno‐Scrotal Pathologies 666

32.4 Stricture Disease of the Urethra 668

32.5 Pelvic Fracture Urethral Injury 676

33 Penis and Urethra Neoplasm 687
Tom Swallow and Duncan Summerton

33.1 Penile Neoplasm 687

33.2 Lymph Node Disease 695

33.3 Urethral Neoplasm 699

34 Penis and Urethra Disorders of Function 705
Sarfraz Ahmad and Nick Watkin

34.1 Erectile Dysfunction 705

34.2 Premature Ejaculation 712

34.3 Retrograde Ejaculation 715

34.4 Anejaculation 715

34.5 Priapism 716

34.6 Peyronie Disease 719

34.7 Late Onset Hypogonadism 722

Part VI 729

35 Testes Structure and Function 731
Tusshyenthan Seevagan, Stephen Hulligan, Jaspal Phull, and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

35.1 Comparative Anatomy 731

35.2 Topographical Anatomy 732

35.3 Blood Supply and Lymphatic Drainage 733

35.4 Epididymis 734

35.5 Vas Deferens 735

35.6 Seminal Vesicle 736

35.7 Verumontanum 736

35.8 Spermatic Cord 736

35.9 Testicular Physiology 736

36 Testes Congenital and Childhood Anomalies 741
Eleni Papageorgiou, Abraham Cherian, and Pankaj Mishra

36.1 Congenital Anomalies of the Testis 741

36.2 Inguinoscrotal Masses 749

36.3 The Acute Scrotum 753

37 Testes Trauma and Inflammation 759
Senthy Sellaturay, Kamran Ahmed, Muhammad Shamim Khan, and Majed Shabbir

37.1 Testicular Trauma 760

37.2 Inflammatory Diseases of the Testicle 761

37.3 Chronic Inflammation 763

37.4 Treatment 764

38 Testes Benign Swelling 769
Jasper Bondad, Piotr L. Chlosta, and Omar M. Aboumarzouk

38.1 Hydrocele 769

38.2 Epididymal Cyst 773

38.3 Benign Testicular Cyst 774

38.4 Testicular Torsion 774

38.5 Polyorchidism 775

38.6 Varicocele 776

38.7 Orchialgia 778

38.8 Nux Amatoris 778

39 Testes Neoplasm 783
Michelle Carey, Omar M. Aboumarzouk, and Johannes Alfred Witjes

39.1 History 784

39.2 Incidence 784

39.3 Basic Embryology 784

39.4 Aetiology and Risk Factors 784

39.5 Clinical Features 785

39.6 Diagnosis 785

39.7 Staging 791

39.8 Method of Spread 791

39.9 Prognosis 793

39.10 Treatment 793

39.11 Nongerm Cell Tumours 797

39.12 Tumours Containing Both Germ Cell and Sex Cord or Gonadal Stromal Elements: Gonadoblastoma 798

39.13 Other Tumours of the Testis 798

39.14 Tumours of the Paratesticular Structures 798

40 Male Infertility 803
Amr Abdel Raheem, Rowland Rees, and David Ralph

40.1 Incidence 803

40.2 Definitions 803

40.3 History and Examination 804

40.4 Aetiology 804

40.5 Investigations for Male Infertility 807

40.6 Testis Biopsy 809

40.7 Treatment of Male Infertility 811

40.8 Assisted Conception Techniques 812

40.9 Varicocele Repair 812

40.10 Medical Treatment of Male Infertility 813

41 Vasectomy and Seminal Vesicle Disorders 817
Omar M. Aboumarzouk, Bryan Jenkins, and Piotr L. Chlosta

41.1 Seminal Vesicles 818

41.2 Vasectomy 820

Index 825