Chapter 1. The Study of Time Talk in Second Language Acquisition.
Early Studies of Verbal Morphology.
Investigating the Expression of Temporality.
Methods of Research and Analysis.
Overview of the Book.
Chapter 2. Meaning-Oriented Studies of Temporality.
Pragmatic Means for Expressing Temporality.
Lexical Means for Expressing Temporality.
Comprehension of Verbal Morphology.
Limitations of Lexical Expression.
Morphological Means for Expressing Temporality.
Multiple Means for Expressing Temporality.
Study 1: Adverbials and the Acquisition of Simple Past Morphology.
Study 2: adverbials and Morphology in Reverse-Order Reports.
Chapter 3. The Emergence of Verbal Morphology.
Tense-Aspect Morphology in European Languages.
Tense-Aspect Morphology Related to past in English.
The acquisition of Tense-Aspect Morphology.
Longitudinal Studies of the Acquisition of Tense-Aspect Morphology.
Cross-Sectional Studies of the Acquisition of Tense-aspect Morphology.
A Study of the Emergence to Tense-Aspect Morphology Related to Past in English.
Analysis and Results.
Comparing Meaning-Oriented and Form-Oriented.
Chapter 4. The Aspect Hypothesis.
The Aspect Hypothesis.
In Primary Language Acquisition.
In Secondary Language Acquisition.
Grammatical and lexical Aspect.
Investigations of the Aspect Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition.
The Spread of Perfective Past.
The Spread of Imperfective Past.
The Spread of Progressive.
Overgeneralization of Progressive in States.
Sample Study: the Distribution of Verbal Morphology in Learner Narratives.
Assessing the Influence of Lexical Aspect Challenges to the Aspect Hypothesis.
Chapter 5. The Role of Discourse.
The Interlanguage Discourse Hypothesis.
Studies of L2 Temporality and Narrative Structure.
A Cross-Sectional Study of Tense-Aspect in L2 Narratives.
Comparing Theoretical Frameworks.
Empirical Evidence in Support of the Discourse and Aspect Hypotheses.
Integrating the Analysis.
Other Discourse Contexts.
Realis and Irrealis: The Imaginary in Narrative.
Personal and Impersonal Narrative: The Case of “Personalized” Narratives.
Conversational and Elicited Narratives.
Chapter 6. The Influence of Instruction.
Experimental Studies of the Effect of Instruction.
An Observational Study of the Effect of instruction.
The Effect of instruction.
A Comparison of instructed and Uninstructed Learners.
Chapter 7. Past, Present, and Future.
The Influence of instruction.