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Electric Distribution Systems, 2nd Edition

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Electric Distribution Systems, 2nd Edition

Abdelhay A. Sallam, Om P. Malik

ISBN: 978-1-119-50932-5 October 2018 Wiley-IEEE Press 624 Pages

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Description

A comprehensive review of the theory and practice for designing, operating, and optimizing electric distribution systems, revised and updated

Now in its second edition, Electric Distribution Systems has been revised and updated and continues to provide a two-tiered approach for designing, installing, and managing effective and efficient electric distribution systems. With an emphasis on both the practical and theoretical approaches, the text is a guide to the underlying theory and concepts and provides a resource for applying that knowledge to problem solving. The authors—noted experts in the field—explain the analytical tools and techniques essential for designing and operating electric distribution systems. In addition, the authors reinforce the theories and practical information presented with real-world examples as well as hundreds of clear illustrations and photos.

This essential resource contains the information needed to design electric distribution systems that meet the requirements of specific loads, cities, and zones. The authors also show how to recognize and quickly respond to problems that may occur during system operations, as well as revealing how to improve the performance of electric distribution systems with effective system automation and monitoring. This updated edition:

•    Contains new information about recent developments in the field particularly in regard to renewable energy generation

•    Clarifies the perspective of various aspects relating to protection schemes and accompanying equipment

•    Includes illustrative descriptions of a variety of distributed energy sources and their integration with distribution systems

•    Explains the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, various types of energy storage systems and the role they play to improve power quality, stability, and reliability

Written for engineers in electric utilities, regulators, and consultants working with electric distribution systems planning and projects, the second edition of Electric Distribution Systems offers an updated text to both the theoretical underpinnings and practical applications of electrical distribution systems.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Part I Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 1 Introduction 3

1.1 Introduction and Background 3

1.2 Power System Structure 3

1.3 Distribution Level 5

1.4 General 7

Chapter 2 Distribution System Structure 9

2.1 Distribution Voltage Levels 9

2.2 Distribution System Configuration 9

2.3 General Comments 22

Chapter 3 Distribution System Planning 23

3.1 Duties of Distribution System Planners 23

3.2 Factors Affecting the Planning Process 25

3.3 Planning Objectives 31

3.4 Solutions for Meeting Load Forecasts 37

Chapter 4 Load Forecasting 41

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Important Factors for Forecasts 42

4.3 Forecasting Methodology 43

4.4 Spatial Load Forecasting (SLF) 56

4.5 End-Use Modeling 64

4.6 Spatial Load Forecast Methods 65

Part II Protection  And Switchgear

Chapter 5 Earthing Of Electric Distribution Systems 75

5.1 Basic Objectives 75

5.2 Earthing Electrical Equipment 76

5.3 System Earthing 93

5.4 MV Earthing Systems 99

5.5 Earthing Systems in LV Distribution Networks 104

Chapter 6 Short-Circuit Studies 111

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Short-Circuit Analysis 113

Chapter 7 Protection: Current-Based Schemes 163

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Types of Relay Construction 166

7.3 Overcurrent Protection 171

7.4 Directional Protection 187

7.5 Differential Protection 193

Chapter 8 Protection: Other Schemes 207

8.1 Overvoltage Protection 207

8.2 Thermal Protection 220

8.3 Reclosers, Sectionalizers, Fuses 223

Chapter 9 Switchgear Devices 235

9.1 Need for Switchgear 235

9.2 MV Switchgear Devices 237

9.3 LV Switchgear Devices 244

9.4 Protection Classes 250

9.5 Specifications and Implementation of Earthing 251

9.6 Assessment of Switchgear 253

9.7 Safety and Security of Installations 255

9.8 Application Trends in MV Switchgear 256

Chapter 10 Switchgear Installation 261

10.1 Steps for Installing Switchgear 261

10.2 Switchgear Layout 262

10.3 Dimensioning of Switchgear Installations 264

10.4 Civil Construction Requirements 275

10.5 ARC-Flash Hazards 282

Part III Power Quality

Chapter 11 Electric Power Quality 297

11.1 Overview 297

11.2 Power Quality Problems 298

11.3 Cost of Power Quality 304

11.4 Solutions of Power Quality Problems 310

11.5 Solution Cycle for Power Quality Problems 317

Chapter 12 Voltage Variations 321

12.1 Voltage Quality 321

12.2 Methods of Voltage Drop Reduction 329

12.3 Voltage Sag Calculations 345

12.4 Estimation of Distribution Losses 356

Chapter 13 Power Factor Improvement 361

13.1 Background 361

13.2 Shunt Compensation 365

13.3 Need for Shunt Compensation 366

13.4 An Example 368

13.5 How to Determine Compensation 370

Chapter 14 Harmonics in Electric Distribution Systems 379

14.1 What Are Harmonics? 379

14.2 Sources of Harmonics 384

14.3 Disturbances Caused by Harmonics 391

14.4 Principles of Harmonic Distortion Indications and Measurement 396

14.5 Frequency Spectrum and Harmonic Content 398

14.6 Standards and Recommendations 400

Chapter 15 Harmonics Effect Mitigation 403

15.1 Introduction 403

15.2 First Class of Solutions 403

15.3 Second Class of Solutions 404

15.4 Third Class of Solutions 406

15.5 Selection Criteria 409

15.6 Case Studies 409

Part IV Management And Automation

Chapter 16 Demand-Side Management And Energy Efficiency 431

16.1 Overview 431

16.2 DSM 432

16.3 Needs to Apply DSM 433

16.4 Means of DSM Programs 434

16.5 International Experience with DSM 437

16.6 Potential for DSM Application 438

16.7 The DSM Planning Process 439

16.8 Expected Benefits of Managing Demand 444

16.9 Energy Efficiency 444

16.10 Scenarios Used for Energy-Efficiency Application 445

16.11 Economic Benefits of Energy Efficiency 445

16.12 Application of Efficient Technology 445

Chapter 17 SCADA Systems 465

17.1 Introduction 465

17.2 Definitions 469

17.3 SCADA Components 470

17.4 SCADA Systems Architectures 473

17.5 SCADA Applications 480

17.6 SCADA and Grid Modernization 484

Part V Distributed Energy Resources And Microgrids

Chapter 18 Distributed Generation  489

18.1 Power Systems and Distributed Generation 489

18.2 Performance of Distributed Generators 493

18.3 Case Study 518

Chapter 19 Electrical Energy Storage 535

19.1 Introduction 535

19.2 Electrical Energy Storage 535

19.3 Role of Electrical Energy Storage 538

19.4 Types of EES Systems 540

19.5 Energy Storage Application 550

Chapter 20 Microgrids And Smart Grids 553

20.1 Background 553

20.2 MG Benefits 555

20.3 MG Operation 556

20.4 Challenges 556

20.5 Handling the Challenges 557

20.6 Control Methodology 558

20.7 Case Study 560

20.8 Protection for MGs 570

20.9 Concluding Remarks on MGs 572

20.10 Smart Grids 572

Appendix A Data Of Microgrid Components 581

Appendix B Matlab Simulink Models 583

References 589

Index 601