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Liquid Biofuel Production

Lalit Kumar Singh (Editor), Gaurav Chaudhary (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-45983-5 May 2019 408 Pages

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Description

Biofuels production is one of the most extensively studied fields in the energy sector that can provide an alternative energy source and bring the energy industry closer to sustainability. Biomass-based fuel production, or renewable fuels, are becoming increasingly important as a potential solution for man-made climate change, depleted oil reserves, and the dangers involved with hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking"). The price of oil will always be volatile and changeable, and, so long as industry and private citizens around the world need energy, there will be a need for alternative energy sources. The area known as "biofuels and biofeedstocks" is one of the most important and quickly growing pieces of the "energy pie."

Biofuels and biofeedstocks are constantly changing, and new processes are constantly being created, changed, and improved upon. The area is rapidly changing and always innovative.  It is important, therefore, that books like the volumes in this series are published and the information widely disseminated to keep the industry informed of the state-of-the-art.

This third volume in the Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels series focuses on the production of liquid biofuel, covering all of the major biofuels, such as biodiesel, biobutanol, bioethanol, and others.  This engaging text touches on all of the most important new processes and technologies, providing the most up-to-date coverage of the science available to industry. It is a must-have for any engineer or scientist working with biofuel technology.

1 Process Engineering Biofuel Production 1
Opubo Gbanaye Benebo

1.1 Biofuel Production Background 1

1.1.1 General Limitations 2

1.1.2 Limitation of Cashcrop Raw Material 4

1.1.3 Limitations of Algae Raw Materials Remediation 5

1.1.4 Limitations Remediation 5

1.2 Process Engineering Liquid Biofuel Production 8

1.2.1 Algae Cultivation Assessment 8

1.2.2 Algal Cultivation Inefficiencies Remediation 11

1.2.3 Technology Development 12

1.2.4 Lessons from the Algae Biofuel Industry Collapse 13

1.2.5 Process Development Norms 14

1.2.6 Research Team 15

1.2.7 Alga Cultivation General Issues 16

1.2.8 Biofuel Process Technology 17

1.3 Algal Cultivation Process Technology 18

1.3.1 Cellular Reaction Kinetics Analysis 19

1.3.2 Cultivation Bench-Scale Model Design 20

1.3.3 Cultivation Bioreactor 21

1.3.4 Concentrator Harvesting of Cells 21

1.3.5 Cell Rupture Technology 21

1.3.6 BioFeedstock Separation Process 22

1.3.7 Bench-Scale Cultivation Process Technology 23

1.3.8 Process Technology Financial Viability Design 23

1.3.9 Process Technology Sustainability Engineering 24

1.3.10 Process Technology Optimization Engineering 25

1.3.11 Base Cultivation Process Technology 26

1.4 Algal Biomass Biorefinery Process Engineering 26

1.4.1 Resourcing Algal Biomass 27

1.4.2 Microbes Nutrients-Feed Production 28

1.4.3 Fermentation Process Technology 28

1.4.4 Biodiesel Process Technology 29

1.4.5 Biorefinery Process Technology 29

1.4.6 Engineering Cost Impact Analysis 30

Acknowledgment 32

About the Author 33

References 34

2 A Renewable Source of Hydrocarbons and High Value Co-Products from Algal Biomass 35
Abhishek Walia, Samriti Sharma and Saruchi

2.1 Introduction 36

2.2 Algal Biomass Production 38

2.2.1 Growth Conditions 38

2.2.1.1 Temperature 38

2.2.1.2 Light Intensity 38

2.2.1.3 pH 39

2.2.1.4 Aeration and Mixing 39

2.2.1.5 Salinity 39

2.2.2 Photoautotrophic Production 40

2.2.2.1 Open Pond Production Pathway 40

2.2.2.2 Closed Photobioreactor Systems 40

2.2.3 Harvesting and Dewatering of Algal Biomass 42

2.2.3.1 Flocculation 42

2.2.3.2 Chemical Flocculation 42

2.2.3.3 Electroflocculation 42

2.2.3.4 Biofloculation 43

2.2.3.5 Magnetic Separation of Algae 43

2.2.3.6 Dissolved Air Flotation 43

2.2.3.7 Filtration 43

2.2.3.8 Centrifugation 43

2.2.3.9 Attachment/Biofilm-Based Systems 44

2.3 Developments in Algal Cultivation for Fuel By Using Different Production System 44

2.3.1 Stirred Tank Photobioreactor 45

2.3.2 Vertical Tubular Photobioreactors 45

2.3.2.1 Bubble Column 45

2.3.2.2 Airlift Reactors 46

2.3.3 Horizontal Tubular Photobioreactors 46

2.3.4 Flat Panel Photobioreactor 47

2.4 Algal Biofuels – Feedstock of the Future 48

2.4.1 Biohydrogen 49

2.4.2 Biobutanol 49

2.4.3 Jet Fuel 50

2.4.4 Biogas 50

2.4.5 Bioethanol 51

2.5 Biofuel Pathways 51

2.5.1 Thermo-Chemical Conversion 52

2.5.2 Biochemical Conversion 52

2.5.3 Alcoholic Fermentation 53

2.5.4 Biophotolysis 53

2.6 High Value Co-Products from Algal Biomass 53

2.6.1 Algae in Human Nutrition 54

2.6.2 Algae in Animal and Aquaculture Feed 54

2.6.3 Algae as Fertilizer 55

2.6.4 Algae as Recombinant Protein 56

2.6.5 Algae as Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) 56

2.7 Microalgae in Wastewater Treatment 57

2.8 Economics of Algae Cultivation 58

2.9 Problems and Potential of Alga-Culture 61

2.10 Conclusion 63

References 64

3 Waste Biomass Utilization for Liquid Fuels: Challenges & Solution 73
Sourish Bhattacharya, Surajbhan Sevda, Pooja Bachani, Vamsi Bharadwaj and Sandhya Mishra

3.1 Introduction 74

3.2 Waste Biomass and its Types 75

3.3 Major Waste Biomass Conversion Routes 76

3.4 Metabolic Engineering in Yeast for Accumulation of C5

Sugars along with C6 Sugars 77

3.5 Genetic Engineering for Improved Xylose Fermentation by Yeasts 77

3.6 Biofuel from Microalgae through Mixotrophic Approach Utilizing Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate 80

3.7 Conclusion 82

References 83

4 Biofuel Production from Lignocellulosic Feedstock via Thermochemical Routes 89
Long T. Duong, Phuet Prasertcharoensuk and Anh N. Phan

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Fast Pyrolysis 92

4.2.1 Principles 92

4.2.2 Reactors 92

4.2.2.1 Bubbling Fluid Bed 94

4.2.2.2 Circulating Fluid Bed 94

4.2.2.3 Rotating Cone 100

4.2.2.4 Ablative Pyrolysis 100

4.2.2.5 Screw Reactor 101

4.2.2.6 Other Reaction Systems 102

4.2.3 Bio-Oil Composition and Properties 103

4.2.4 Factors Affecting on Biomass Pyrolysis 105

4.2.4.1 Feedstock 105

4.2.4.2 Biomass Pre-Treatment 105

4.2.4.3 Temperature and Carrier Gas Flow Rate 110

4.3 Bio-Oil Upgrading 111

4.3.1 Hydrodeoxygenation 111

4.3.2 Catalytic Cracking 114

4.3.3 Fast Hydropyrolysis 116

4.3.4 Cold Plasma 117

4.4 Gasification 126

4.4.1 Types of Gasifier 130

4.4.1.1 Fixed Bed Gasifier 130

4.4.1.2 Fluidized Bed Gasifier 135

4.4.1.3 Entrained Flow Gasifier 137

4.4.2 Influence of Operating Parameters on Gasification Process 138

4.4.2.1 Equivalence Ratio 138

4.4.2.2 Steam to Biomass Ratio 138

4.4.2.3 Gasifying Agents 139

4.4.2.4 Gasification Temperature 139

4.5 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis 140

4.5.1 Fischer-Tropsch Reactors 140

4.5.1.1 Multi-Tubular Fixed Bed 141

4.5.1.2 Slurry Bubble Column 141

4.5.1.3 Fluidized Bed 143

4.5.2 Catalysts 143

4.5.3 Influence of Operating Parameters on Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis 145

4.6 Summary 147

References 148

5 Exploring the Potential of Carbohydrate Rich Algal Biomass as Feedstock for Bioethanol Production 167
Jaskiran Kaur and Yogalakshmi K.N.

5.1 Introduction 168

5.2 Microalgae and Macroalgae as Bioethanol Feedstock 169

5.3 Process Involved for Production of Bioethanol from Algae 176

5.4 Algal Biomass Cultivation 177

5.4.1 Open Pond Systems 177

5.4.2 Closed Photobioreactors (PBR) 179

5.5 Pretreatment of Algal Biomass 180

5.5.1 Physical Pretreatment 181

5.5.2 Chemical Pretreatment 182

5.5.3 Biological Pretreatment 183

5.6 Fermentation of Algal Hydrolysate 183

5.7 Distillation 184

5.8 Manipulation of Algal Biomass 185

5.9 Pros and Cons of Bioethanol Production from Algae 186

5.10 Conclusions 187

References 187

6 Development of Acid-Base-Enzyme Pretreatment and Hydrolysis of Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Bioethanol Production 197
Nibedita Deb, Md. Zahangir Alam, Maan Fahmi Rashid Al-khatib and Amal Elgharbawy

6.1 Introduction 198

6.2 Biomass Energy 200

6.3 Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) 201

6.4 Pome Characterization 203

6.5 Pretreatment 203

6.5.1 Physical and Physicochemical Pretreatment 204

6.5.2 Chemical Pretreatment 205

6.5.3 Biological Pretreatment 206

6.6 Hydrolysis 206

6.6.1 Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis 206

6.6.2 Dilute Acid Hydrolysis 207

6.6.3 Base Hydrolysis 207

6.6.4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis 208

6.6.5 Cellulase Enzymes Hydrolysis 208

6.7 Fermentation Process 209

6.8 Bioethanol 210

6.8.1 Lignocellulosic Bioethanol 211

6.8.2 Bioethanol Production by Fermentation of Sugars 212

6.8.3 Bioethanol Determined by GC/MS from POME Hydrolysate 213

6.9 Conclusion 214

6.10 Acknowledgment 214

References 214

7 Technological Barriers in Biobutanol Production 219
Arpita Prasad, Shivani Thakur, Swati Sharma, Shivani Saxena and Vijay Kumar Garlapati

7.1 Introduction 219

7.2 Production Technologies of Biobutanol 220

7.3 Lignocellulosic Materials for Bio-Butanol Production 223

7.4 Natural Producers of Biobutanol 225

7.5 Main Obstacles in the Biobutanol Production 227

7.5.1 Approaches to Overcome the Obstacles 227

7.6 Engineered Pathways towards a Better Solventogenic Producer 227

7.6.1 Engineered Pathways in Bacteria 227

7.6.2 Engineered Pathways in Yeast 229

7.7 In-Situ Butanol Recovery Integrated with Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation 231

7.8 Future Prospects 232

7.9 Conclusions 233

References 233

8 Biobutanol: Research Breakthrough for its Commercial Interest 237
Sandip B. Bankar, Pranhita R. Nimbalkar, Manisha A. Khedkar and Prakash V. Chavan

8.1 Introduction 238

8.2 Butanol: Next-Generation Liquid Fuel 239

8.3 Routes of Butanol Production 241

8.3.1 Chemical Route 241

8.3.2 Biological Route 242

8.4 Microbial ABE Production 243

8.4.1 Microbial Strains 244

8.4.2 Biosynthetic Pathways of Clostridia 245

8.5 Feedstocks Used in ABE Fermentation Process 247

8.6 Saccharification and Detoxification Processes 248

8.7 Strain Engineering and Developments in Butanol Production 250

8.8 Bioreactor Operations 253

8.9 Butanol Separation Techniques 255

8.9.1 Extraction 256

8.9.2 Gas Stripping 259

8.9.3 Pervaporation 260

8.9.4 Perstraction 262

8.9.5 Adsorption 263

8.9.6 Hybrid Separation Process 265

8.10 Techno-Economic Assessment 266

8.11 Current Status and Future Prospective 268

References 270

9 Potential and Prospects of Biobutanol Production from Agricultural Residues 285
Shuvashish Behera, Koushalya S, Sachin Kumar and Jafar Ali B M

9.1 Introduction 286

9.2 Agricultural Residues 287

9.2.1 Husk 288

9.2.2 Straw 289

9.2.2.1 Wheat Straw 289

9.2.2.2 Rice Straw 290

9.2.2.3 Barley Straw 291

9.2.3 Bagasse 291

9.3 ABE Fermentation 292

9.3.1 Butanolgenic Microorganisms 292

9.3.2 Fermentation 295

9.3.3 ABE Pathway 303

9.3.3.1 Acid Producing Phase 304

9.3.3.2 Solvent Producing Phase 304

9.4 Challenges 305

9.4.1 Strict Anaerobic Nature 306

9.4.2 Tolerance to Solvent 307

9.4.3 Sensitivity of Acids 308

9.4.4 Shifting of pH 309

9.5 Future Prospects and Conclusions 309

Acknowledgments 310

References 310

10 State of Art Strategies for Biodiesel Production: Bioengineering Approaches 319
Irem Deniz, Bahar Aslanbay and Esra Imamoglu

10.1 Introduction 319

10.2 Biodiesel and Microalgal Biorefineries 320

10.2.1 Microalgae 321

10.2.2 Microalgae and Biodiesel 321

10.2.3 Selection of Microalgal Strain for Biodiesel Production 323

10.2.4 Microalgae Cultivation 327

10.2.5 Harvesting and Lipid Extraction 329

10.2.6 Conversion of Microalgal Oil to Biodiesel 331

10.3 Metabolic Engineering Approaches for Biodiesel Production 332

10.4 Novel Photobioreactor Designs for Biodiesel Production 337

10.5 Advanced Photobioreactor Configurations and Kinetics 338

10.6 Conclusions 340

References 340

11 Bio-Oil Production from Algal Feedstock 351
Naveen Dwivedi and Shubha Dwivedi

11.1 Introduction 351

11.1.1 Microalgae 353

11.1.2 Classification of Microalgae 353

11.1.3 Algae Growth 355

11.2 Technologies Used for the Production of Bio-Oil from Algal Biomass 356

11.3 Properties of Bio-Oils 362

11.4 Uses of Bio-Oils 362

11.5 Up-Gradation of Bio-Oil to Biodiesel along with Recent

Developments 363

11.5.1 Esterification/Alcoholysis 363

11.5.2 Solvent Addition 365

11.5.3 Emulsification 365

11.5.4 Hydrotreating/Hydro Deoxygenation 366

11.5.5 Hydro-Cracking 366

11.5.6 Zeolite Cracking 367

11.6 Conclusion 367

References 368

12 Effect of Upgrading Techniques on Fuel Properties and Composition of Bio-Oil 373
Krushna Prasad Shadangi and Kaustubha Mohanty

12.1 Introduction 374

12.2 Bio-Oil and its Properties 375

12.3 Upgrading of Bio-Oil 376

12.3.1 Catalytic Pyrolysis 376

12.3.2 In-Situ versus Ex-Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis Process 377

12.3.3 Hydrodeoxygenation 378

12.3.4 Hydrogenation 378

12.3.5 Steam Reforming 379

12.3.6 Emulsification 379

12.3.7 Esterification 380

12.4 Conclusion 381

References 382

Index 387