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A History of Modern Psychology, 5th Edition

C. James Goodwin

ISBN: 978-1-119-02593-1 January 2015 512 Pages

Description

The enhanced 5th Edition of Goodwin's series, A History of Modern Psychology, explores the modern history of psychology including the fundamental bases of psychology and psychology's advancements in the 20th century.

Goodwin's 5th Edition focuses on the reduction of biographical information with an emphasis on more substantial information including ideas and concepts and on ideas/research contributions.

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Preface ix

Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology’s History 1

Why Take This Course? 2

Why Study History? 2

Why Study Psychology’s History? 4

Key Issues in Psychology’s History 6

Presentism versus Historicism 7

Internal versus External History 9

Personalistic versus Naturalistic History 10

Close-Up: Edwin G. Boring (1886–1968) 10

This Book’s Point of View 13

Historiography: Doing and Writing History 13

Sources of Historical Data 14

From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets His Academic Grandfather 16

Problems with the Writing of History 17

Approaching Historical Truth 20

Summary 21

Study Questions 22

Chapter 2 The Philosophical Context 24

A Long Past 25

René Descartes (1596–1650): The Beginnings of Modern Philosophy and Science 25

Descartes and the Rationalist Argument 27

The British Empiricist Argument and the Associationists 32

John Locke (1632–1704): The Origins of British Empiricism 32

George Berkeley (1685–1753): Empiricism Applied to Vision 35

British Associationism 37

Close-Up: Raising a Philosopher 41

John Stuart Mill (1806–1873): On the Verge of Psychological Science 42

Rationalist Responses to Empiricism 45

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) 45

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) 46

In Perspective: Philosophical Foundations 47

Summary 48

Study Questions 49

Chapter 3 The Scientific Context 50

Heroic Science in the Age of Enlightenment 51

Functioning of the Nervous System 52

Reflex Action 53

The Bell–Magendie Law 54

The Specific Energies of Nerves 56

Helmholtz: The Physiologist’s Physiologist 57

Localization of Brain Function 62

The Phrenology of Gall and Spurzheim 62

Close-Up: The Marketing of Phrenology 65

Flourens and the Method of Ablation 68

The Clinical Method 69

Mapping the Brain: Electrical Stimulation 73

Nervous System Structure 74

Neuron Theory 74

Sir Charles Sherrington: The Synapse 76

From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Sherrington in Oxford 77

In Perspective: The Nervous System and Behavior 78

Summary 78

Study Questions 79

Chapter 4 Wundt and German Psychology 81

An Education in Germany 82

On the Threshold of Experimental Psychology: Psychophysics 83

Johann Herbart (1776–1841) 84

Ernst Weber (1795–1878) 85

Gustav Fechner (1801–1889) 86

Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics 87

Wundt Establishes a New Psychology at Leipzig 88

Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920): Creating a New Science 88

Wundt’s Conception of the New Psychology 90

Inside Wundt’s Laboratory 92

Close-Up: An American in Leipzig 95

Rewriting History: The New and Improved Wilhelm Wundt 96

The Wundtian Legacy 98

The New Psychology Spreads 99

Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909): The Experimental Study of Memory 99

G. E. Müller (1850–1934): The Experimentalist Prototype 103

Oswald Külpe (1862–1915): The Würzburg School 104

In Perspective: A New Science 107

Summary 107

Study Questions 108

 Chapter 5 Darwin’s Century: Evolutionary Thinking 110

The Species Problem 111

Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and the Theory of Evolution 112

The Shaping of a Naturalist 112

The Voyage of the Beagle 114

The Evolution of Darwin’s Theory 116

Darwin and Psychology’s History 122

The Origins of Comparative Psychology 123

Darwin on the Evolution of Emotional Expressions 123

Close-Up: Douglas Spalding and the Experimental Study of Instinct 125

George Romanes (1848–1894) and the Anecdotal Method 126

Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852–1936) and his “Canon” 128

Comparative Psychology in America 130

Studying Individual Differences 130

Francis Galton (1822–1911): Jack of All Sciences 130

In Perspective: Darwin’s Century 136

Summary 136

Study Questions 137

Chapter 6 American Pioneers 139

Psychology in 19th-Century America 140

Faculty Psychology 140

The Modern University 141

William James (1842–1910): The First of the “New” Psychologists in America 146

The Formative Years 147

A Life at Harvard 147

Creating American Psychology’s Most Famous Textbook 149

James’s Later Years 153

Summing Up William James 154

G. Stanley Hall (1844–1924): Professionalizing the New Psychology 154

Hall’s Early Life and Education 155

From Johns Hopkins to Clark 156

Psychology at Clark 157

Close-Up: Creating Maze Learning 158

From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Invention of the Stylus Maze 163

Mary Whiton Calkins (1863–1930): Challenging the Male Monopoly 164

Calkins’s Life and Work 164

Other Women Pioneers: Untold Lives 167

Other Pioneers: Ladd and Baldwin 169

George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921) 169

James Mark Baldwin (1861–1934) 170

In Perspective: The New Psychology at the Millennium 171

Summary 172

Study Questions 173

Chapter 7 Structuralism and Functionalism 175

Titchener’s Psychology: Structuralism 176

From Oxford to Leipzig to Cornell 176

Promoting Experimental Psychology at Cornell 177

Titchener’s Structuralist System 182

Close-Up: The Introspective Habit 183

Evaluating Titchener’s Contributions to Psychology 185

From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Carlisle Conference 186

America’s Psychology: Functionalism 187

The Chicago Functionalists 189

The Columbia Functionalists 194

In Perspective: Structuralism and Functionalism 204

Summary 205

Study Questions 206

Chapter 8 Applying the New Psychology 208

The Desire for Application 209

From the Miles Papers: Miles and Stanford Football 210

The Mental Testing Movement 212

Alfred Binet (1857–1911): The Birth of Modern Intelligence Testing 212

Henry H. Goddard (1866–1957): Binet’s Test Comes to America 215

Lewis M. Terman (1877–1956): Institutionalizing IQ 221

Close-Up: Leta Hollingworth: Advocating for Gifted Children and Debunking Myths about Women 224

Robert M. Yerkes (1876–1956): The Army Testing Program 226

The Controversy over Intelligence 230

Applying Psychology to Business 232

Hugo Münsterberg (1863–1916): The Diversity of Applied Psychology 233

Other Leading Industrial Psychologists in America 237

Applied Psychology in Europe—Psychotechnics 240

In Perspective: Applied Psychology 241

Summary 242

Study Questions 243

Chapter 9 Gestalt Psychology 244

The Origins and Early Development of Gestalt Psychology 245

Max Wertheimer (1880–1943): Founding Gestalt Psychology 247

Koffka (1886–1941) and Köhler (1887–1967): Cofounders 249

Close-Up: A Case of Espionage? 251

Gestalt Psychology and Perception 252

Principles of Perceptual Organization 253

Behavioral versus Geographic Environments 255

The Gestalt Approach to Cognition and Learning 255

Köhler on Insight in Apes 256

Wertheimer on Productive Thinking 257

Other Gestalt Research on Cognition 258

Kurt Lewin (1890–1947): Expanding the Gestalt Vision 260

Early Life and Career 260

From the Miles Papers: Miles Learns about the Nazi Version of Academic Freedom 261

Field Theory 262

The Zeigarnik Effect 264

Lewin as Developmental Psychologist 264

Lewin as Social Psychologist 266

Evaluating Lewin 268

In Perspective: Gestalt Psychology in America 268

Summary 269

Study Questions 271

Chapter 10 The Origins of Behaviorism 272

Behaviorism’s Antecedents 273

Pavlov’s Life and Work 274

The Development of a Physiologist 275

Working in Pavlov’s Laboratory—The Physiology Factory 275

Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Research 277

Pavlov and the Soviets 280

Pavlov and the Americans 282

Close-Up: Misportraying Pavlov’s Apparatus 283

From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets Pavlov 284

John B. Watson and the Founding of Behaviorism 285

The Young Functionalist at Chicago 285

Opportunity Knocks at Johns Hopkins 288

A New Life in Advertising 295

Popularizing Behaviorism 296

Evaluating Watsonian Behaviorism 297

In Perspective: Behaviorism’s Origins 299

Summary 299

Study Questions 300

Chapter 11 The Evolution of Behaviorism 302

Post-Watsonian Behaviorism 303

Logical Positivism and Operationism 304

Neobehaviorism 306

Edwin R. Guthrie (1886–1959): Contiguity, Contiguity, Contiguity 307

One-Trial Learning 308

Evaluating Guthrie 309

Edward C. Tolman (1886–1959): A Purposive Behaviorism 310

Tolman’s System 311

From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Old Boys Network 314

Tolman’s Research Program 314

Evaluating Tolman 317

Clark Hull (1884–1952): A Hypothetico-Deductive System 319

Hull’s System 321

Evaluating Hull 323

B. F. Skinner (1904–1990): A Radical Behaviorism 325

The Experimental Analysis of Behavior 326

Skinner and Theory 329

A Technology of Behavior 331

Close-Up: The IQ Zoo and the “Misbehavior of Organisms” 332

Evaluating Skinner 334

In Perspective: Neobehaviorism 335

Summary 336

Study Questions 337

Chapter 12 Mental Illness and its Treatment 339

Early Treatment of the Mentally Ill 340

“Enlightened” Reform: Pinel, Tuke, Rush 340

The 19th-Century Asylum Movement 342

Reforming Asylums: Dix and Beers 345

Close-Up: Diagnosing Mental Illness 346

Mesmerism and Hypnosis 347

Mesmerism and Animal Magnetism 348

From Mesmerism to Hypnosis 349

The Hypnotism Controversies 350

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): Founding Psychoanalysis 352

Early Life and Education 352

Creating Psychoanalysis 356

The Evolution of Psychoanalytic Theory 358

Freud’s Followers: Loyalty and Dissent 360

Psychoanalysis in America 361

Evaluating Freud 362

In Perspective: Treating Mental Illness 364

Summary 364

Study Questions 366

Chapter 13 Psychology’s Practitioners 367

The Medical Approach to Mental Illness 368

A Shock to the System: Fever, Insulin, Metrazol, and Electricity 369

Close-Up: Shell Shock 370

No Reversal: Lobotomy, Transorbital and Otherwise 371

Clinical Psychology before World War II 373

Lightner Witmer (1867–1956): Creating Psychology’s First Clinic 374

Clinical Psychology Between the World Wars 376

The Emergence of Modern Clinical Psychology 377

The Boulder Model 378

The Eysenck Study: Problems for Psychotherapy 379

Behavior Therapy 380

The Humanistic Approach to Psychotherapy 381

The Vail Conference and the PsyD Degree 385

Psychology and the World of Business and Industry 387

The Hawthorne Studies 389

In Perspective: Psychology’s Practitioners 391

Summary 392

Study Questions 393

Chapter 14 Psychology’s Researchers 395

Cognitive Psychology Arrives (Again) 396

The Roots of Modern Cognitive Psychology 396

Jean Piaget (1896–1980): A Genetic Epistemology 396

Frederick C. Bartlett (1886–1969): Constructing Memory 398

A Convergence of Influences 400

Close-Up: What Revolution? 403

Magical Numbers, Selective Filters, and TOTE Units 404

Neisser and the “Naming” of Cognitive Psychology 407

The Evolution of Cognitive Psychology 408

Evaluating Cognitive Psychology 410

Other Research Areas 410

The Brain and Behavior 411

From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Lashley 413

The Psychology of Perception 415

Social Psychology 418

Personality Psychology 423

In Perspective: Psychology’s Researchers 426

Summary 427

Study Questions 428

Chapter 15 Psychology in the 21st Century 429

Researchers and Practitioners 429

The Growth and Diversity of Psychology 430

Women in Psychology’s History 431

Minorities in Psychology’s History 432

Trends in Modern Psychology 433

The Future: Psychology or Psychologies? 434

Summary 436

Study Questions 437

References 439

Glossary 469

Index 481

Timelines 495

  • In order to keep up with scholarship in the history of psychology, there is a net increase of 50 references in this new edition.

  • Biographical information has been reduced and replaced with more information on psychology’s important concepts, research, and theories.

  • A new type of boxed insert, From the Miles Papers, appears in 9 of the 15 chapters. These involve excerpts taken from documents in the Walter Miles papers, included to add depth to chapter topics, and to give students some insight into the kind of material likely to be found in archival collections.

  • Each chapter concludes with a detailed Summary of the chapter’s contents and a brief annotated list of articles and/or books in For Further Reading.

  • Key Date sections identify years that corresponds to especially important events in psychology’s history.

  • To further enable students to make links between psychology and the rest of the world, timelines are included within the front and back inside covers of the text.

  • An online Student Study Guide includes a guided concept review and several different forms of sample test material, with feedback.