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Fundamentals of Paramedic Practice: A Systems Approach, 2nd Edition

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Fundamentals of Paramedic Practice: A Systems Approach, 2nd Edition

Sam Willis (Editor), Roger Dalrymple (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-46295-8 October 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 464 Pages

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CAD $60.00
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Description

Driven by changes to clinical practice, new evidence-based research, and shifts in global economics and politics, the field of paramedic science is rapidly evolving. This new edition of Fundamentals of Paramedic Practice offers students and recently qualified practitioners an accessible and comprehensive introduction to paramedic science and pre-hospital care, providing expert and up-to-date guidance on the essential theories and real-world practice of this dynamic area of emergency medicine.

List of contributors xiv

Preface xvi

Acknowledgements xvii

About the companion website xviii

Chapter 1 Professionalism in paramedic practice 1
Netta Lloyd‐Jones

Introduction 2

Professionalism in paramedic practice 2

Defining professionalism 3

Professionalism as ethical practice 3

Professional identity, socialisation, and culture 4

How do students learn professionalism? 6

Assessment and standards of professionalism 7

Regulatory areas, fitness to practise processes, and outcomes 8

Conclusion 9

Activities 9

Glossary 10

References 10

Chapter 2 Professional health regulation for paramedicine and ambulance prehospital emergency care 12
Ramon Z. Shaban, Ruth Townsend

Introduction 13

Principles for paramedic professional health regulation 13

Health professional regulation for paramedic professionalism 14

The UK experience 15

Paramedics behaving badly 18

The Australian experience 19

Conclusion 20

Activities 21

Glossary 21

References 22

Chapter 3 Human factors in paramedicine 23
Sam Willis, Helen Pocock

Introduction 24

What are human factors? 24

Human error in paramedicine 25

Tasks 26

Organisation 27

Tools and technology 28

Environment 28

Interactions 29

Human factors in paramedic practice 29

Conclusion 32

Activities 32

Glossary 33

References 33

Chapter 4 Mental capacity and prehospital care 35
Sue Putman

Introduction 36

What is mental capacity? 36

How do we make decisions? 37

Assessing mental capacity 38

The five principles 39

Additional mental capacity safeguards 43

Conclusion 45

Activities 46

Glossary 46

References 47

Chapter 5 Mental health and prehospital care 48
Sue Putman

Introduction 49

What is ‘mental health’? 49

What are ‘mental disorder’ and ‘mental illness’? 50

Emotions (mood) and behaviour 52

ABC model of emotion 52

Brief outline of common mental illnesses 52

General strategies to help with all mental health conditions in the prehospital environment 56

Mental health act 57

Conclusion 57

Activities 58

Glossary 58

References 58

Chapter 6 Communication skills for the prehospital professional 60
Sam Willis, Gary Mellor

Introduction 61

Background 61

The importance of effective communication 62

A model of communication 62 vii

Nonverbal communication 63

Verbal communication 68

Effective listening 69

Empathy 70

Barriers to effective communication in the prehospital setting 70

Conclusion 71

Activities 71

Glossary 72

References 73

Chapter 7 Sociological aspects of paramedic practice 74
Kellie Tune

Introduction 75

The sociological imagination 75

Three sociological paradigms 76

The sociocultural context of health 78

Medicalisation and demedicalisation 80

Conclusion 80

Activities 80

Glossary 82

References 82

Chapter 8 Legal and ethical aspects of paramedic practice 84
Ruth Townsend, Sam Willis, Nevin Mehmet

Introduction 85

Legal aspects of paramedic practice 85

Ethical aspects of paramedic practice 90

Ethical principles: An ethical framework 92

Conclusion 93

Activities 93

Glossary 94

References 94

Chapter 9 Leadership and mentorship in paramedic practice 95
Roger Dalrymple

Introduction 96

Theories of leadership: a brief overview 97

Definitions of leadership 98

From leaders to leadership behaviours 98

Leadership styles and approaches 99

Leadership at the individual level 100

Leadership and the mentoring or supervisory role 101

Leadership and team work 103

Ongoing leadership development 104

Conclusion 104

Activities 104

Glossary 105

References 106

Chapter 10 Safeguarding adults at risk of abuse and neglect 107
Rozz McDonald

Introduction 108

Legislation and policy 108

Types of abuse and neglect 110

Recognising abuse and neglect 110

Radicalisation and extremism 115

Practice principles of safeguarding 116

Paramedic responsibilities 116

Conclusion 119

Activities 119

Glossary 119

References 120

Chapter 11 Essential toxicology for prehospital clinicians 122
Jack Matulich

Introduction 123

Pharmacokinetics in toxicology 124

The importance of clinical context and vulnerability 125

The initial resuscitative approach in toxicology 126

Toxidromes 130

Activities 139

Glossary 140

References 141

Chapter 12 Medical terminology 142
Steve Whitfield, Michael Porter

Introduction 143

A brief history (Hx) of medical terminology 144

Medical terminology and word structure 145

Prefixes and suffixes 145

The building blocks of medical terms 148

Pronunciation of medical terms 149

Forming plurals 150

Eponyms 150

Anatomical positions 151

Movement terminology 154

Medical abbreviations and acronyms 154

Common similarities in terminology 160

Spelling – British versus American English 161

Conclusion 161

Activities 162

Glossary 162

References 163

Chapter 13 Research methods and paramedic practice 164
Jan Davison‐Fischer, Catherine J. Davison‐Fischer, Roger Dalrymple

Introduction 165

Qualitative and quantitative research 165

Ethics 167

Case reports 167

Case control studies 167

Questionnaire studies 168

Interview studies 170

Focus group studies 170

Observational and participatory studies 170

Before‐and‐after studies and routinely collected data 171

Randomised controlled trials 171

Longitudinal cohort and panel studies 172

Critical literature reviews 172

Conclusion 175

Activities 175

Glossary 176

References 176

Chapter 14 Trauma 178
Charlie McGurk, Sam Willis, Alice Acutt

Introduction 179

Head injuries 179

Facial injuries 182

Neck and back injuries 183

Chest injuries 185

Abdominal injuries 188

Pelvic injuries 189

Limb injuries 190

Upper limb injuries 191

Shock 192

Conclusion 192

Activities 192

Glossary 193

References 194

Chapter 15 Prehospital electrocardiography 195
Nathan Puckeridge

Introduction 196

What is an ECG? 196

P, Q, R, S, and T waves 197

Evaluating the ECG 198

Atrioventricular heart blocks 201

Performing and reviewing a 12‑lead ECG 202

Acute coronary syndromes and the ECG 203

Idioventricular rhythm 204

Bundle branch blocks 205

Conclusion 205

Activities 206

Glossary 206

References 207

Chapter 16 Assessing the cardiac system 208
Mark Ives, Sam Willis, Sonja Maria, Clare Sutton

Introduction 209

Cardiac anatomy and physiology 209

Common cardiac conditions 211

Patient assessment 215

Conclusion 224

Activities 224

Glossary 225

References 225

Chapter 17 Assessing the nervous system 227
Clair Merriman

Introduction 228

Nervous system: structure and function 228

Central nervous system 229

Peripheral nervous system 232

Upper and lower motor neurones 233

History and physical examination 233

Conclusion 241

Activities 241

Glossary 242

References 242

Chapter 18 Assessing the abdomen 243
Matthew Faulkner, Clare Sutton, Georgina Pickering

Introduction 244

Abdominal anatomy and physiology 244

Patient assessment 254

Conclusion 261

Activities 261

Glossary 262

References 263

Chapter 19 Respiratory assessment 264
Dan Staines, Samantha Sheridan, Georgina Pickering

Introduction 265

Respiratory anatomy and physiology 266

Pathophysiology of respiratory conditions 268

Patient assessment 268

Conclusion 278

Activities 278

Glossary 279

References 279

Chapter 20 Paramedic assessment skills 280
Duncan McConnell

Introduction 281

Part 1: The conscious patient 281

Case study 1: Using the primary survey 283

Case study 2: Implementing the secondary survey 287

Case study 3: Completing the systematic approach 290

Part 2: The unconscious patient 292

Case study 4: The unconscious patient systematic approach 296

Conclusion 299

Activities 304

Glossary 304

References 305

Chapter 21 Birth and the paramedic 307
Robb Kightley

Introduction 308

Physiological birth 308

Birth phases 309

Preparing for the birth 311

Paramedic intervention following normal childbirth 312

Birth complications 313

Conclusion 317

Activities 317

Glossary 318

References 318

Chapter 22 Paediatrics 319
Sam Whitby, Steve Whitfield, Kerryn Wratt

Introduction 320

Paediatric anatomy and physiology 320

Paediatric examination 322

Patient assessment triangle 322

Paediatric emergencies 324

Conclusion 334

Activities 334

Glossary 335

References 335

Chapter 23 Medical emergencies 337
Tianna Camilleri

Introduction 338

Neurological emergencies 338

Metabolic emergencies 341

End‐of‐life care 344

Infection 345

Immunological emergencies 349

Conclusion 350

Activities 350

Glossary 351

References 351

Chapter 24 Caring for older adults 353
Helen Pocock

Introduction 354

The elderly population 354

Assessing older adults 355

Physiology of ageing 355

Frailty 358

Trauma 360

Falls 360

Additional assessments in the elderly 362

Pain assessment 362

End‐of‐life care 363

Conclusion 364

Activities 364

Glossary 365

References 365

Chapter 25 Managing minor injuries in the prehospital setting 367
Craig Barlow

Introduction 368

Background 369

The importance of history taking 369

Consent to treatment 370

Clinical examination 371

Minor head injuries 373

Nasal injuries 374

Wound assessment and care 374

Ankle injuries 376

Minor burns 377

Transporting minor injury patients 378

Conclusion 379

Activities 379

Glossary 380

References 382

Chapter 26 Major incident management 383
Kallai Sugden, Bede Wilson

Introduction 384

Managing the incident site: first ambulance on scene 385

Declaring a major incident: METHANE and SAM 385

Casualty management 387

Incident management system 390

Emergency management 393

Conclusion 393

Activities 394

Glossary 394

References 395

Chapter 27 Low acuity 396
Duncan McConnell

Introduction 397

What is low acuity care? 398

How to approach low acuity care patient assessment 400

Performing a systems review 402

Other physical assessment clues to assist the diagnosis 405

Gathering further clinical information from patients 407

Conclusion 409

Activities 409

Glossary 410

References 411

Answers to activities 412

Index 428