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Understanding Lasers: An Entry-Level Guide, 4th Edition

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$84.99

Understanding Lasers: An Entry-Level Guide, 4th Edition

Jeff Hecht

ISBN: 978-1-119-31066-2 November 2018 Wiley-IEEE Press 608 Pages

Description

The expanded fourth edition of the book that offers an essential introduction to laser technology and the newest developments in the field

The revised and updated fourth edition of Understanding Lasers offers an essential guide and introduction that explores how lasers work, what they do, and how they are applied in the real world. The author—a Fellow of The Optical Society—reviews the key concepts of physics and optics that are essential for understanding lasers and explains how lasers operate. The book also contains information on the optical accessories used with lasers.

Written in non-technical terms, the book gives an overview of the wide-variety laser types and configurations. Understanding Lasers covers fiber, solid-state, excimer, helium-neon, carbon dioxide, free-electron lasers, and more. In addition, the book also explains concepts such as the difference between laser oscillation and amplification, the importance of laser gain, and tunable lasers. The updated fourth edition highlights the most recent research and development in the field. This important resource:

  • Includes a new chapter on fiber lasers and amplifiers
  • Reviews new topics on physics of optical fibers and fiber lasers, disk lasers, and Ytterbium lasers
  • Contains new sections on Laser Geometry and Implications, Diode Laser Structures, Optimal Parametric Sources, and 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
  • Puts the focus on research and emerging developments in areas such as spectroscopy, slow light, laser cooling, and extremely precise measurements
  • Contains appendices, glossary, and index that help make this book a useful reference 

Written for engineering and physics students, engineers, scientists, and technicians, the fourth edition of Understanding Lasers contains the basic concepts of lasers and the most recent advances in the technology. 

Preface xiii

CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Overview 1

1.1 Lasers, Optics, and Photonics 1

1.2 Understanding the Laser 3

1.3 What Is a Laser? 4

1.4 Laser Materials and Types 8

1.5 Optical Properties of Laser Light 10

1.6 How Lasers Are Used? 14

1.7 What Have We Learned? 17

CHAPTER 2 Physical Basics 21

2.1 Electromagnetic Waves and Photons 21

2.2 Quantum and Classical Physics 29

2.3 Interactions of Light and Matter 39

2.4 Basic Optics and Simple Lenses 47

2.5 Fiber Optics 51

2.6 What Have We Learned? 54

CHAPTER 3 How Lasers Work 59

3.1 Building a Laser 59

3.2 Producing a Population Inversion 60

3.3 Resonant Cavities 66

3.4 Laser Beams and Resonance 73

3.5 Wavelength Selection and Tuning 81

3.6 Laser Excitation and Efficiency 85

3.7 What Have We Learned? 89

CHAPTER 4 Laser Characteristics 95

4.1 Coherence 95

4.2 Laser Wavelengths 98

4.3 Properties of Laser Beams 103

4.4 Laser Power 108

4.5 Laser Efficiency 110

4.6 Pulse Characteristics 115

4.7 Polarization 120

4.8 What Have We Learned? 121

CHAPTER 5 Optics, Laser Accessories, and Measurements 127

5.1 Classical Optical Devices 127

5.2 Optical Materials 136

5.3 Optical Coatings and Filters 141

5.4 Beam Delivery, Direction, and Propagation 145

5.5 Mounting and Positioning Equipment 148

5.6 Nonlinear Optics 149

5.7 Beam Modulation and Output Control 156

5.8 Measurements in Optics 159

5.9 What Have We Learned? 164

CHAPTER 6 Laser Types, Features, and Enhancements 169

6.1 Perspectives on Laser Types 169

6.2 Laser Media 171

6.3 Pumping and Energy Storage 177

6.4 Laser Pulse Characteristics 182

6.5 Wavelength Conversion 195

6.6 Laser Oscillators and Optical Amplifiers 201

6.7 Wavelength Options 207

6.8 Laser-Like Light Sources 209

6.9 What Have We Learned? 211

CHAPTER 7 Gas Lasers 217

7.1 The Gas-Laser Family 217

7.2 Gas-Laser Basics 218

7.3 Helium–Neon Lasers 225

7.4 Argon- and Krypton-Ion Lasers 229

7.5 Metal-Vapor Lasers 232

7.6 Carbon Dioxide Lasers 235

7.7 Excimer Lasers 240

7.8 Nitrogen Lasers 243

7.9 Chemical Lasers 243

7.10 Other Gas Lasers 246

7.11 What Have We Learned? 247

CHAPTER 8 Solid-State Lasers 253

8.1 What Is a Solid-State Laser? 253

8.2 Solid-State Laser Materials 258

8.3 Solid-State Laser Configurations 265

8.4 Major Solid-State Laser Materials 271

8.5 Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers 284

8.6 Broadband and Tunable Solid-State Lasers 288

8.7 Pulsed Solid-State Lasers 294

8.8 What Have We Learned? 295

CHAPTER 9 Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers 301

9.1 What Are Fiber Lasers? 301

9.2 Optical Fiber Structures 306

9.3 Fiber Laser Design and Efficiency 310

9.4 Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers 318

9.5 Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Amplifiers 328

9.6 Raman Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers 332

9.7 What Have We Learned? 335

CHAPTER 10 Diode and Other Semiconductor Lasers 341

10.1 Types of Semiconductor Lasers 341

10.2 Development of Diode Lasers 342

10.3 Semiconductor Basics 344

10.4 Comparing LED and Diode-Laser Emission 353

10.5 Confining Light and Current 359

10.6 Edge-Emitting Diode Lasers 370

10.7 Surface-Emitting Diode Lasers 375

10.8 Optical Properties of Diode Lasers 379

10.9 Diode-Laser Materials and Wavelengths 381

10.10 Quantum Cascade Lasers and Related Types 390

10.11 What Have We Learned? 393

CHAPTER 11 Other Lasers and Laser-Like Sources 399

11.1 Tunable Dye Lasers 399

11.2 Optical Parametric Sources 404

11.3 Supercontinuum Sources 408

11.4 Frequency Combs 408

11.5 Extreme Ultraviolet Sources 410

11.6 Free-Electron Lasers 416

11.7 What Have We Learned? 420

CHAPTER 12 Low-Power Laser Applications 425

12.1 Advantages of Laser Light 426

12.2 Reading with Lasers 433

12.3 Optical Disks and Data Storage 437

12.4 Laser Printing 440

12.5 Lasers in Fiber-Optic Communications 442

12.6 Laser Measurement 447

12.7 Laser Light Shows, Pointers, and Projection Displays 453

12.8 Low-Power Defense Applications 456

12.9 Sensing and Spectroscopy 459

12.10 Holography 464

12.11 Other Low-Power Applications 468

12.12 What Have We Learned? 469

CHAPTER 13 High-Power Laser Applications 475

13.1 High- Versus Low-Power Laser Applications 475

13.2 Attractions of High-Power Lasers 476

13.3 Important Considerations and Trends 477

13.4 Materials Working 481

13.5 Additive Manufacturing and Three-Dimensional Printing 489

13.6 Semiconductor Electronics Fabrication 491

13.7 Laser Medical Treatment 493

13.8 Photochemistry and Isotope Separation 501

13.9 Laser-Driven Nuclear Fusion 503

13.10 High-Energy Laser Weapons 505

13.11 What Have We Learned? 510

CHAPTER 14 Lasers in Research 515

14.1 Lasers Open New Opportunities 515

14.2 Laser Spectroscopy 516

14.3 Manipulating Tiny Objects 521

14.4 Atom Lasers and Bose–Einstein Condensates 522

14.5 Detection of Gravitational Waves 524

14.6 Laser Guide Stars for Astronomy 525

14.7 Slow Light 526

14.8 Nanoscale Lasers 527

14.9 Strange Lasers 529

14.10 Extreme Power Ultrashort Pulse Lasers 530

14.11 X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers 535

14.12 Other Emerging Research 536

14.13 What Have We Learned? 538

Answers to Quiz Questions 543

Appendix A: Laser Safety 547

Appendix B: Handy Numbers and Formulas 553

Appendix C: Resources and Suggested Readings 557

Glossary 561

Index 575