Skip to main content

Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia

E-Book

$120.99

Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia

Frank M. Dunnivant, Elliot Anders

ISBN: 978-1-119-41465-0 March 2019 424 Pages

Description

Bridges the gaps between regulatory, engineering, and science disciplines in order to comprehensively cover pollutant fate and transport in environmental multimedia 

This book presents and integrates all aspects of fate and transport: chemistry, modeling, various forms of assessment, and the environmental legal framework. It approaches each of these topics initially from a conceptual perspective before explaining the concepts in terms of the math necessary to model the problem so that students of all levels can learn and eventually contribute to the advancement of water quality science.

The first third of Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is dedicated to the relevant aspects of chemistry behind the fate and transport processes. It provides relatively simple examples and problems to teach these principles. The second third of the book is based on the conceptual derivation and the use of common models to evaluate the importance of model parameters and sensitivity analysis; complex equation derivations are given in appendices. Computer exercises and available simulators teach and enforce the concepts and logic behind fate and transport modeling. The last third of the book is focused on various aspects of assessment (toxicology, risk, benefit-cost, and life cycle) and environmental legislation in the US, Europe, and China. The book closes with a set of laboratory exercises that illustrate chemical and fate and transport concepts covered in the text, with example results for most experiments.

  • Features more introductory material on past environmental disasters and the continued need to study environmental chemistry and engineering
  • Covers chemical toxicology with various forms of assessment, United States, European, and Chinese regulations, and advanced fate and transport modeling and regulatory implications
  • Provides a conceptual and relatively simple mathematical approach to fate and transport modeling, yet complex derivations of most equations are given in appendices
  • Integrates the use of numerous software packages (pC-pH, EnviroLab Simulators, Water, Wastewater, and Global Issues), and Fate©2016
  • Contains numerous easy-to-understand examples and problems along with answers for most end-of-the-chapter problems, and simulators for answers to fate and transport questions
  • Includes numerous companion laboratory experiments with EnviroLab

Requiring just a basic knowledge of algebra and first-year college chemistry to start, Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is an excellent textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate faculty and students studying environmental engineering and science.

Related Resources

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Acronyms xv

Glossary xix

About the Companion Website xxiii

To the Instructor xxv

To the Student xxvii

To the Environmental Professional xxix

How to Use the Book with Fate® and Associated Software xxxi

Instructor/Student Resources xxxiii

Part I Introduction 1

1 Sources and Types of Pollutants, Why We Need Modeling, and the Need to Study Historical Pollution Events 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Need for Modeling of Pollutants in Environmental Media 4

1.3 Pollution versus Contamination; Pollutant versus Contaminant 4

1.4 Pollution Classifications 5

1.5 Sources of Pollution 5

1.6 Historic Examples of Where Fate and Transport Modeling Are Useful 10

1.7 Environmental Laws 21

Concepts 22

Exercises 22

Bibliography 22

Part II Chemistry of Fate and Transport Modeling 25

2 Basic Chemical Processes in Pollutant Fate and Transport Modeling 27

2.1 The Liquid Medium: Water and the Water Cycle 27

2.2 Unique Properties of Water 28

2.3 Concentration Units 32

2.4 Chemical Aspects of Environmental Systems 32

2.5 Reactions and Equilibrium 44

2.6 Complexation 53

2.7 Equilibrium Sorption Phenomena 54

2.8 Transformation/Degradation Reactions 63

2.9 Fugacity Concepts and Modeling 67

2.10 Summary 68

Concepts 68

Exercises 68

References 69

3 Quantitative Aspects of Chemistry Toward Modeling 71

3.1 Introduction 71

3.2 Calculation of the Free Metal Ion Concentration in Natural Waters 71

3.3 Methods for Determining Kd and Kp 83

3.4 Kinetics of the Sorption Process 85

3.5 Sorption Isotherms 87

3.6 Kinetics of Transformation Reactions 89

3.7 Numerical Chemical Speciation Models 90

3.8 Putting It All Together: Where Chemistry Enters Into the Modeling Effort 91

3.9 Basic Approach to Fate and Transport Modeling 93

Exercises 95

Bibliography 99

Part III Modeling 101

4 An Overview of Pollutant Fate and Transport Modeling 103

4.1 Modeling Approaches 103

4.2 Quality of Modeling Results 109

4.3 What Do You Do with Your Modeling Results? 109

Bibliography 110

5 Fate and Transport Concepts for Lake Systems 111

Case Study 1: Lake Onondaga 111

Case Study 2: Lake Erie, A More Positive Example 112

Chapter Overview 112

5.1 Introduction 112

5.2 Types of Lakes and Lake-forming Events 113

5.3 Input Sources 117

5.4 Stratification of Lake Systems 118

5.5 Environmental Sampling of Lake Systems 120

5.6 Important Factors in the Modeling of Lakes: Conceptual Model Development 122

5.7 Two Basic Mathematical Models for Lakes (Derivation by John Brooksbank in the Chapter Appendix) 126

5.8 Sensitivity Analysis 130

5.9 Limitations of Our Models 131

5.10 Remediation 131

5.11 Numerical Modeling Approaches for Large Lakes 133

5.12 Useful Algebraic Model Formulation 133

5.A Derivation of the two basic forms of fate and transport models for lake system: step (continuous) model and pulse (instantaneous) (derivations by John Brooksbank) 134

Concepts 136

Exercises 136

Bibliography 139

6 Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Rivers and Streams 141

Case Study: The Rhine River 141

6.1 Introduction 141

6.2 Examples of Rivers and Volumetric Flows of Water 142

6.3 Input Sources 143

6.4 Sampling of Surface Waters 143

6.5 Important Factors in the Modeling of Streams: Conceptualization of Terms 144

6.6 Mathematical Development of Transport Models (Derivations by John Brooksbank, Here and in Chapter Appendix) 147

6.7 Sensitivity Analysis 151

6.8 Limitations of Our Models 151

6.9 Remediation of Polluted Stream Systems 152

Suggested Papers for Class Discussion 153

Concepts 153

Exercises 153

Spreadsheet Exercise 156

6.A Model Derivatives for River and Stream Systems (Derivations by John Brooksbank) 156

Bibliography 161

7 Dissolved Oxygen Sag Curves in Streams: The Streeter–Phelps Equation 163

Case Study: Any Stream, Anywhere in the World 163

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Basic Input Sources (Wastewater Flow Rates and BOD Levels) 166

7.3 Sampling of Wastewater 168

7.4 Mass Balance-Based Development of the Basic Streeter–Phelps Model 168

7.5 Sensitivity Analysis 175

7.6 Limitations of Our Basic Model and More Elaborate Models 175

7.7 Remediation 175

7.8 One Last Note on Estuaries 177

Suggested Reading for Discussion 178

Concepts 178

Exercises 178

Spreadsheet Exercise 182

7.A Derivation of the Streeter-Phelps (DO Sag Curve) Equation (By John Brooksbank 182

Bibliography 184

8 Fate and Transport Concepts for Groundwater Systems 187

Case Study: The Test Area North Deep Well Injection Site at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) 187

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 Input Sources 188

8.3 Monitoring Wells 189

8.4 Groundwater Sampling Equipment 195

8.5 Chemistry Experiments Used to Support Modeling Efforts 195

8.6 Direction of Water Flow (The Three-Point Problem) 200

8.7 Physical Parameters Important in Pollutant Fate and Transport 202

8.8 Derivation of Mathematical Models for Groundwater 208

8.9 Sensitivity Analysis 213

8.10 Limitations of Our Models 213

8.11 Remediation 214

8.12 Numerical Models Used by Professionals 216

Suggested Papers for Class Discussion 216

Concepts 216

Exercises 216

Spreadsheet Exercise 219

Bibliography 219

9 Fate and Transport Concepts Atmospheric Systems 221

Case Study: The Union Carbide-Bhopal Accident 221

9.1 Introduction 222

9.2 Input Sources 222

9.3 Atmospheric Sampling Equipment and Efforts 222

9.4 Important Factors in the Modeling of Atmospheric Pollution: Conceptual Model Development 224

9.5 Mathematical Development of Model 227

9.6 Sensitivity Analysis 233

9.7 Limitations of Our Model 234

9.8 Remediation 235

9.9 Models Used by Professionals 235

Concepts 235

Suggested Reading for Class Discussions 235

Exercises 235

Plume (step or continuous) Input Problems 236

Puff (Pulse or Instantaneous) Pollutant Inputs 236

Spreadsheet Exercise 237

Bibliography 237

10 Regulatory Environmental Modeling Practices and Software 239
Raymond C. Whittemore

10.1 Introduction 239

10.2 Generic Model Types 239

10.3 Model Availability 240

10.4 Atmospheric Quality Models 240

10.5 Surface Water Models 242

10.6 Large-Scale Watershed Models 246

10.7 Subsurface or Groundwater Models 248

10.8 Modeling of Toxic Substances 250

10.9 Human Health Risk Assessment 251

10.10 Other Useful Regulatory Models 251

Exercises 251

Bibliography 252

Part IV Toxicology and Risk Assessment 255

11 Toxicology, Risk Assessment, Cost–Benefit Analysis, and Life Cycle Assessment 257

11.1 Introduction 257

11.2 Toxicology 257

11.3 Risk Assessment 258

11.4 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 274

11.5 Benefit–Cost Analysis 276

11.6 Summary 276

Concepts 276

Exercises 277

Bibliography 280

Part V Environmental Legislation in the United States 281

12 US Environmental Laws 283
Frank Dunnivant, Lance DeMuth, Savanna Ferguson, Rose Kormanyos, Loren Sackett, and Jill Schulte

12.1 Environmental Movements in the United States 283

12.2 The History of the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 284

12.3 Major US Environmental Laws 285

12.4 EPA’s Record 300

12.5 Environmental Permitting and Compliance 302

12.6 International Agreements/Treaties Involving the United States 302

12.7 Summary 305

Exercises 305

Disclaimer 305

Bibliography 305

13 Environmental Policy in the European Union 307
Steven Woolston and Aisha Kimbrough

13.1 Introduction to the European Union 307

13.2 The Environment and the European Union 307

13.3 The Early Stages of the EU’s Environmental Efforts 307

13.4 Existing Environmental Legislation 308

13.5 Waste Management Legislation 308

13.6 Water Legislation 309

13.7 Air Quality Legislation 309

13.8 Environmental Disasters 310

Bibliography 310

14 Environmental Laws in China 311
Zeyu Liu (泽宇) and Yi Xu (徐逸)

14.1 Environmental Law and Policy in the People’s Republic of China 311

14.2 Brief Introduction to China 311

14.3 Economy and the Environment 311

14.4 History of Environmental Law and Policy 312

14.5 Existing Environmental Law and Policy 314

14.6 Challenges and the Future of Environmental Governance 314

14.7 Can China Take on the Leading Role in the Global Environmental Governance? 315

Bibliography 316

Part VI World Class Pollutants 319

15 World Class Pollutants 321
Frank Dunnivant and Emily Welborn

15.1 Mercury 321

15.2 Lead 323

15.3 PCBs 325

15.4 DDT 326

15.5 Endocrine Disruptors 328

15.6 Plastics 330

15.7 Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change 331

Bibliography 332

Part VII Supporting Laboratory Experiments 335

16 Laboratory Experiments 337

16.1 Introduction 337

16.2 Keeping a Legally Defensible Laboratory Notebook 337

16.3 Quarter- and Semester-Long Experiments 338

16.4 Pollutant Fate and Transport Experiments for the Last Two Dispersion Experiments 338

16.5 The Measurement of Dispersion in a Simulated River System 355

16.6 The Measurement of Dispersion and Sorption in a Simulated Groundwater System 358

Bibliography 365

Index 367