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Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods





Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods

Jeffrey S. Gaffney, Nancy A. Marley

ISBN: 978-1-119-31340-3 October 2019 624 Pages



A modern guide to environmental chemistry

Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of modern environmental chemistry, discussing the chemistry and interconnections between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. Written by internationally recognized experts, the textbook explores the chemistries of the natural environmental systems and demonstrates how these chemical processes change when anthropogenic emissions are introduced into the whole earth system.  

This important text:

  • Combines the key areas of environmental chemistry needed to understand the sources, fates, and impacts of contaminants in the environment 
  • Describes a range of environmental analytical methodologies 
  • Explores the basic environmental effects of energy sources, including nuclear energy 
  • Encourages a proactive approach to environmental chemistry, with a focus on preventing future environmental problems 
  • Includes study questions at the end of each chapter

Written for students of environmental chemistry, environmental science, environmental engineering, geoscience, earth and atmospheric sciences, Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods covers the key aspects and mechanisms of currently identified environmental issues, which can be used to address both current and future environmental problems.



About the Authors


1. Introduction to Environmental Chemistry

1.1 What is Environmental Chemistry?

1.2 Anthropogenic Pollution

1.3 A Planet at Risk

1.4 Energy, Water, and Population Connections

1.5 The Need to Understand Environmental Problems

1.6 Atmosphere‒Hydrosphere‒Geosphere‒Biosphere Linkages


Study Problems

2. Atmospheric Composition and Basic Physics

2.1 Evolution of the Atmosphere

2.2 Structure and Composition of the Modern Atmosphere

2.3 Atmospheric Circulation

2.4 Energy Balance

2.4.1 Milankovitch Cycles

2.4.2 Planetary Albedo

2.4.3 Greenhouse Gases

2.4.4 Aerosols

2.5 Global Climate Models


Study Problems

3. The Fundamentals of Photochemistry

3.1 Light and Photochemistry

3.2 The Laws of Photochemistry

3.3 Thermochemical and Photochemical Processes

3.3.1 Activation Energy

3.3.2 Kinetics

3.4 Photochemical Deactivation Processes


Study Problems

Suggested Reading

4. Chemistry of the Stratosphere

4.1 Structure and Composition of the Stratosphere

4.2 The Ozone Layer

4.3 Ozone Formation in the Stratosphere

4.3.1 The Chapman Cycle

4.3.2 Term Symbols

4.3.3 The HOx and NOx Cycles

4.4 Ozone Depletion

4.4.1 Chlorofluorocarbons

4.4.2 The ‘Ozone Hole’

4.4.3 Altitude Dependence

4.4.4 Ozone Depleting Substances

4.5 Summary


Suggested Reading

Study Problems

5. Chemistry of the Troposphere

5.1 Structure and Composition of the Troposphere

5.2 History of Smog

5.3 The Clean Air Act

5.3.1 Criteria Pollutants

5.3.2 Non-criteria Pollutants

5.4 Formation of Ozone in the Troposphere

5.4.1 The Photostationary State

5.4.2 The Hydroxyl Radical

5.4.3 Hydroxyl Radical Abstraction Reactions

5.4.4 Hydroxyl Radical Addition Reactions

5.5 Nitrate Radical and Ozone

5.6 The Peroxyacyl Nitrates

5.7 Troposphere‒Biosphere Interactions


Suggested Reading

Study Problems

6. Aerosols and Cloud Chemistry

6.1 Size Distributions

6.2 Sources and Sinks

6.2.1 Primary Aerosol Emissions

6.2.2 Secondary Aerosol Formation

6.2.3 Wet Deposition and Henry’s Law

6.2.4 Dry Deposition

6.3 Atmospheric Lifetimes

6.4 Determination of Aerosol Sources

6.5 Health Effects

6.6 Visibility and Climate Effects

6.7 Aqueous Chemistry


Suggested Reading

Study Problems

7. Analytical Methods for Air Analysis

7.1 Sampling Methods.

7.2 Gas Phase Measurement Methods

7.2.1 The Oxidants: Ozone, Hydroxyl Radical, Peroxyacyl nitrates, and Peracids

7.2.2 The Oxides: Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Nitric Acid, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Nitrous Oxide

7.2.3 The Organics: Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes, Ketones, and Halogenated Hydrocarbons

7.3 Aerosols

7.3.1 Sample Collection

7.3.2 Aerosol Composition

7.4 Aerosol Optical Properties

7.5 Method Selection

7.6 The Importance of Baseline Measurements

Suggested Reading


Study Problems

8. Chemistry of Surface and Ground Waters

8.1 The Unique Properties of Water

8.2 The Hydrological Cycle

8.3 Ocean Currents and Circulation

8.4 The Structure of Natural Aquatic Systems

8.4.1 The Oceans

8.4.2 Fresh Water Systems

8.5 The Composition of Natural Aquatic Systems

8.5.1 Dissolved Oxygen

8.5.2 Nitrogen and Phosphorous

8.5.3 Sulfur

8.5.4 Carbon

8.6 Water Pollution

8.6.1 Point Sources

8.6.2 Nonpoint Sources

8.7 Contaminant Transformation

8.8 Contaminant Transport

Suggested Reading


Study Problems

9. Analytical Methods for Water Analysis

9.1 Sampling Methods

9.2 Dissolved Species

9.2.1 Electrochemical Methods

9.2.2 Spectroscopic Methods

9.2.3 Chromatographic Methods

9.2.4 Titration Methods

9.2.5 Radiochemical Methods

 9.3 Particulates and Colloids

9.4 Contaminant Issues


Study Problems

10. Fossil and Biomass Fuels

10.1 Combustion Chemistry

10.2 Formation and Recover of Fossil Fuels

10.2.1 The Formation of Fossil Fuels

10.2.2 Coal Mining

10.2.3 Oil and Gas Recovery

10.3 Fossil Fuel Use

10.4 Biomass Fuels

10.4.1 Biomass Fuel Production

10.4.2 Biomass Fuel Use

1 0.5 Impacts on Water Quality

10.5.1 Fossil Fuels

10.5.2 Biomass Fuels

10.6 Impacts on Air Quality

10.6.1 Fossil Fuels

10.6.2 Biomass Fuels

10.7 Gasoline Additives: Lessons Learned


Study Problems

11. Climate Change

11.1 Prehistoric Climates

11.2 Causes of Climate Change

11.2.1 Global Warming Potentials

11.2.2 Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks

11.2.3 Radiative Forcing

11.3 Climate Models

11.4 Predictions of Future Climate Change

11.5 Impacts from Predicted Temperature Rise

11.6 Climate Effects on Air Quality and Health

11.7 Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies


Study Problems

12. Nuclear Energy

12.1 Radioactivity

12.2 Radioactive Emissions and Decay Kinetics

12.3 Sources of Radioisotopes

12.4 Nuclear Fission

12.5 Nuclear Weapons Testing and Fallout

12.6 Nuclear Power

12.6.1 Harnessing Nuclear Energy

12.6.2 Uranium Production

12.6.3 Nuclear Plant Designs

12.6.4 Nuclear Waste

12.7 Radioisotopes in the Environment

12.8 Radiation Exposure

12.9 Applications of Radioisotopes


Study Problems

13. Future Energy Sources and Sustainability

13.1 The Need for Non-Fossil Energy Sources

13.2 Alternative Energy Sources

13.2.1 Wind Power

13.2.2 Hydropower

13.2.3 Geothermal Energy

13.2.4 Solar Power

13.2.5 Biomass

13.2.6 Hydrogen

13.3 Sustainability

13.4 Long Term Planning


Study Problems

Appendix I. Answers to Study Problems

Appendix II. List of U.S. EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants – Air Toxics.

Appendix III. Henry’s Law Constants (Hx) for Selected Inorganic and Organic Compounds.

Appendix IV. Organic Water Pollutants, Their Chemical Structures, Sources, and Concentration Limits in U.S. Drinking Water.

Appendix V. Chemicals used in the Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil Shales for Natural Gas Extraction.