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Principles of Human Anatomy, 14th Edition

Gerard J. Tortora, Mark Nielsen

ISBN: 978-1-119-32059-3 September 2016

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€48.40
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Immerse yourself in the spectacular visuals and dynamic content of Principles of Human Anatomy, 14th Edition. Designed for the 1-term Human Anatomy course, this 14th edition raises the standard for excellence in this discipline with its enhanced illustration program, refined narrative, and dynamic resources. Principles of Human Anatomy is a rich digital experience, giving students the ability to learn and explore human anatomy both inside and outside of the classroom.

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1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY 1

1.1 Anatomy Defined 2

1.2 Levels of Body Organization and Body Systems 3

1.3 Life Processes 9

1.4 Basic Anatomical Terminology 9

Anatomical Position 9

Regional Names 9

Planes and Sections 10

1.5 Body Cavities 14

Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes 15

1.6 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants 18

1.7 The Human Body and Disease 19

1.8 Aging 20

1.9 Medical Imaging 20

1.10 Measuring the Human Body 23

Chapter Review and Resource Summary 23 / Critical Thinking Questions 25 / Answers to Figure Questions 25

2 CELLS 26

2.1 A Generalized Cell 27

2.2 The Plasma Membrane 28

Structure of the Membrane 28

Functions of Membrane Proteins 29

Membrane Permeability 29

Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 29

Kinetic Energy Transport 30 / Transport by Transporter Proteins 30 / Transport in Vesicles 30

2.3 Cytoplasm 33

Cytosol 33

Organelles 34

Centrosome 35 / Cilia and Flagella 35 / Ribosomes 35 / Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 37 / Golgi Complex 37 / Lysosomes 39 / Peroxisomes 40 / Proteasomes 40 / Mitochondria 40

2.4 Nucleus 42

2.5 Cell Division 43

Somatic Cell Division 45

Interphase 45

Mitotic Phase 45

Control of Cell Destiny 47

Reproductive Cell Division 48

Meiosis 48

2.6 Cellular Diversity 51

2.7 Aging and Cells 52

Key Medical Terms Associated with Cells 54 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 54 / Critical Thinking Questions 56 / Answers to Figure Questions 57

3 TISSUES 58

3.1 Types of Tissues 59

3.2 Cell Junctions 60

Tight Junctions 61

Adherens Junctions 61

Desmosomes 61

Hemidesmosomes 61

Gap Junctions 61

3.3 Comparison Between Epithelial and Connective Tissues 61

3.4 Epithelial Tissue 62

Classification of Surface Epithelium 63

Surface Epithelium 64

Glandular Epithelium 71

Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands 72 / Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands 72

3.5 Connective Tissue 73

General Features of Connective Tissue 73

Connective Tissue Cells 73

Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix 75

Ground Substance 75 / Fibers 75

Classification of Connective Tissue 76

Embryonic Connective Tissue 76

Mature Connective Tissue 77

Connective Tissue Proper 77

Supporting Connective Tissue 81

Liquid Connective Tissue 84

3.6 Membranes 85

Epithelial Membranes 85

Mucous Membranes 85 / Serous Membranes 85 / Cutaneous Membrane 87

Synovial Membranes 87

3.7 Muscular Tissue 87

3.8 Nervous Tissue 89

3.9 Aging and Tissues 89

Key Medical Terms Associated with Tissues 90 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 90 / Critical Thinking Questions 92 / Answers to Figure Questions 93

4 DEVELOPMENT 94

4.1 Principles of Development 95

4.2 Embryonic Period 96

First Week of Development 96

Fertilization 96 / Cleavage of the Zygote 97 / Blastocyst Formation 97 / Implantation 98

Second Week of Development 100

Development of the Trophoblast 100 / Development of the Bilaminar Embryonic Disc 100 / Development of the Amnion 100 / Development of the Yolk Sac 100

Development of Sinusoids 102 / Development of the Extraembryonic Coelom 102 / Development of the Chorion 102

Third Week of Development 102

Gastrulation 102 / Neurulation 104 / Development of Somites 106 / Development of the Intraembryonic Coelom 106 / Development of the Cardiovascular System 106 / Development of the Chorionic Villi and Placenta 106

Fourth Week of Development 108

Fifth Through Eighth Weeks of Development 110

4.3 Fetal Period 111

4.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy 113

4.5 Labor 114

Key Medical Terms Associated with Development 115 /Chapter Review and Resource Summary 116 / CriticalThinkingQuestions 117 / Answers to Figure Questions 117

5 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 118

5.1 Structure of the Skin 119

Epidermis 119

Stratum Basale 120 / Stratum Spinosum 122 / Stratum Granulosum 122 / Stratum Lucidum 123 / Stratum Corneum 123 / Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis 123

Dermis 123

Blood Supply of the Integumentary System 125

The Structural Basis of Skin Color 125 / Tattooing and Body Piercing 126

Subcutaneous Layer or Hypodermis 126

5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 127

Hair 127

Anatomy of a Hair 128 / Hair Growth 129 / Types of Hairs 130 / Hair Color 130

Skin Glands 130

Sebaceous Glands 130 / Sudoriferous Glands 131 / Ceruminous Glands 132

Nails 132

5.3 Types of Skin 134

5.4 Functions of the Skin 135

5.5 Development of the Integumentary System 136

5.6 Aging and the Integumentary System 138

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Integumentary System 139 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 140 / Critical Thinking Questions 141 / Answers to Figure Questions 141

6 BONE TISSUE 142

6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 143

6.2 Types of Bones 143

6.3 Anatomy of a Bone 144

6.4 Bone Surface Markings 145

6.5 Histology of Bone Tissue 146

Compact Bone Tissue 148

Spongy Bone Tissue 149

6.6 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone 150

6.7 Bone Formation 151

Initial Bone Formation in an Embryo and Fetus 151

Intramembranous Ossification 151

Endochondral Ossification 153

Bone Growth During Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence 154

Growth in Length 154 / Growth in Thickness 155

Remodeling of Bone 155

6.8 Fractures 158

6.9 Exercise and Bone Tissue 161

6.10 Aging and Bone Tissue 161

6.11 Factors Affecting Bone Growth 161

Key Medical Terms Associated with Bone Tissue 163 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 163 / Critical Thinking Questions 165 / Answers to Figure Questions 165

7 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE AXIAL SKELETON 166

7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System 167

7.2 Skull 169

General Features and Functions 169

Nasal Septum 188

Orbits 188

Foramina 190

Unique Features of the Skull 190

Sutures 190 / Paranasal Sinuses 191 / Fontanels 191

Cranial Fossae 192

Age-related Changes in the Skull 194

Sexual Differences in the Skull 195

7.3 Hyoid Bone 196

7.4 Vertebral Column 197

Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column 197

Intervertebral Discs 197

Parts of a Typical Vertebra 199

Vertebral Body 199 / Vertebral Arch 199 / Processes 200

Regions of the Vertebral Column 201

Age-related Changes in the Vertebral Column 201

7.5 Thorax 210

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Axial Skeleton 214 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 214 / Critical Thinking Questions 215 / Answers to Figure Questions 215

8 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON 216

8.1 Skeleton of the Upper Limb 217

8.2 Skeleton of the Lower Limb 230

8.3 False and True Pelves 235

8.4 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves 236

8.5 Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles 236

8.6 Development of the Skeletal System 246

Key Medical Terms Associated with Appendicular Skeleton 248 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 248 / Critical Thinking Questions 249 / Answers to Figure Questions 249

9 JOINTS 250

9.1 Joint Classifications 251

Ligaments 251

9.2 Fibrous Joints 252

Sutures 252

Syndesmoses 253

Interosseous Membranes 253

9.3 Cartilaginous Joints 253

Synchondroses 253

Symphyses 253

Epiphyseal Cartilages 253

9.4 Synovial Joints 254

Structure of Synovial Joints 254

Articular Capsule 254 / Synovial Fluid 255 / Accessory Ligaments, Articular Discs, and Labra 255 / Nerve and Blood Supply 256

Bursae and Tendon Sheaths 256

9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 256

Gliding 256

Angular Movements 257

Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion, and Hyperextension 257 / Abduction, Adduction, and Circumduction 258

Rotation 258

Special Movements 259

9.6 Types of Synovial Joints 261

Plane Joints 261

Hinge Joints 261

Pivot Joints 261

Condyloid Joints 261

Saddle Joints 263

Ball-and-Socket Joints 263

9.7 Factors Affecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints 264

9.8 Selected Joints of the Body 265

9.9 Aging and Joints 281

Key Medical Terms Associated with Joints 283 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 283 / Critical Thinking Questions 284 / Answers to Figure Questions 285

10 MUSCULAR TISSUE 286

10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 287

Types of Muscular Tissue 287

Functions of Muscular Tissue 287

Properties of Muscular Tissue 287

10.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Structure 288

Gross Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle 288

Connective Tissue Coverings 288

Nerve and Blood Supply 290

Microscopic Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber (Cell) 290

Sarcolemma, T Tubules, and Sarcoplasm 290 / Myofibrils and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum 291 / Filaments and the Sarcomere 292

Muscle Proteins 293

10.3 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Function 296

Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 296

Sliding Filament Mechanism 296 / The Neuromuscular Junction 296 / The Contraction Cycle 299 /

Excitation–Contraction Coupling 300

Muscle Tone 301

Isotonic and Isometric Contractions 302

10.4 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 303

Slow Oxidative Fibers 303

Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic Fibers 303

Fast Glycolytic Fibers 303

10.5 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 305

Effective Stretching 305

Strength Training 305

10.6 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 305

10.7 Smooth Muscle Tissue 307

10.8 Development of Muscles 309

10.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue 310

Key Medical Terms Associated with Muscular Tissue 310 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 310 / Critical Thinking Questions 312 / Answers to Figure Questions 313

11 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 314

11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements 315

Muscle Attachment Sites: Origin and Insertion 315

Lever Systems 316

Effects of Fascicle Arrangement 318

Muscle Actions 319

Coordination Among Muscles 319

Structure and Function of Muscle Groups 319

11.2 How Skeletal Muscles Are Named 320

11.3 Principal Skeletal Muscles 320

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Muscular System 415 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 416 / Critical Thinking Questions 417 / Answers to Figure Questions 417

12 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD 418

12.1 Functions of Blood 419

12.2 Physical Characteristics of Blood 419

12.3 Components of Blood 419

Blood Plasma 421

Formed Elements 421

12.4 Formation of Blood Cells 422

12.5 Red Blood Cells 425

RBC Anatomy 425

RBC Functions 425

RBC Life Cycle 426

Erythropoiesis: Production of RBCs 426

Blood Group Systems 427

12.6 White Blood Cells 428

WBC Anatomy and Types 428

Granular Leukocytes 428 / Agranular Leukocytes 428 / WBC Functions 428

12.7 Platelets 430

12.8 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow and Cord-Blood 431

Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood 432 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 433 / Critical Thinking Questions 434 / Answers to Figure Questions 434

13 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: THE HEART 435

13.1 Location and Surface Projection of the Heart 436

13.2 Structure and Function of the Heart 438

Pericardium 438

Layers of the Heart Wall 440

Chambers of the Heart 440

Right Atrium 442 / Right Ventricle 444 / Left Atrium 444 / Left Ventricle 444

Myocardial Thickness and Function 444

Fibrous Skeleton of the Heart 445

Heart Valves 445

Atrioventricular Valves 445 / Semilunar Valves 447

13.3 Circulation of Blood 447

Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations 447

Coronary Circulation 448

Coronary Arteries 448 / Coronary Veins 450

13.4 Cardiac Conduction System and Innervation 451

Cardiac Conduction System 451

Cardiac Nerves 453

13.5 Cardiac Cycle (Heartbeat) 453

13.6 Heart Sounds 453

13.7 Exercise and the Heart 454

13.8 Development of the Heart 458

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Heart 460

Chapter Review and Resource Summary 460

Critical Thinking Questions 462

Answers to Figure Questions 462

14 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS 463

14.1 Anatomy of Blood Vessels 464

Basic Structure of a Blood Vessel 464

Tunica Interna (Intima) 464 / Tunica Media 466 / Tunica Externa 466

Arteries 466

Elastic Arteries 466 / Muscular Arteries 466

Anastomoses 467

Arterioles 467

Capillaries 468

Venules 469

Veins 469

Blood Distribution 471

14.2 Circulatory Routes—Systemic Circulation 472

14.3 Circulatory Routes—Hepatic Portal Circulation 511

14.4 Circulatory Routes—Pulmonary Circulation 512

14.5 Circulatory Routes—Fetal Circulation 513

14.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood 515

14.7 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 516

Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood Vessels 517 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 518 / Critical Thinking Questions 519 / Answers to Figure Questions 519

15 THE LYMPHATIC (LYMPHOID) SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY 520

15.1 The Concept of Immunity 521

15.2 Lymphatic System Structure and Functions 521

Structure 521

Functions 521

15.3 Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Circulation 523

Lymphatic Capillaries 523

Lymph Trunks and Ducts 524

Formation and Flow of Lymph 524

15.4 Lymphatic Organs and Tissues 526

Thymus 526

Lymph Nodes 527

Spleen 529

Lymphatic Nodules 531

15.5 Principal Groups of Lymph Nodes 531

15.6 Development of Lymphatic Tissues 542

15.7 Aging and the Lymphatic System 542

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Lymphatic System and Immunity 544 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 544 / Critical Thinking Questions 545 / Answers to Figure Questions 545

16 NERVOUS TISSUE 546

16.1 Overview of the Nervous System 547

Structures of the Nervous System 547

Organization of the Nervous System 547

Anatomical Organization 547 / Functional Organization 548

16.2 Histology and Functions of Neurons 548

Neurons 549

Parts of a Neuron 549 / Cell Body 549 / Nerve Fibers 550

Synapses 552

Neuromuscular Junction 552 / Synapses Between Neurons 552 / Neurotransmitters 553 / Structural Diversity in Neurons 553

16.3 Histology and Function of Neuroglia 555

Neuroglia of the CNS 555

Neuroglia of the PNS 556

Myelination 556

Gray and White Matter 558

16.4 Neural Circuits 558

16.5 Regeneration and Neurogenesis 560

Key Medical Terms Associated with Nervous Tissue 560 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 561 / Critical Thinking Questions 562 / Answers to Figure Questions 562

17 THE SPINAL CORD AND THE SPINAL NERVES 563

17.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy 564

Protective Structures 564

Vertebral Column 564 / Meninges 564

External Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 565

Internal Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 568

17.2 Spinal Nerves 569

Structure of a Single Nerve 569

Organization of Spinal Nerves 571

Branches of Spinal Nerves 572

Intercostal Nerves 572 / Plexuses 572

Dermatomes Versus Cutaneous Fields 573

17.3 Spinal Cord Functions 584

Sensory and Motor Tracts 584

Reflexes and Reflex Arcs 585

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Spinal Cord and the Spinal Nerves 586 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 587 / Critical Thinking Questions 588 / Answers to Figure Questions 588

18 THE BRAIN AND THE CRANIAL NERVES 589

18.1 Development and General Structure of the Brain 590

Brain Development 590

Major Parts of the Brain 592

18.2 Protection and Blood Supply 593

Protective Coverings of the Brain 593

Cerebrospinal Fluid 594

Formation of CSF in the Ventricles 594 / Functions of CSF 595 / Circulation of CSF 595

Brain Blood Flow and the Blood–Brain Barrier 598

18.3 The Brainstem and Reticular Formation 599

Medulla Oblongata 599

Pons 601

Midbrain 601

Reticular Formation 603

18.4 The Cerebellum 604

18.5 The Diencephalon 604

Thalamus 606

Hypothalamus 607

Epithalamus 608

Circumventricular Organs 608

18.6 The Cerebrum 608

Structure of the Cerebrum 609

Cerebral White Matter 610

Basal Nuclei 611

The Limbic System 612

18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 614

Sensory Areas 614

Motor Areas 615

Association Areas 615

Hemispheric Lateralization 617

Memory 617

Brain Waves 617

18.8 Aging and the Nervous System 618

18.9 Cranial Nerves 618

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Brain and the Cranial Nerves 633 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 633 / Critical Thinking Questions 635 / Answers to Figure Questions 635

19 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM 636

19.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 637

Somatic Nervous System 637

Autonomic Nervous System 637

Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Motor Neurons 638

19.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathways 639

Understanding Autonomic Motor Pathways 639

Migration of the Neural Crest Tissue 641

Shared Anatomical Components

of an Autonomic Motor Pathway 641

Motor Neurons and Autonomic Ganglia 641 / Autonomic Plexuses 641

19.3 Structure of the Sympathetic Division 643

Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons 643

Sympathetic Ganglia and Postganglionic Neurons 645

Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia 645 / Prevertebral Ganglia 646

19.4 Structure of the Parasympathetic Division 646

Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons 646

Parasympathetic Ganglia and Postganglionic Neurons 648

19.5 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors 650

Cholinergic Neurons and Receptors 650

Adrenergic Neurons and Receptors 651

19.6 Functions of the ANS 651

Sympathetic Responses 651

Parasympathetic Responses 652

19.7 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions 655

Autonomic Reflexes 655

Autonomic Control by Higher Centers 655

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Autonomic Nervous System 655 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 656 / Critical Thinking Questions 657 / Answers to Figure Questions 657

20 SOMATIC SENSES AND MOTOR CONTROL 658

20.1 Overview of Sensations 659

Definition of Sensations 659

Characteristics of Sensations 659

Classification of Sensations 659

Types of Sensory Receptors 659

20.2 Somatic Sensations 660

Tactile Sensations 661

Touch 661 / Pressure 661 /Vibration 662 / Itch and Tickle 662

Thermal Sensations 662

Pain Sensations 662

Types of Pain 662 / Localization of Pain 662

Proprioceptive Sensations 663

Muscle Spindles 663 / Tendon Organs 665 / Joint Kinesthetic Receptors 665

20.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways 666

Posterior Column–Medial Lemniscus Pathway to the Cerebral Cortex 666

Anterolateral (Spinothalamic) Pathways to the Cerebral Cortex 667

Mapping the Primary Somatosensory Area 667

Somatic Sensory Pathways to the Cerebellum 668

20.4 Somatic Motor Pathways 669

Origin of Motor Pathways 670

Direct Motor Pathways 670

Indirect Motor Pathways 673

Roles of the Basal Nuclei in Movement 673

Roles of the Cerebellum in Movement 673

Role of the Brainstem in Movement 673

Vestibular Nuclei in the Medulla and Pons 673 / Reticular Formation in the Medulla, Pons, and Midbrain 673 /

Superior Colliculus in the Midbrain 674

20.5 Integration of Sensory Input and Motor Output 675

Key Medical Terms Associated with Somatic Senses and Motor Control 675 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 675 / Critical Thinking Questions 677 / Answers to Figure Questions 677

21 SPECIAL SENSES 678

21.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 679

Anatomy of Olfactory Receptors 679

The Olfactory Pathway 681

21.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 681

Anatomy of Gustatory Receptors 681

The Gustatory Pathway 683

21.3 Vision 683

Accessory Structures of the Eye 683

Eyelids 683 / Eyelashes and Eyebrows 685 / The Lacrimal Apparatus 685 / Extrinsic Eye Muscles 685

Anatomy of the Eyeball 685

Fibrous Tunic 685 / Vascular Tunic 685 / Retina 687 / Lens 690 / Interior of the Eyeball 690

The Visual Pathway 691

Processing of Visual Input in the Retina 692 / Pathway in the Brain 692

21.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 693

Anatomy of the Ear 693

External (Outer) Ear 693 / Middle Ear 694 / Internal (Inner) Ear 695

Mechanism of Hearing 699

The Auditory Pathway 701

Mechanism of Equilibrium 702

Otolithic Organs: Saccule and Utricle and Static Equilibrium 702 / Semicircular Ducts and Dynamic

Equilibrium 702

Equilibrium Pathways 705

21.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 707

Development of the Eyes 707

Development of the Ears 708

21.6 Aging and the Special Senses 709

Key Medical Terms Associated with Special Senses 709 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 710 / Critical Thinking Questions 711 / Answers to Figure Questions 711

22 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 712

22.1 Endocrine Glands Defined 713

22.2 Hormones 713

22.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 715

Anterior Pituitary 716

Posterior Pituitary 718

22.4 Pineal Gland and Thymus 719

22.5 Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands 720

22.6 Adrenal Glands 723

Adrenal Cortex 723

Adrenal Medulla 725

22.7 Pancreas 726

22.8 Ovaries and Testes 728

22.9 Other Endocrine Tissues 729

22.10 Development of the Endocrine System 730

22.11 Aging and the Endocrine System 731

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Endocrine System 732 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 732 / Critical Thinking Questions 734 / Answers to Figure Questions 734

23 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 735

23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy 736

23.2 Upper Respiratory System Anatomy 736

Nose 736

Pharynx 740

23.3 Lower Respiratory System Anatomy 741

Larynx 741

The Structures of Voice Production 743

Trachea 744

Bronchi 745

Lungs 749

Lobes, Fissures, and Lobules 751 / Alveolar Sacs and Alveoli 753 / Blood Supply to the Lungs 755

Patency of the Respiratory System 755

23.4 Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing) 757

Inhalation 757

Exhalation 757

23.5 Regulation of Breathing 758

Role of the Respiratory Center 758

Medullary Respiratory Center 759 / Pontine Respiratory Group 760

Regulation of the Respiratory Center 760

Cortical Influences on Breathing 760

Chemoreceptor Regulation of Breathing 761 / Role of Lung Inflation in Stimulation of Breathing 761

23.6 Exercise and the Respiratory System 761

23.7 Development of the Respiratory System 762

23.8 Aging and the Respiratory System 763

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Respiratory System 763 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 764 / Critical Thinking Questions 765 / Answers to Figure Questions 765

24 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 766

24.1 Overview of the Digestive System 767

24.2 Layers of the GI Tract 768

Mucosa 768

Submucosa 769

Muscularis 769

Serosa 770

24.3 Peritoneum 770

24.4 Mouth 772

Salivary Glands 773

Tongue 775

Teeth 775

24.5 Pharynx 779

24.6 Esophagus 779

Histology of the Esophagus 779

Functions of the Esophagus 780

24.7 Stomach 781

Anatomy of the Stomach 781

Histology of the Stomach 783

Functions of the Stomach 784

24.8 Pancreas 786

Anatomy of the Pancreas 786

Histology of the Pancreas 787

Functions of the Pancreas 787

24.9 Liver and Gallbladder 788

Anatomy of the Liver and Gallbladder 788

Histology of the Liver and Gallbladder 789

Blood and Nerve Supply of the Liver and Gallbladder 792

Functions of the Liver and Gallbladder 793

24.10 Small Intestine 793

Anatomy of the Small Intestine 793

Histology of the Small Intestine 794

Functions of the Small Intestine 797

24.11 Large Intestine 800

Anatomy of the Large Intestine 800

Histology of the Large Intestine 802

Functions of the Large Intestine 803

24.12 Development of the Digestive System 805

24.13 Aging and the Digestive System 806

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Digestive System 806 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 807 / Critical Thinking Questions 809 / Answers to Figure Questions 809

25 THE URINARY SYSTEM 810

25.1 Overview of the Urinary System 811

25.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys 813

External Anatomy of the Kidneys 813

Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys 813

Blood and Nerve Supply of the Kidneys 816

25.3 The Nephron 817

Parts of a Nephron 817

Histology of the Nephron and Collecting Duct 819

Glomerular Capsule 821 / Renal Tubule and Collecting Duct 821

25.4 Functions of Nephrons 822

Glomerular Filtration 823

Tubular Reabsorption 824

Tubular Secretion 824

25.5 Urine Transportation, Storage, and Elimination 825

Ureters 825

Urinary Bladder 828

Urethra 829

25.6 Development of the Urinary System 831

25.7 Aging and the Urinary System 832

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Urinary System 832 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 833 / Critical Thinking Questions 834 / Answers to Figure Questions 834

26 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS 835

26.1 Male Reproductive System 836

Scrotum 836

Testes 838

Sperm 842

Reproductive System Ducts in Males 843

Ducts of the Testis 843 / Epididymis 843 / Ductus Deferens 844 / Ejaculatory Ducts 845 / Urethra 845

Spermatic Cord 845

Accessory Sex Glands in Males 845

Seminal Vesicles 845 / Prostate 845 / Bulbourethral Glands 845

Semen 847

Penis 847

26.2 Female Reproductive System 849

Ovaries 849

Histology of the Ovaries 851 / Oogenesis and Follicular Development 853

Uterine Tubes 856

Uterus 859

Vagina 861

Vulva 862

Perineum 863

Mammary Glands 866

26.3 Female Reproductive Cycle 866

Menstrual Phase 867

Events in the Ovaries 867 / Events in the Uterus 867

Preovulatory Phase 868

Events in the Ovaries 868 / Events in the Uterus 868

Ovulation 868

Postovulatory Phase 868

Events in the Ovaries 868 / Events in the Uterus 870

26.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 870

Birth Control Methods 870

Surgical Sterilization 870 / Non-incisional Sterilization 870 / Hormonal Methods 871 / Intrauterine Devices 871
/Spermicides 871 / Barrier Methods 871 / Periodic Abstinence 872

Abortion 872

26.5 Development of the Reproductive Systems 872

26.6 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 874

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Reproductive Systems 875 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 876 / Critical Thinking Questions 878 / Answers to Figure Questions 878

27 SURFACE ANATOMY 880

27.1 Overview of Surface Anatomy 881

Chapter Review and Resource Summary 903 / Critical Thinking Questions 904 / Answers to Figure Questions 904

APPENDIX A Measurements A-1

APPENDIX B Answers A-2

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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