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A Practical Guide to Job Analysis




A Practical Guide to Job Analysis

Erich P. Prien, Leonard D. Goodstein, Jeanette Goodstein, Louis G. Gamble Jr.

ISBN: 978-0-470-44424-5 March 2009 Pfeiffer 288 Pages

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Presenting the first book that provides HR professionals with a context for understanding the importance of doing a proper job analysis together with a step-by-step guide to conducting such an analysis. This unique guide contains a series of eight ready-to-use templates that provide the basis for conducting job analyses for eight different levels of job families, from the entry-level to the senior manager/executive.

Preface xi

1. An Introduction to Job Analysis 1

Why Do We Analyze Jobs?

The Hiring Process

The Human Capital Life Cycle

Job Analysis



Final Selection

Job Orientation

Training and Development

2. What is a Job Analysis? 11

Defining Job Analysis

Applications of Job Analyses


Candidate Selection

Employee Training and Development

Performance Management

Organizational Management and Planning

Litigation Protection

Elements of a Job Analysis

Work Activity (WA)

Knowledge, Skills, and Ability (KSA)

Levels of Job Performance

Workplace Characteristics

3. How to Conduct a Job Analysis 27

Methods of Job Analysis


Direct Observations


Document Reviews

Questionnaires and Surveys

Caveats and Cautions

Changes Over Time

Low Accuracy

Lack of Stability

4. The Job Analysis Templates 39

The Development of the Templates

Eight Templates for Job Analysis

Entry-Level Job Analysis Template (Appendix B)

Production Operations Job Analysis Template

(Appendix C)

Clerical Job Analysis Template (Appendix D)

Sales and Sales Management Job Analysis Template

(Appendix E)

Clerical/Administrative Services Job Analysis

Template (Appendix F)

Professional Administrative Job Analysis Template

(Appendix G)

Supervisory/First-Line Manager Job Analysis Template

(Appendix H)

Senior Management/Executive Job Analysis Template

(Appendix I)

Using the Templates

Completing the Summary Forms

Summary of Work Activity Importance Ratings

5. The Workplace Characteristics Profile 53

Organizational Culture and Climate

Organizational Culture

Organizational Climate

The Workplace Characteristics Profile

Developing the WCP

Administering the WCP

Interpreting the WCP

6. Establishing Job Performance Levels 63

Competencies and Jobs

The Uses of Job Performance Data


Creating Career Ladders

Evaluating Organizational Performance

Improving Organizational Performance

Methods for Measuring Job Performance

Objective Measures

Subjective Measures

Problems with Performance Ratings

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)

How to Implement the BARS Method

A Recommended Shortcut

Applying the BARS Method

BARS and the Hierarchy of Jobs

Concerns about BARS

A Summary of the Job Analysis Process

References 85


Appendix A: Sample Job Description 89

Appendix B: Entry-Level Job Analysis Templates 93

Appendix C: Production Operations Job Analysis Templates 105

Appendix D: Clerical Job Analysis Templates 121

Appendix E: Sales and Sales management Job Analysis Templates 135

Appendix F: Clerical/Administrative Services Job Analysis Templates 151

Appendix G: Professional Administrative Job Analysis Templates 169

Appendix H: Supervisor/First-Line Manager Job Analysis Template 183

Appendix I: Senior Management/Executive Job Analysis Templates 195

Appendix J: Summary of Importance of Work Activities and Competencies 215

Appendix K: Workplace Characteristics Profile 249

Index 259

About the Authors 265