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Advanced Catalytic Materials




Advanced Catalytic Materials

Ashutosh Tiwari (Editor), Salam Titinchi (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-99828-1 June 2015 472 Pages

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The subject of advanced materials in catalysisbrings together recent advancements in materials synthesis and technologies to the design of novel and smart catalysts used in the field of catalysis. Nanomaterials in general show an important role in chemical processing as adsorbents, catalysts, catalyst supports and membranes, and form the basis of cutting-edge technology because of their unique structural and surface properties.

Advanced Catalytic Materials is written by a distinguished group of contributors and the chapters provide comprehensive coverage of the current literature, up-to-date overviews of all aspects of advanced materials in catalysis, and present the skills needed for designing and synthesizing advanced materials. The book also showcases many topics concerning the fast-developing area of materials for catalysis and their emerging applications.

The book is divided into three parts:  Nanocatalysts – Architecture and Design; Organic and Inorganic Catalytic Transformations; and Functional Catalysis: Fundamentals and Applications. Specifically, the chapters discuss the following subjects:

  • Environmental applications of multifunctional nanocomposite catalytic materials
  • Transformation of nanostructured functional precursors using soft chemistry
  • Graphenes in heterogeneous catalysis
  • Gold nanoparticles-graphene composites material for catalytic application
  • Hydrogen generation from chemical hydrides
  • Ring-opening polymerization of poly(lactic acid)
  • Catalytic performance of metal alkoxides
  • Cycloaddition of CO2 and epoxides over reusable solid catalysts
  • Biomass derived fine chemicals using catalytic metal bio-composites
  • Homoleptic metal carbonyls in organic transformation
  • Zeolites: smart materials for novel, efficient, and versatile catalysis
  • Optimizing zeolitic catalysis for environmental remediation

Preface  xv

Part  I: Nanocatalysts - Architecture and Design 1

1 Environmental Applications of Multifunctional Nanocomposite Catalytic Materials: Issues with Catalyst Combinations 3
James A. Sullivan, Orla Keane, Petrica Dulgheru and Niamh O’Callaghan

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Proposed Solutions to the Lean-Burn NOx emission Problems 9

1.3 Multifunctional Materials to Combine NH3-SCR and NSR Cycles 17

1.4 Particulate Matter, Formation, Composition and Dangers 19

1.5 Use of Multifunctional Materials to Combust C(s) and Trap NOx 22

1.6 Multifunctional Materials in Selective Catalytic Oxidation 23

1.7 Proposed Tandem Catalysts for “Green” Selective Epoxidation 28

1.8 Conclusions 29

Acknowledgements 30

References 30

2 Chemical Transformation of Molecular Precursor into Well-Defined Nanostructural Functional Framework via Soft Chemical Approach 37
Taimur Athar

2.1 Introduction 38

2.2 The Chemistry of Metal Alkoxides 41

2.3 The Chemistry of Nanomaterials 47

2.4 Preparation of Monometallic Alkoxides and Its Conversion into Corresponding Metal Oxides 52

2.5 Techniques used to Characterization of Precursor and Inorganic Material 54

2.6 Conclusion 60

Acknowledgement 60

References 61

3 Graphenes in Heterogeneous Catalysis 69
Josep Albero and Hermenegildo Garcia

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Carbocatalysis 89

3.3 G Materials as Carbocatalysts 92

3.4 G as Support of Metal NPs 104

3.5 Summary and Future Prospects 115

References 116

4 Gold Nanoparticles-Graphene Composites Material: Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Application 121
Najrul Hussain, Gitashree Darabdhara and Manash R. Das

4.1 Introduction 122

4.2 Synthesis of Au NPs-rGO Composites and Its Characterization 124

4.3 Catalytic Application of Au NPs-rGO Composites 136

4.4 Future Prospects 138

Acknowledgements 138

References 139

Part II: Organic and Inorganic Catalytic Transformations 143

5 Hydrogen Generation from Chemical Hydrides 145
Mehmet Sankir, Levent Semiz, Ramis B. Serin, Nurdan D. Sankir and Derek Baker

5.1 Introduction: Overview of Hydrogen 146

5.2 Hydrogen Generation 148

5.3 Type of Catalysts and Catalyst Morphologies 159

5.4 Kinetics and Models 177

5.5 Hydrogen Generation for PEMFCs 183

5.6 Conclusions 186

Acknowledgements 187

References 187

6 Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide 193
Alekha Kumar Sutar, Tungabidya Maharana, Anita Routaray and Nibedita Nath

6.1 Introduction 194

6.2 Aluminum Metal 195

6.3 Importance of Polylactic Acid 196

6.4 Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) 197

6.5 Application of Different Catalytic System in ROP of Lactide 197

6.6 Concluding Remarks 220

Acknowledgments 221

References 221

7 Catalytic Performance of Metal Alkoxides 225
Mahdi Mirzaee, Mahmood Norouzi, Adonis Amoli and Azam Ashrafian

7.1  Introduction 225

7.2 Metal Alkoxides 226

7.3 Polymerization Reactions Catalyzed by Metal Alkoxides 227

7.4 Reduction Reactions Catalyzed by Metal Alkoxides 250

7.5 Oxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Metal Alkoxides 256

7.6 Other Miscellaneous Metal Alkoxide Catalysis Reactions 259

7.7 Conclusion 266

Acknowledgment 267

References 267

8 Cycloaddition of CO2 and Epoxides over Reusable Solid Catalysts 271
Luis F. Bobadilla, Sergio Lima and Atsushi Urakawa

8.1 Introduction: CO2 as Raw Material 271

8.2 Properties and Applications of Cyclic Carbonates 273

8.3 Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates from the Cycloaddition Reaction of CO2 with Epoxides 275

8.4 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 306

References 307

Part III: Functional Catalysis: Fundamentals and Applications 313

9 Catalytic Metal-/Bio-composites for Fine Chemicals Derived from Biomass Production 315
Madalina Tudorache, Simona M. Coman and Vasile I. Parvulescu

8.1 Introduction 316

8.2 Metal Composites with Catalytic Activity in Biomass Conversion 317

8.3 Catalytic Biocomposites with Heterogeneous Design 328

8.4 Conclusions 345

References 345

10 Homoleptic Metal Carbonyls in Organic Transformation 353
Badri Nath Jha, Abhinav Raghuvanshi and Pradeep Mathur

10.1 Introduction 353

10.2 Cycloaddition 354

10.3 Carbonylation 358

10.4 Silylation 363

10.5 Amidation of Adamantane and Diamantane 366

10.6 Reduction of N,N-Dimethylthioformamide 367

10.7 Reductive N-Alkylation of Primary Amides with Carbonyl Compounds 368

10.8 Synthesis of N-Fused Tricyclic Indoles 369

10.9 Cyclopropanation of Alkenes 369

Conclusion 378

References 378

11 Zeolites: Smart Materials for Novel, Efficient, and Versatile Catalysis 385
Mayank Pratap Singh, Garima Singh Baghel, Salam J. J. Titinchi and Hanna S. Abbo

11.1 Introduction 385

11.2 Structures and Properties 388

11.3 Synthesis of Zeolites 393

11.4 Application of Zeolites in Catalysis 395

11.5 Medical Applications of Zeolites 404

11.6 Conclusions 406

References 406

12 Optimizing Zeolitic Catalysis for Environmental Remediation 411

12.1 Introduction 413

12.2 Structure of Zeolites 417

12.3 Categorization and Characterization of Zeolites 419

12.4 Properties of Zeolites and Their Effects 421

12.5 Effects of Chemical Modification 434

12.6 Summary 436

References 436