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Electrical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

Dr. Omar S. Mazzoni

ISBN: 978-1-119-48367-0 September 2018 256 Pages

Description

Covers all aspects of electrical systems for nuclear power plants written by an authority in the field

Based on author Omar Mazzoni's notes for a graduate level course he taught in Electrical Engineering, this book discusses all aspects of electrical systems for nuclear power plants, making reference to IEEE nuclear standards and regulatory documents. It covers such important topics as the requirements for equipment qualification, acceptance testing, periodic surveillance, and operational issues. It also provides excellent guidance for students in understanding the basis of nuclear plant electrical systems, the industry standards that are applicable, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's rules for designing and operating nuclear plants.

Electrical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants offers in-depth chapters covering: elements of a power system; special regulations and requirements; unique requirements of a Class 1E power system; nuclear plants containment electrical penetration assemblies; on-site emergency AC sources; on-site emergency DC sources; protective relaying; interface of the nuclear plant with the grid; station blackout (SBO) issues and regulations; review of electric power calculations; equipment aging and decommissioning; and electrical and control systems inspections. This valuable resource:

  • Evaluates industry standards and their relationship to federal regulations
  • Discusses Class 1E equipment, emergency generation, the single failure criterion, plant life, and plant inspection
  • Includes exercise problems for each chapter

Electrical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants is an ideal text for instructors and students in electrical power courses, as well as for engineers active in operating nuclear power plants.

Preface xiii

1 Elements of a Power System 1

1.1 The Alternating Current One-Line Diagram 1

1.2 Basis for One-Line Representation 3

1.3 Main Electrical Components of Power Plants 4

1.4 Transmission Lines, Switchyards, and Substations 5

Questions and Problems 6

References 8

2 Nuclear Power Plants: General Information 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Environmental Impact 9

2.3 Nuclear Generation Fuel Cycle 10

2.4 Evolution of Nuclear Power Generation 13

2.5 Nuclear Power in the United States 13

2.6 Plans for New ReactorsWorldwide 14

2.7 Increased Capacity 14

2.8 Nuclear Plant Construction 14

2.9 Nuclear Plant Licensing 14

2.10 Current Commercial Nuclear Plants 15

2.11 Evolutionary Commercial Nuclear Plants 18

2.12 Advanced Reactors 20

2.13 Nuclear Accidents: Three Mile Island, Chernobil, and Fukushima Events 22

Questions and Problems 32

References 33

3 Special Regulations and Requirements 35

3.1 Regulations 35

3.2 IEEE Standards 39

3.3 NRC Regulatory Guides 39

Questions and Problems 42

References 43

4 Unique Requirements: Class 1E Power System 45

4.1 Class 1E Electrical Systems: General Description 45

4.2 Specific Requirements for Class 1E ac Power Systems 48

4.3 Specific Requirements for Class 1E DC Power Systems 48

4.4 Specific Requirements for Class 1E Instrumentation and Control Systems 49

4.5 Specific Requirements for Class 1E Containment Electrical Penetrations 50

4.6 Specific Requirements for Emergency On-Site ac Power Sources 50

Questions and Problems 51

References 52

5 Nuclear Plants Containment Electrical Penetration Assemblies 53

5.1 Containment Electrical Penetration Assemblies: General (Information on this chapter is based on the requirements of IEEE 317) 53

5.2 Service Classification 54

5.3 Electrical Design Requirements (extracted from IEEE 317) 56

5.4 Mechanical Design Requirements (Extracted from IEEE 317) 59

5.5 Fire Resistance Requirements (Extracted from IEEE 317) 61

5.6 Qualified Life 62

5.7 Qualification Tests 62

5.8 Design Tests (Extracted from IEEE 317) 62

5.9 Production Tests 67

5.10 Monitoring and Testability 67

Questions and Problems 67

References 68

6 On-Site Emergency Alternating Current Source 71

6.1 General Requirements of the Emergency Alternating Current Source 71

6.2 General Requirements of Diesel Generators Used as Emergency Alternating Current Source (Information in this chapter is based on the requirements of IEEE 387) 72

6.3 Specific Design Requirements for Emergency Diesel Generators 79

6.4 Factory Qualification 82

6.5 Site Acceptance Testing 87

6.6 Site Preoperational Testing 87

6.7 Site Operational Testing 87

6.8 Site Periodic Testing and Surveillance: Preventive Maintenance Program 93

Questions and Problems 96

References 97

7 On-Site Emergency Direct Current Source 101

7.1 Energy Storage Systems for Nuclear Generating Stations 101

7.2 General Requirements of Direct Current Systems 101

7.3 Design Requirements 102

7.4 Battery Loads 103

7.5 Classification of Loads in Terms of Power versus Voltage Characteristics 105

7.6 Battery Chargers 111

Questions and Problems 112

References 114

8 Protective Relaying 115

8.1 General 115

8.2 General Criteria for the Protection System 115

8.3 Specific Criteria for Protection of Alternating Current Systems 116

8.4 Degraded Voltage Protection 124

8.5 Surge Protection 128

8.6 Protection for Instrumentation and Control Power System 128

8.7 Protection Aspects for Auxiliary System Automatic Bus Transfer 129

8.8 Protection for Primary Containment Electrical Penetration Assemblies 137

8.9 Protection of Valve Actuator Motors (Direct Gear Driven) 137

8.10 Protection for DC Systems 144

8.11 Testing and Surveillance of Protective Systems 144

Questions and Problems 145

References 148

9 Interface of the Nuclear Plant with the Grid 151

9.1 Preferred Power Supply Safety Function 151

9.2 Interface between the Nuclear Plant and the Grid 155

9.3 Transmission Line and Switchyard Protective Relaying 156

9.4 Connections of the PPS to the Class 1E Systems 157

9.5 Switchyard Grounding 157

9.6 Switchyard and Transmission Line Surveillance and Testing 158

9.7 Effect of PPS Voltage Degradation on the Class 1E Bus 158

9.8 Multiunit Considerations 159

9.9 Considerations for PPS Reliability in a Deregulated Environment 159

9.10 Alternate AC Source 162

9.11 Study of Recent Events 162

Questions and Problems 163

References 165

10 Station Blackout: Issues and Regulations 167

10.1 Introduction 167

10.2 Regulations Relating to SBO Requirements 168

10.3 Specific SBO Requirements 169

10.4 Alternate Alternating Current Power Sources 170

10.5 Procedures and Training 174

10.6 QA and Specifications for Nonsafety-Related Equipment 176

10.7 Monitoring of the Grid Condition 177

Questions and Problems 177

References 178

11 Review of Electric Power Calculations 181

11.1 Introduction 181

11.2 Load and Voltage Calculations 181

11.3 Motor Starting Calculations 183

Questions and Problems 186

References 188

12 Plant Life: Equipment Aging, Life Extension, and Decommissioning 189

12.1 Nuclear Plant Licensed Life 189

12.2 Importance of Maintenance: The Maintenance Rule (Courtesy of the NRC) 189

12.3 Monitoring Issues Affecting Electrical Equipment, Transformers, Motors, Cable, Control Equipment 193

12.4 Cable-Monitoring Methods and Techniques (Courtesy of NRC) 194

12.5 Further Information on Cable Testing 201

12.6 Switchyard Maintenance Activities 202

12.7 Emergency Diesel Generators 202

12.8 Interpretation of “Standby” 202

12.9 Normally Operating SSCs of Low Safety Significance 203

12.10 Establishing SSC-Specific Performance Criteria 203

12.11 Clarification of MPFFs Related to Design Deficiencies 204

12.12 Scope of the Hazards to be Considered during Power Operations 204

12.13 Scope of Initiators to be Considered for Shutdown Conditions 204

12.14 Fire Scenario Success Path(s) 205

12.15 Establishing Action Thresholds Based on Quantitative Considerations 205

12.16 SSCs Considered under 10 CFR 50.65(a)(1) 205

12.17 Inclusion of Electrical Distribution Equipment 206

12.18 The License Renewal Rule 206

12.19 Interpretation of Aging 207

12.20 Effects of Plant Aging 207

Questions and Problems 208

References 209

13 Electrical and Control Systems Inspections 213

13.1 Purpose of Inspections 213

13.2 Objectives of Inspections 213

13.3 Areas of Review 214

13.4 Typical Approach to the Review 214

13.5 Acceptance Criteria 215

Questions and Problems 216

Reference 217

Appendix 1 Abbreviations 219

Appendix 2 Definitions 231

Index 239