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With the increasing pressures on the availability and exploitation of fresh water resources through population increase, pollution and degradation of resources, and variations in distribution from regional and global change in the climate, compilation of knowledge in this area has become a prerequisite for education and training of practising and research hydrologists. The Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences is the definitive research level multi-volume treatment of this important topic.

Written and edited by leading worldwide authorities in the field, and comprising nearly 200 substantial articles, the Encyclopedia provides detailed, informed coverage of the subject. Organised into 17 themed parts for the reader's ease of navigation, it offers up-to-date, scientifically rigorous information on all key aspects of the subject, from sub-catchment to the global scale, in a convenient and credible manner.

  • Written by over 200 contributors
  • Available both in print and online
  • Ideal for researchers in both academia and industry

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List of Contributors.


Abbreviations and Acronyms.

Part 1: Theory, Organization and Scale.

1 On the Fundamentals of Hydrological Sciences.

2 The Hydrologic Cycles and Global Circulation.

3 Hydrologic Concepts of Variability and Scale.

4 Organization and Process.

5 Fundamental Hydrologic Equations.

6 Principles of Hydrological Measurements.

7 Methods of Analyzing Variability.

8 Fractals and Similarity Approaches in Hydrology.

9 Statistical Upscaling and Downscaling in Hydrology.

10 Concepts of Hydrologic Modeling.

11 Upscaling and Downscaling – Dynamic Models.

12 Co-evolution of Climate, Soil and Vegetation.

13 Pattern, Process and Function: Elements of a Unified Theory of Hydrology at the Catchment Scale.

Part 2: Hydroinformatics.

14 Hydroinformatics and its Contributions to Hydrology: From Computation to Communication.

15 Digital Elevation Model Analysis and Geographic Information Systems.

16 Numerical Flood Simulation.

17 Hydrological and Environmental Modeling of Transport Processes in Rivers and Estuaries.

18 Shallow Water Models with Porosity for Urban Flood Modeling.

19 Data-driven Modeling and Computational Intelligence Methods in Hydrology.

20 Artificial Neural Network Concepts in Hydrology.

21 Rainfall-runoff Modeling Based on Genetic Programming.

22 Evolutionary Computing in Hydrological Sciences.

23 Flood Early Warning Systems for Hydrological (sub) Catchments.

24 Network Distributed Decision Support Systems and the Role of Hydrological Knowledge.

Part 3: Meteorology and Climatology.

25 Global Energy and Water Balances.

26 Weather Patterns and Weather Types.

27 Storm Systems.

28 Clouds and Precipitation.

29 Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Climates and Interactions with the Land Surface.

30 Topographic Effects on Precipitation.

31 Models of Clouds, Precipitation and Storms.

32 Models of Global and Regional Climate.

33 Human Impacts on Weather and Climate.

34 Climate Change – Past, Present and Future.

Part 4: Hydrometeorology.

35 Rainfall Measurement: Gauges.

36 Precipitation Measurement: Gauge Deployment.

37 Rainfall Trend Analysis: Return Period.

38 Fog as a Hydrologic Input.

39 Surface Radiation Balance.

40 Evaporation Measurement.

41 Evaporation Modeling: Potential.

42 Transpiration.

43 Evaporation of Intercepted Rainfall.

44 Evaporation from Lakes.

45 Actual Evaporation.


List of Contributors xi


Abbreviations and Acronyms.

Part 5: Remote Sensing.

46 Principles of Radiative Transfer.

47 Sensor Principles and Remote Sensing Techniques.

48 Ground-based and Airborne Lidar.

49 Estimation of Surface Insolation.

50 Estimation of the Surface Energy Balance.

51 Spatially Resolved Measurements of Evapotranspiration by Lidar.

52 Estimation of Surface Temperature and Surface Emissivity.

53 Estimation of Surface Freeze–Thaw States Using Microwave Sensors.

54 Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture Using Microwave Sensors.

55 Estimation of Snow Extent and Snow Properties.

56 Estimation of Glaciers and Sea-ice Extent and their Properties.

57 Land-cover Classification and Change Detection.

58 Characterizing Forest Canopy Structure and Ground Topography Using Lidar.

59 Estimation of Soil Properties Using Hyperspectral VIS/IR Sensors.

60 Estimation of River and Water-Body Stage, Width and Gradients Using Radar Altimetry, Interferometric SAR and Laser Altimetry.

61 Estimation of River Discharge.

62 Estimation of Suspended Sediment and Algae in Water Bodies.

63 Estimation of Precipitation Using Ground-based, Active Microwave Sensors.

64 Satellite-based Estimation of Precipitation Using Microwave Sensors.

65 Estimation of Water Vapor and Clouds Using Microwave Sensors.

Part 6: Soils.

66 Soil Water Flow at Different Spatial Scales.

67 Hydrology of Swelling Clay Soils.

68 Water Movement in Hydrophobic Soils.

69 Solute Transport in Soil at the Core and Field Scale.

70 Transpiration and Root Water Uptake.

71 Freezing and Thawing Phenomena in Soils.

72 Measuring Soil Water Content.

73 Soil Water Potential Measurement.

74 Soil Hydraulic Properties.

75 Determining Soil Hydraulic Properties.

76 Models for Indirect Estimation of Soil Hydraulic Properties.

77 Inverse Modeling of Soil Hydraulic Properties.

78 Models of Water Flow and Solute Transport in the Unsaturated Zone.

79 Assessing Uncertainty Propagation Through Physically based Models of Soil Water Flow and Solute Transport.

Part 7: Erosion and Sedimentation.

80 Erosion and Sediment Transport by Water on Hillslopes.

81 Erosion Monitoring.

82 Erosion Prediction and Modeling.

83 Suspended Sediment Transport – Flocculation and Particle Characteristics.

84 Floodplain Sedimentation – Methods, Patterns, and Processes: A Review with Examples from the Lower Rhine, the Netherlands.

85 Sediment Yields and Sediment Budgets.

86 Measuring Sediment Loads, Yields, and Source Tracing.

87 Sediment Yield Prediction and Modeling.

88 Reservoir Sedimentation.

89 On the Worldwide Riverine Transport of Sediment – Associated Contaminants to the Ocean.

90 Lake Sediments as Records of Past Catchment Response.


List of Contributors.


Abbreviations and Acronyms.

Part 8: Water Quality and Biogeochemistry.

91 Water Quality.

92 Water Quality Monitoring.

93 Effects of Human Activities on Water Quality.

94 Point and NonPoint Source Pollution.

95 Acidic Deposition: Sources and Effects.

96 Nutrient Cycling.

97 Urban Water Quality.

98 Pathogens.

99 Salinization.

100 Water Quality Modeling.

Part 9: Ecological and Hydrological Interactions.

101 Ecosystem Processes.

102 Trophic Dynamics.

103 Terrestrial Ecosystems.

104 Satellite-Based Analysis of Ecological Controls for Land-Surface Evaporation Resistance.

105 Microbial Transport in the Subsurface.

106 Groundwater Microbial Communities.

107 Natural and Constructed Wetlands.

108 Lake Ecosystems (Stratification and Seasonal Mixing Processes, Pelagic and Benthic Coupling).

109 Reservoirs.

110 Paleolimnology and Paleohydrology.

Part 10: Rainfall-runoff Processes.

111 Rainfall Excess Overland Flow.

112 Subsurface Stormflow.

113 Hyporheic Exchange Flows.

114 Snowmelt Runoff Generation.

115 Landscape Element Contributions to Storm Runoff.

116 Isotope Hydrograph Separation of Runoff Sources.

117 Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Urban and Suburban Development.

118 Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Agricultural Effects.

119 Land Use and Landcover Effects on Runoff Processes: Forest Harvesting and Road Construction.

120 Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Fire.

121 Intersite Comparisons of Rainfall-runoff Processes.

Part 11: Rainfall-runoff Modeling.

122 Rainfall-runoff Modeling: Introduction.

123 Rainfall-runoff Models for Real-time Forecasting.

124 Flood Routing and Inundation Prediction.

125 Rainfall-runoff Modeling for Flood Frequency Estimation.

126 Modeling Recession Curves and Low Streamflows.

127 Rainfall-runoff Modeling: Distributed Models.

128 Rainfall-runoff modeling: Transfer Function Models.

129 Rainfall-runoff Modeling for Integrated Basin Management.

130 Fuzzy Sets in Rainfall/Runoff Modeling.

131 Model Calibration and Uncertainty Estimation.

132 Rainfall-runoff Modeling for Assessing Impacts of Climate and Land Use Change.

133 Rainfall-runoff Modeling of Ungauged Catchments.

134 Downward Approach to Hydrological Model Development.


List of Contributors.


Abbreviations and Acronyms.

Part 12: Open-channel Flow.

135 Open Channel Flow – Introduction.

136 Hydrodynamic Considerations.

137 Uniform Flow.

138 Unsteady Flow.

139 Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Flows in Rivers.

140 Transport of Sediments.

141 Computer Modeling of Overbank Flows.

142 Debris Flow.

143 Mountain Streams.

144 Regulated Lowland Rivers.

Part 13: Groundwater.

145 Groundwater as an Element in the Hydrological Cycle.

146 Aquifer Recharge.

147 Characterization of Porous and Fractured Media.

148 Aquifer Characterization by Geophysical Methods.

149 Hydrodynamics of Groundwater.

150 Unsaturated Zone Flow Processes.

151 Hydraulics of Wells and Well Testing.

152 Modeling Solute Transport Phenomena.

153 Groundwater Pollution and Remediation.

154 Stochastic Modeling of Flow and Transport in Porous and Fractured Media.

155 Numerical Models of Groundwater Flow and Transport.

156 Inverse Methods for Parameter Estimations.

157 Sea Water Intrusion Into Coastal Aquifers.

158 Anthropogenic Land Subsidence.

Part 14: Snow and Glacier Hydrology.

159 Snow Cover.

160 Energy Balance and Thermophysical Processes in Snowpacks.

161 Water Flow Through Snow and Firn.

162 Hydrology of Snowcovered Basins.

163 Hydrochemical Processes in Snow-covered Basins.

164 Role of Glaciers and Ice Sheets in Climate and the Global Water Cycle.

165 Mass and Energy Balances of Glaciers and Ice Sheets.

166 Surface and Englacial Drainage of Glaciers and Ice Sheets.

167 Subglacial Drainage.

168 Hydrology of Glacierized Basins.

169 Sediment and Solute Transport in Glacial Meltwater Streams.

170 Modeling Glacier Hydrology.

171 River-Ice Hydrology.

172 Permafrost Hydrology.


List of Contributors.


Abbreviations and Acronyms.

Part 15: Global Hydrology.

173 Global Water Cycle (Fundamental, Theory, Mechanisms).

174 Global Water Budgets – Fundamental Theory and Mechanisms.

175 Observations of the Global Water Cycle – Global Monitoring Networks.

176 Observations of the Global Water Cycle – Satellites.

177 The Role of Large-Scale Field Experiments in Water and Energy Balance Studies.

178 Modeling of the Global Water Cycle: Numerical Models (General Circulation Models).

179 Modeling of the Global Water Cycle – Analytical Models.

180 Short-Term Predictions (Weather Forecasting Purposes).

181 Long-Term Predictions (Climate Simulation and Analysis).

182 The Hydrological Cycle in Atmospheric Reanalysis.

183 Teleconnections in the Earth System.

184 Global River Carbon Biogeochemistry.

Part 16: Land Use and Water Management.

185 Integrated Land and Water Resources Management.

186 Water and Forests.

187 Land Use Impacts on Water Resources – Science, Social and Political Factors.

188 Land Use and Water Quality.

189 Land Use and Water Resources Under a Changing Climate.

190 Hydromorphological Quality – A Policy Template for Channel Design in River Restoration.

191 Environmental Flows: Managing Hydrological Environments.

192 Public Participation in River Basin Planning and Management: Quality-of-Life Capital as an Information Aid to Sustainable Decisions.

193 Markets for Watershed Services.

194 Inter-Institutional Links in Land and Water Management.

Part 17: Climate Change.

195 Acceleration of the Global Hydrologic Cycle.

196 The Role of Water Vapor and Clouds in the Climate System.

197 Observed Trends in Hydrologic Cycle Components.

198 Role and Importance of Cryospheric Processes in Climate System.

199 Role and Importance of Paleohydrology in the Study of Climate Change and Variability.

200 Changes in Regional Hydroclimatology and Water Resources on Seasonal to Interannual and Decade-to-Century Timescales.

201 Land-Atmosphere Models for Water and Energy Cycle Studies.

202 Use of Climate Information in Water Resources Management.

203 A Guide to International Hydrologic Science Programs.

Subject Index.

"It is recommended for large collections that need an overview of current research and thought on hydrological subjects." (American Reference Books Annual, March 2007)