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Engineering, Medicine and Science at the Nano-Scale

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Engineering, Medicine and Science at the Nano-Scale

Stephen J. Fonash, Marcel Van de Voorde

ISBN: 978-3-527-69291-0 August 2018 296 Pages

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Description

Students at universities the world over will benefit from the authors' concise treatment, arising out of lectures given for a graduate and advanced undergraduate course at Penn State University (USA) and University of Technology Delft (NL).

The textbook begins by addressing, in general terms, the phenomena and peculiarities that occur at the nanoscale. In the following five chapters, readers are introduced in detail to nanoscale physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology, followed by chapters on synthesis and fabrication as well as characterization at the nanoscale. In the next four chapters a variety of exemplary applications taken from a wide range of sectors are also presented and discussed. Concerns for safety, environmental impact, workforce development, economic wellbeing, and societal change issues arising from nanotechnology are woven throughout the book and additionally form the focus of the last two chapters.

Preface xiii

Acknowledgment xv

1 Nanotechnology:What,Why, andWhy Now? 1

1.1 What Is Nanotechnology? 1

1.2 Why Is Nanotechnology So Unique? 3

1.3 Where Did Nanotechnology Come From? 11

1.4 Why Has Nanotechnology Burst Forth Now? 12

2 Some Physics Fundamentals Pertinent to Nanotechnology 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Some Pertinent Physics Fundamentals 15

2.2.1 Energy Quantization 15

2.2.2 Wave–Particle Duality 17

2.2.3 Particles andWaves 17

2.2.3.1 Electrons and ProbabilityWaves 19

2.2.3.2 Photons and E-MWaves 22

2.2.4 Some Further Aspects of QuantumMechanics 25

2.2.4.1 Tunneling 25

2.2.4.2 Uncertainty 27

2.2.4.3 Quantum Fluctuations 27

2.2.4.4 Entanglement 28

2.2.5 Statistics and Thermodynamics 29

2.2.5.1 StatisticalMechanics 29

2.2.5.2 Thermal Fluctuations 33

3 Some Chemistry Fundamentals Pertinent to Nanotechnology 35

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Some Pertinent Chemistry Fundamentals 35

3.2.1 The Single Electron Atom 35

3.2.2 Multielectron Atoms 39

3.2.3 Nanoparticles 40

3.2.3.1 Functionalized Nanoparticles 40

3.2.3.2 Nanoparticle Assembly 41

3.2.4 Chemical Bonding of Atoms, Molecules, and Nanoparticles 41

3.2.4.1 Covalent Bonding 41

3.2.4.2 𝜋 Stacking 42

3.2.4.3 Ionic Bonding 43

3.2.4.4 Metallic Bonding 43

3.2.4.5 Permanent Dipole Bonding 43

3.2.4.6 Fluctuating Dipole Bonding 44

3.2.4.7 Philicity and Phobicity Interactions 44

3.3 Supramolecular Chemistry 45

3.4 Quantum Chemistry 45

4 Some Biology and Biochemistry Fundamentals Pertinent to Nanotechnology 49

4.1 Introduction 49

4.2 Some Pertinent Biology and Biochemistry Fundamentals 49

4.2.1 Cells, Biomolecules, and Machinery 49

4.2.2 The Molecules of Life 52

4.2.2.1 Carbohydrates 52

4.2.2.2 Lipids 55

4.2.2.3 Nucleic Acids 55

4.2.2.4 Proteins 57

4.3 Viruses 57

4.4 Microbes, Molecules, and Nanomaterials 57

4.5 Applying Biology to Nanotechnology Systems 58

5 Some Materials Science Fundamentals Pertinent to Nanotechnology 59

5.1 Introduction 59

5.2 Some Materials Fundamentals 59

5.2.1 Structure of a Solid 59

5.2.2 Quantum State of a Solid 61

5.2.2.1 Valence Electron states in a 3-D Solid 62

5.2.2.2 Vibration Modes in a 3-D Solid 68

5.2.2.3 Valence Electron States in 2-D Solids 69

5.2.2.4 Vibration Modes in 2-D Solids 72

5.2.2.5 Valence Electron States in 1-D Materials 72

5.2.2.6 Vibration Modes in 1-D Materials 73

5.2.2.7 Valence Electron States in 0-D Materials 76

5.2.2.8 Vibration Modes in 0-D Materials 77

5.2.2.9 Topological Materials 77

5.2.3 Spin and Orbital Angular Magnetic Moment in Solids 79

6 Properties of Nanotechnology Materials 81

6.1 Introduction 81

6.2 Material Properties and the Nanoscale 81

6.2.1 Electrical Conduction Properties of Nanomaterials 81

6.2.2 Optical Properties of Nanomaterials 84

6.2.3 Magnetic Properties of Nanomaterials 88

6.2.4 Catalytic Properties 89

6.2.5 Thermal and Thermoelectric Properties 89

6.2.6 Mechanical Properties 92

7 An Overview of Nanotechnology Characterization Approaches 95

7.1 Introduction 95

7.2 Visible Range Light: Optical Microscopy 96

7.3 Probe Nanocharacterization Methods 98

7.3.1 Probe Microscopies 99

7.3.1.1 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 99

7.3.1.2 Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) 103

7.3.1.3 Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) 103

7.3.1.4 Kelvin Probe Force Microscope (KPFM) 103

7.3.1.5 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) 104

7.3.2 Probe Spectroscopies 104

7.3.2.1 Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) 105

7.3.2.2 Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) 105

7.4 Further E-M Radiation-Based Nanoscale Characterization Methods 106

7.4.1 Nonvisible E-M Radiation Microscopies 106

7.4.2 E-M Radiation-Driven Spectroscopies 106

7.4.2.1 X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 106

7.4.2.2 Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) 107

7.4.2.3 Photoelectron Spectroscopies 108

7.4.2.4 Infrared Spectroscopy 109

7.4.2.5 Raman Spectroscopies 109

7.4.2.6 E-M Radiation Driven Mass Spectroscopy 110

7.5 Electron Beam Nanocharacterization Methods 110

7.5.1 Electron Beam Microscopies 110

7.5.1.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy 112

7.5.1.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy 113

7.5.1.3 Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) 113

7.5.2 Electron-Beam-Based Spectroscopies 114

7.5.2.1 Characteristic X-ray Emission Spectroscopies 114

7.5.2.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 114

7.5.2.3 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) 115

7.5.2.4 Low- and High-Energy Electron Diffraction 115

7.6 Ion Beam Nanocharacterization Techniques 116

7.6.1 Ion Beam Microscopy 116

7.6.1.1 Scanning Helium Ion Microscopy (SHIM) 116

7.6.1.2 Atom Probe Field Ion Microscope (AP-FIM) 117

7.6.2 Ion Beam Driven Spectroscopies 118

7.6.2.1 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) 118

7.6.2.2 Low-Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) 118

7.7 Neutral Particle Beam Nanocharacterization Techniques 119

8 Nanomaterial Preparation and Device Fabrication: Nonbiological Approaches 121

8.1 Introduction 121

8.2 Materials Preparation 121

8.2.1 Physical PreparationMethods 121

8.2.1.1 Milling Processes 122

8.2.1.2 Physical Vapor Deposition Processes 123

8.2.1.3 Physical Ion Beam Processing 124

8.2.1.4 Langmuir–Blodgett Deposition 125

8.2.1.5 Probe Deposition 125

8.2.1.6 Electrospinning 125

8.2.2 Chemical PreparationMethods 127

8.2.2.1 Colloidal Chemistry 127

8.2.2.2 Sol–Gel Processing 129

8.2.2.3 Surfactant Self-Assemblies: Micelles and Microemulsions Processing 129

8.2.2.4 Structured Polymers Processing 130

8.2.2.5 Nanocomposite Formation 132

8.2.2.6 Chemical Vapor Deposition Processes 133

8.2.2.7 Epitaxial Growth Techniques 135

8.2.2.8 Focused Ion Beam Deposition 136

8.3 Fabrication 136

8.3.1 Pattern Orchestration 136

8.3.2 Etching 138

8.3.3 Process Flow 139

9 Nanomaterial Preparation and Device Fabrication: Biologically Based Approaches 141

9.1 Introduction 141

9.2 Biologically Based Materials Preparation 141

9.2.1 Nanomaterial Biosynthesis Using Plant Substances 141

9.2.2 Material Biosynthesis Using Eukaryotic Cells 142

9.2.3 Material Biosynthesis Using Prokaryotic Cells 142

9.2.4 Nanomaterial Biosynthesis Using Viruses 143

9.2.5 Nanomaterials Biosynthesis Using Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 144

9.3 Biologically Based Fabrication – Bionanofabrication 146

9.3.1 Bionanofabrication Using Cell Structures 146

9.3.2 Bionanofabrication Using Viruses 147

9.3.3 Bionanofabrication Using DNA 147

9.3.4 Bionanofabrication Using Proteins 148

9.3.5 Bionanofabrication Using Peptides 149

10 Nanotechnology and Engineering: Computing, Communications, Imaging, and Sensing 151

10.1 Introduction 151

10.2 Nanoelectronics 152

10.3 Spintronics 153

10.4 Nanophotonics 156

10.5 Nano-Optoelectronics 156

10.6 Sensors 158

11 Nanotechnology and Engineering: Materials, Energy Technologies, the Environment, Food and Agriculture, and Chemical Processes 159

11.1 Introduction 159

11.2 Some Basic Materials 159

11.3 Textile Materials 162

11.4 Energy Technology 163

11.4.1 Super-Capacitor Energy Conversion 164

11.4.2 Chemical Energy Conversion Technology 165

11.4.2.1 Batteries 165

11.4.2.2 Fuel Cells 166

11.4.3 Photovoltaic Energy Conversion 167

11.4.4 Hydrogen Storage 167

11.5 Environmental Engineering 168

11.6 Food and Agriculture 169

11.7 Chemical Processing 170

12 Nanotechnology andMedicine: NP Targeting for Therapy and Imaging 173

12.1 Introduction 173

12.2 Some Current and Future Targeting Therapy and Imaging Opportunities 175

12.2.1 NP Targeting for Cancer 175

12.2.2 NP Targeting for Cardiovascular Diseases 180

12.2.3 NP Targeting for Pulmonary Diseases or Infections 184

12.2.4 NP Targeting for Neurological Disorders 186

13 Nanotechnology andMedicine: Devices and Materials 189

13.1 Introduction 189

13.2 Some Current and Future Devices and Materials 189

13.2.1 Devices 189

13.2.1.1 Nanoelectronics and Nanosensors 190

13.2.1.2 Nanomechanical Devices 192

13.2.1.3 Lab-on-a-Chip Devices 193

13.2.2 Materials 194

13.2.2.1 Scaffolds for Tissue Growth 194

13.2.2.2 Injectable and Implantable Materials 195

13.2.2.3 Stents 196

14 Nanotechnology: The Risks 199

14.1 Introduction 199

14.2 Key Factors Influencing Nanomaterial Toxicity 201

14.3 NP Entry Routes and Some Possible Resulting Diseases 203

14.3.1 Entry by Inhalation 204

14.3.2 Entry by Contact 205

14.3.3 Entry by Ingestion 205

14.4 Nanoparticle Clearance Routes 205

14.5 Nanoparticle Translocation through Biological Barriers 207

14.6 Overall Effects of Nanoparticles 208

14.7 Nanotoxicology 209

14.7.1 In vivo Models 209

14.7.1.1 Inhalation Approach 209

14.7.1.2 “Nose – Only” Approach 209

14.7.1.3 Intra-Tracheal Instillation Approach 210

14.7.1.4 Feed/Gavage Approach 210

14.7.1.5 Cutaneous Contact Approach 210

14.7.1.6 Injection Approach 210

14.7.2 In vitro Models 210

14.8 Nanotoxicology Limitations 211

15 Nanotechnology: Economic, Environmental, Societal, and Health Impact 213

15.1 Introduction 213

15.2 Nanotechnology and the Economy 214

15.3 Nanotechnology and the Environment 215

15.4 Nanotechnology and Society 217

15.4.1 Public Engagement and Consumer Acceptance 217

15.4.2 Nanotechnology and Ethics 218

15.5 Nanotechnology and Health 219

15.5.1 Regulatory Aspects 220

15.5.2 Workplace and Consumer Protection 220

15.5.3 Labeling Requirements 222

15.6 Summary 222

A Canonical Ensemble Statistics 223

B Fermi–Dirac Statistics 227

C Bose–Einstein Statistics 231

References 233

Index 267