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Fungi: Biology and Applications, 3rd Edition

Fungi: Biology and Applications, 3rd Edition

Kevin Kavanagh (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-37432-9 November 2017 Wiley-Blackwell 408 Pages

 Paperback

In Stock

£98.50

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Description

This newly updated edition covers a wide range of topics relevant to fungal biology, appealing to academia and industry

Fungi are extremely important microorganisms in relation to human and animal wellbeing, the environment, and in industry. The latest edition of the highly successful Fungi: Biology and Applications teaches the basic information required to understand the place of fungi in the world while adding three new chapters that take the study of fungi to the next level. Due to the number of recent developments in fungal biology, expert author Kevin Kavanagh found it necessary to not only update the book as a whole, but to also provide new chapters covering Fungi as Food, Fungi and the Immune Response, and Fungi in the Environment.

Proteomics and genomics are revolutionizing our understanding of fungi and their interaction with the environment and/or the host. Antifungal drug resistance is emerging as a major problem in the treatment of fungal infections. New fungal pathogens of plants are emerging as problems in temperate parts of the world due to the effect of climate change. Fungi: Biology and Applications, Third Edition offers in-depth chapter coverage of these new developments and more—ultimately exposing readers to a wider range of topics than any other existing book on the subject.

  • Includes three new chapters, which widen the scope of fungi biology for readers
  • Takes account of recent developments in a wide range of areas including proteomics and genomics, antifungal drug resistance, medical mycology, physiology, genetics, and plant pathology
  • Provides extra reading at the end of each chapter to facilitate the learning process

Fungi: Biology and Applications is designed for undergraduate students, researchers, and those working with fungi for the first time (postgraduates, industrial scientists).

List of Contributors ix

Preface xi

1 Introduction to Fungal Physiology 1
Graeme M. Walker and Nia A. White

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Morphology of Yeasts and Fungi 2

1.3 Ultrastructure and Function of Fungal Cells 5

1.4 Fungal Nutrition and Cellular Biosyntheses 11

1.5 Fungal Metabolism 22

1.6 Fungal Growth and Reproduction 26

1.7 Conclusion 34

Further Reading 34

2 Fungal Genetics 37
Malcolm Whiteway and Catherine Bachewich

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Fungal Lifecycles 39

2.3 Sexual Analysis: Regulation of Mating 46

2.4 Unique Characteristics of Filamentous Fungi that Are

Advantageous for Genetic Analysis 51

2.5 Genetics as a Tool 52

2.6 Conclusion 64

Acknowledgment 65

Further Reading 65

3 Fungal Genomics 67
David Fitzpatrick

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Genome Sequencing 70

3.3 Bioinformatics Tools 75

3.4 Comparative Genomics 80

3.5 Genomics and the Fungal Tree of Life 84

3.6 O nline Fungal Genomic Resources 86

3.7 Conclusion 88

Further Reading 88

4 Fungal Genetics: A Post]Genomic Perspective 91
Brendan Curran and Virginia Bugeja

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 The Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Cornerstone of

Post]Genomic Research 91

4.3 O f ]omics and Systems Biology 92

4.4 Genomics 92

4.5 Transcriptomics and Proteomics 102

4.6 Systems Biology 115

4.7 Conclusion 117

Further Reading 117

5 Fungal Proteomics 119
Sean Doyle and Rebecca A. Owens

5.1 Introduction 119

5.2 Protein Isolation and Purification 121

5.3 E lectrophoretic Techniques 126

5.4 Protein Mass Spectrometry 129

5.5 Fungal Proteomics 138

5.6 Label]Free Quantitative Proteomic Applications 143

5.7 Specialized Proteomics Applications in Fungal Research 144

5.8 Conclusion 145

Acknowledgments 145

Further Reading 145

6 Fungi as Food 147
Johan Baars

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 The Main Cultivated Mushroom Species 149

6.3 The Main Species of Mushroom Collected in Nature 155

6.4 Nutritional Value of Mushrooms 159

6.5 Potential Medicinal Properties of Mushrooms 165

6.6 Conclusion 166

Further Reading 167

Useful Websites 168

7 Pharmaceutical and Chemical Commodities from Fungi 169
Karina A. Horgan and Richard A. Murphy

7.1 Introduction 169

7.2 Fungal Metabolism 169

7.3 Antibiotic Production 172

7.4 Pharmacologically Active Compounds 178

7.5 Chemical Commodities 184

7.6 Yeast Extracts 194

7.7 E nriched Yeast 196

7.8 Conclusion 198

Further Reading 198

8 Biotechnological Use of Fungal Enzymes 201
Shauna M. McKelvey and Richard A. Murphy

8.1 Introduction 201

8.2 E nzymes in Industry 202

8.3 Current Enzyme Applications 202

8.4 E nzymes and Sustainability 208

8.5 Future Direction of Industrial Enzymes 208

8.6 Applications of Specific Fungal Enzymes 208

8.7 E nzyme Production Strategies 223

8.8 Conclusion 224

Further Reading 225

9 Biotechnological Exploitation of Heterologous Protein Production in Fungi 227
Brendan Curran and Virginia Bugeja

9.1 Introduction 227

9.2 Heterologous Protein Expression in Fungi 228

9.3 Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Heterologous Protein Production 232

9.4 Use of Pichia pastoris for Heterologous Protein Production 238

9.5 Case Study: Hepatitis B Vaccine – A Billion]Dollar Heterologous

Protein from Yeast 240

9.6 Further Biotechnological Applications of Expression Technology 244

9.7 Conclusion 248

Further Reading 249

10 Fungal Infections of Humans 251
Derek J. Sullivan, Gary P. Moran, and David C. Coleman

10.1 Introduction 251

10.2 Superficial Mycoses 252

10.3 O pportunistic Mycoses 254

10.4 E ndemic Systemic Mycoses 268

10.5 Mycotoxicoses 270

10.6 Conclusion 271

Further Reading 272

Useful Websites 273

11 Immunity to Human Fungal Infections 275
Mawieh Hamad, Mohammad G. Mohammad, and Khaled H. Abu]Elteen

11.1 Introduction 275

11.2 Compromised Immunity Increases Host Susceptibility to Fungal Infections 276

11.3 Shaping of the Antifungal Immune Response 277

11.4 Paradigm Shifts in Antifungal Immunity 281

11.5 Anatomy of the Antifungal Immune Response 283

11.6 The Role of DCs in Antifungal Immunity 288

11.7 Adaptive Immunity to Fungal Infections 290

11.8 Immunity to Dermatophytes 295

11.9 E vasion of Host Immunity by Fungal Pathogens 297

11.10 Conclusion 297

Further Reading 298

12 Antifungal Agents for Use in Human Therapy 299
Khaled H. Abu]Elteen and Mawieh Hamad

12.1 Introduction 299

12.2 Drugs Targeting the Plasma Membrane 303

12.3 Drugs Targeting the Cell Wall 319

12.4 Drugs Targeting Nucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis 323

12.5 Novel Therapies 327

12.6 Conclusion 331

Further Reading 331

13 Fungi in the Environment 333
Richard O’Hanlon

13.1 Introduction 333

13.2 Macrofungi, Mushrooms, and Sporocarps 334

13.3 Symbiotic Fungi 336

13.4 Saprobic Fungi 339

13.5 Parasitic Fungi 341

13.6 Fungi in Food Webs 342

13.7 Fungi and Nutrient Cycling 344

13.8 Quantifying Fungi in the Environment 346

13.9 Conclusion 352

Further Reading 353

14 Fungal Pathogens of Plants 355
Fiona Doohan and Binbin Zhou

14.1 Introduction 355

14.2 Disease Symptoms 356

14.3 Factors Influencing Disease Development 356

14.4 The Disease Cycle 361

14.5 Genetics of the Plant–Fungal Pathogen Interaction 363

14.6 Mechanisms of Fungal Plant Parasitism 363

14.7 Mechanisms of Host Defense 367

14.8 Disease Control 369

14.9 Disease Detection and Diagnosis 373

14.10 Vascular Wilt Diseases 374

14.11 Blights 378

14.12 Rots and Damping]Off Diseases 380

14.13 Leaf and Stem Spots, Anthracnose, and Scabs 382

14.14 Rusts, Smuts, and Powdery Mildew Diseases 383

14.15 Global Repercussions of Fungal Diseases of Plants 384

14.16 Conclusion 385

Acknowledgments 386

Further Reading 386

Index 389